MIT OpenCourseWare

实作课程


本页翻译进度

灯号说明

审定:无
翻译:郭奇(简介并寄信)
编辑:陈盈(简介并寄信)、刘慕华(简介并寄信)


实验1-膜的不确定性
Experiment 1 - Pasta Uncertainty

钢铰线(PDF)
Spaghetti (PDF)
不确定性 (PDF)
Uncertainty (PDF)

该实验的目的是确定一张薄膜的破坏应变,检验Euler理论对一块大变形弹性薄板的有效性。教学目的是介绍测不准原理的概念,并学一些弯曲应变的知识。
The objectives of this experiment are to determine the failure strain of a strand of spaghetti and test the validity of Euler's theory for the large deflections of an elastic lamina. The educational objectives are to introduce the concept of uncertainty in measurement and to learn something about strain in bending.


实验2-索结构
Experiment 2 - Cable Structures

钢丝绳(PDF)
Cable (PDF)

在该实验中,学生要证明钢丝绳承担重力的静力平衡结果。在第一部分,要确定按要求建立的含两根钢索的超静定结构的受力/变形关系。相较于第一部分,随后的课程才能提供第二部分实验的理论
In this experiment, students will verify the consequences of static equilibrium for a weight suspended from a cable. In a second part, they will determine the force/deflection relationship for a redundant structure built up with two cables under pretension. In contrast to the first part, the theory for the second experiment will not be provided until later in the course.


实验3-偏心受拉
Experiment 3 - Uniaxial Tension

受拉实验(PDF)
Tension Test (PDF)
适宜的最小正方形截面尺寸(PDF)
Least Squares Data Fitting (PDF)

实验目的是测量钢的弹性模量。实验分两部分。在第一部分,学生要用为此特制的实验仪器对一根普通预应力钢杆做拉力实验。这种BLH仪器诞生于1950年代,但它的力学辅助系统用于我们这一目的绰绰有余。
The objective of this experiment is to measure the Elastic Modulus of steel. The experiment comes in two parts. In the first part of the experiment, students will subject an ordinary steel reinforcing rod to a tension test using a testing machine designed specifically for that purpose. The BLH machine dates from the 1950s but its mechanical subsystems still function well enough for our purposes.

在第二部分,学生要做一个不锈钢杆件的拉力实验,对标本加载实验室能够提供的重力恒荷载,而位移测量采用线性差动变换器。
In the second part, students will do a tension test of a stainless steel rod, loading the specimen using the dead weights available in the lab but measuring displacement using the LVDT, Linearly Variable Differential Transformer.


实验4-桁架结构
Experiment 4 - Truss Structures

桁架变形(PDF)
Truss Deflection (PDF)

学生要给桁架结构的各对结点加竖向荷载(在长度方向对称布置),测量两到三个结点的竖向位移。实验目的是比较实验所得数据与从结构的桁架模型(即认为结点是铰结点)中分析得出的结果。
Students will load a truss structure vertically at various pairs of joints (symmetrically disposed with respect to the length) and measure the vertical displacements of two or three joints. The objective is to compare the results obtained from analyses which model the structure as a truss (i.e., with friction-less pinned joints), with experiment.


实验5-混凝土破坏
Experiment 5 - Concrete Failure

混凝土的强度,压应力和拉应力。(PDF)
Strength, Compressive and Tensile, of Concrete (PDF)
Quickrete规格 (选择速凝混凝土 #1004-50 的规格表)
Quickrete Specs (select Spec Data sheet for Fast-Setting Concrete #1004-50)

学生要做柱状混凝土的受压实验,观察它的受力/变形表现,并确定它的强度。另一个实验直接得出混凝土的拉应力。
Students will conduct a compressive test on a cylinder of concrete to observe its force/deformation behavior and determine its strength. A second test gives, indirectly, the tensile strength.


实验6-受弯梁
Experiment 6 - Beam Bending

梁的变形与应力(PDF)
Beam Deflection and Stresses (PDF)

实验目的是证明现行的工程梁理论,这种理论定义了中心线变形和普通应力的极值。学生要确定两个横截面面积相同而形状不同的铝梁实验样本的相对刚度,并研究结果如何与理论一致。
The objective is to verify the predictions of engineering beam theory in so far as that theory defines the centerline deflection and extreme values of the normal stress. Students will determine the relative stiffness of two aluminum beam test specimens of equal cross sectional area but different cross-sectional shape and see how they conform to theory.


实验7-屈曲
Experiment 7 - Buckling

弹性屈曲 (PDF)
Elastic Buckling (PDF)

实验目的是证明框架结构的局部弹性屈曲,并把实验结果与Euler屈曲理论做比较。
The objective is to demonstrate local elastic buckling within a truss structure and to compare experimental results with Euler buckling theory.