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审定:无
翻译:最缒(简介并寄信)
编辑:陈盈(简介并寄信)、胡明静(简介并寄信)


以下是关于剽窃的说明,以及关于写作作业格式及引用方式的指导方针。
A note on plagiarism and guidelines for formatting and citation follow the writing assignments.


写作要求
Writing Requirements

学生可从下面列出的几种选择中任选一项,以达到这些要求。研究生以及主修文学、比较媒体研究或科学、科技与社会的大四学生必须选择第三项。无论哪种选择,都要求在第8课时和第20课时提交论文。
Students may fulfill these requirements by choosing one of the options listed below. Graduate students and seniors majoring in Literature, Comparative Media Studies or Science, Technology and Society must choose option three. Each option requires that papers be submitted in Class #8 and Class #20.

论文发还后的一周内,学生可以修订并重新提交这两篇论文来提高评分。本课程的最终成绩将以修订版的分数为准。
Students may revise and resubmit the two essays to improve the grade within one week of the date on which the essays are returned. Only the grade on the revision will count toward the final grade in the course.



选择1:课程周记
Option 1: A Course Journal

坚持记周记,总结每周课堂上主要的观点和意见。用具体的事例来阐述笼统的观念,这些事例可以来自课堂讨论、你的阅读和你自己对电视的亲身体验。按照上面列出的作业上交日期,用打印稿的形式提交你的周记系列。
Keep a journal summarizing the leading arguments and ideas in each week's class. Illustrate general notions with concrete examples drawn from class discussions, your readings, your own experience of television. Submit installments of your journal as typed papers due on the dates listed above.



选择2:两个小问题
Option 2: Two Short Problems

在下面列举的话题中,任选两个写一篇论文(打印稿,双倍行距,4-7页)。要求你概述他人著作的这类题目中,你最多只能选择一个来完成。
Write an essay of 4-7 double-spaced typed pages on two of the topics listed below. Do not choose more than one question that asks you to summarize the writings of others.

1. 阅读雷蒙·威廉姆斯《电视:科技与文化形式》一书的第4章。然后界定他关于电视〈流程〉的观念,并评估它的说服力。美国电视是其理论的一个良好验证吗?根据我们对电视的相关经验,诸如有线电视、频道转换器、录像机这样的科技产品如何影响了威廉姆斯的观念?电视是唯一一个迥异信息相互冲突的媒介吗?在〈流程〉这一概念里,暗含了关于电视观众的哪些假设?
1. Read chapter four of Raymond Williams, Television: Technology and Cultural Form. Then define his idea of "flow" in television and evaluate its persuasiveness. Is American television a good test for his theory? How do technologies such as cable television, remote channel-switchers, video-recorders affect Williams' notions concerning our experience of television? Is television the only medium in which vastly dissimilar messages jostle against one another? What assumptions about the viewer are implicit in the concept of "flow"?

2. 概述格伯纳关于电视暴力对观众影响的观点。然后概述霍拉斯·纽康“评估暴力描绘……”的响应(索取可得)。你支持谁的观点,为什么?
2. Summarize Gerbner's argument about the effect of television violence on viewers. Then summarize Horace Newcomb's response "Assessing the Violence Profile . . ." [available by request]. Which perspective would you defend and why?

3. 分析某部当代情景喜剧中的一集,着重关注它的视觉类型、它的角色处理和它的喜剧策略。简要推测它在电视喜剧系列中所处的地位。
3. Analyze a single episode of a contemporary situation comedy, emphasizing its visual style, its treatment of character, its strategies of comedy. Speculate briefly concerning its place in the line of TV comedy.

4. 概括费斯克和哈特利论述〈游唱电视〉的章节,并就这一观点对理解美国电视的可能价值进行探讨。务必以具体的电视节目为例来支撑你的论述。
译者注:澳大利亚传播学者费斯克等以〈游唱电视〉(Bardic Televison)的观念来说明电视塑造集体文化的功能,如同古代的游唱诗人。
4. Summarize Fiske and Hartley's chapter on "Bardic Television" and discuss the possible value of this perspective for understanding American television. Be sure to give specific examples of TV programming to support your argument.

5. 考察一部电视连续剧的剧本,然后写篇论文分析编剧对情节的贡献。镜头的运用有多少是由剧本控制的?剧本是否挖掘出了属于特定表演者的特质或是在过去的剧集中建立起的特质?剧本是如何与电视播放的特定条件相适应的?可获得的剧本囊括了MTM制作公司和QM制作公司自20世纪80年代以来出品的电视剧(包括《欢乐单身派对》)的一系列选段。
5. Examine the script of a TV series and write an essay analyzing the writer's contribution to the episode. How much of the camera's behavior is controlled by the script? Does the script exploit qualities that belong to particular performers or that have been established in previous episodes? How does the script adapt to the special conditions of television broadcasting? Available scripts include a range of episodes from MTM Productions, QM Productions, a few shows of the 1980s and beyond including Seinfeld.

6. 概括詹姆斯·凯利(James Carey)关于〈传播的文化研究方法〉的论述,并说明如何将这一观点应用于美国电视研究。
6. Summarize James Carey's "A Cultural Approach to Communication" and specify some of the ways in which this perspective applies to American television.

7. 描述并评价某部犯罪电视连续剧的一集。这一集的基本主题是什么?它主要的情节公式和人物公式是什么?试着确定电视这一媒体营造的主题、技巧手法和结构特点。请务必探讨那些隐含在剧集中的,关于秩序、权威和社会制度的“政治”假设及观念。推荐阅读:费斯克和哈特利著作的一章——〈一个警察的命运〉;Todd Gitlin的〈黄金时段的意识形态……〉(在纽康的书中);索伯恩的〈电视表演……〉和〈电视情节剧〉。
7. Describe and evaluate an episode from a TV crime series. What are the principal themes of the episode? What are its chief formulas for plot and characterization? Try to identify themes, techniques and structural features that have been shaped by the TV medium. Be sure to discuss the "political" assumptions - notions about order, authority, social institutions - that are embedded in the episode. Recommended reading: Fiske and Hartley's chapter, "A Policeman's Lot"; Todd Gitlin, "Prime Time Ideology ..." in Newcomb; Thorburn, " ... TV Acting ..." and "TV Melodrama."

8. 依据课堂讨论、巴尔诺的大事年表以及百科全书中关于电视网、有线电视、美国联邦通信委员会和杜蒙电视网的词条,撰写一个帮助塑造〈广播时代〉的法律规章的简要报告;相关的参考数据还有:Hilmes的,《好莱坞和广播》;Anderson的《好莱坞电视》;Boddy的《50年代的电视》;Streeter的《出售空气》
8. Write a succinct account of the laws and regulations that helped to shape the Broadcast Era, drawing on class discussions, Barnouw's chronology of important dates, encyclopedia entries on networks, cable television, the FCC, the Dumont Network; and relevant material from Hilmes, Hollywood and Broadcasting; Anderson, Hollywood TV; Boddy, Fifties Television; Streeter, Selling the Air.

9. 针对电视直播时代的两或三部戏剧撰写一篇分析文章,着重关注每部戏剧的视觉因素。推荐阅读:巴尔诺关于电视〈黄金时代〉的论述,Michael Kerbel的〈电视戏剧的黄金时代〉(在纽康的书中,第3版)。
9. Write an analysis of two or three dramas from the era of live television, giving special emphasis to the visual aspects of each. Recommended reading: Barnouw on "the golden age" of television, Michael Kerbel, "The Golden Age of TV Drama" in Newcomb, third edition.

10. 将《先知安迪》作为一份文化档案进行分析。在这一节目中利用了哪些刻板成见?在其内容中对美国生活和种族差异作了哪些假设?这个内容作为喜剧材料来看是怎样的?推荐阅读:Ely的《〈先知安迪〉的冒险》;MacDonald的《黑人与白人电视》
10. Analyze Amos 'n Andy as a cultural document. What range of stereotypes is exploited in the program? What attitudes toward American life and toward racial differences are assumed in the text? What does the text perceive as the material of comedy? Recommended reading: Ely, The Adventures of Amos 'n Andy; MacDonald, Blacks and White TV.

11. 对20世纪70年代或此后某部电视连续剧中一位重要配角的角色发展进行探讨。一些建议角色:《外科医生》中的Radar 或 Hotlips;《家庭》中的Buddy;《沃尔顿一家》中的Mary Ellen;《家庭琐事》中的Gloria;《六人行》中任何一位主角,《天才老爹》中的孩子们,《欢乐单身派对》中的George 或Elaine,《再来一次》中任何一个循环角色,《黑道家族》中Tony的妈妈或其儿女。
11. Discuss the evolution of a significant secondary character in a television series of the 1970s or later. Some suggestions: Radar or Hotlips on MASH; Buddy on Family; Mary Ellen on The Waltons; Gloria on All in the Family; any of the prime figures in Friends, the children on The Cosby Show, George or Elaine on Seinfeld, any recurring character in Once and Again, Tony's mother or son or daughter in The Sopranos.

12. 广告常被成为电视里最微妙的艺术形式。选择两或三类广告——例如啤酒广告、电话广告、汽车或洗衣日产品的广告、计算机等高科技产品或与网络有关的服务的广告——将它们作为戏剧形式来分析,特别注意暗含在其情节和角色中的关于美国生活的假定。
12. Commercials are often said to be television's subtlest art form. Choose two or three families of commercials - beer commercials, for instance; telephone commercials; commercials for cars or washday products; commercials for high-tech items such as computers or web-related services - and analyze them as forms of drama, giving particular attention to the assumptions about American life inscribed in their plots and characters.

13. 根据有关将电视视作文化意识形态载体的阅读材料或课堂讨论,撰写一篇论文,探讨科幻或医药类剧集的技术主题。可能的文本有:《实习医生》、《马库斯·威尔比》、《鲁莽的人》、《医疗中心》、《医疗故事》、《波城杏话》、《仁心仁术》、《星舰迷航记》及其续集、《阴阳魔界》、《囚徒》、《五号战星》、《X档案》
13. Drawing on readings and on class discussions concerning television as a carrier of cultural ideologies, write an essay about the theme of technology in science fiction or in medical shows. Possible texts: Medic, Marcus Welby, The Bold Ones, Medical Center, Medical Story, St. Elsewhere, ER; Star Trek and its successors, The Twilight Zone, The Prisoner, Babylon 5, The X-Files.

14. 比较英美电视的形式有何异同,集中探讨某一特定类型,如犯罪连续剧、科幻片、情景喜剧等。
14. Compare British versus American forms of television, centering on a single genre: crime series, science fiction, situation comedy.

15. 写一篇关于罗德·塞林的电视作品的论文,如各种现场直播的电视戏剧、《夜间画廊》、《阴阳魔界》等。
15. Write an essay on Rod Serlings's television work: various live TV dramas, Night Gallery, The Twilight Zone.



选择3:学期论文
Option 3: Term Paper

选择3:学期论文
Write an essay, 8-14 double-spaced typed pages, on one of the topics given below, delivering installments devoted to aspects of your subject in the classes specified above.

1. 选择一位职业生涯横跨整个电视史的演员(除了戴维·约翰逊),描述其职业生涯的发展。请务必探讨你所写的演员参与表演的节目类型,并将他/她的角色塑造与整个电视行业的发展联系起来。一些选择:玛丽·泰勒·摩尔、伊丽莎白·蒙哥马利、罗伯特·扬、詹姆斯·加纳、哈里v摩根、比尔·科斯比。
1. Pick a performer - not David Janssen - whose career spans the history of television and describe the evolution of his/her career. Be sure to discuss the genres of programming in which your performer has appeared and to relate her/his characterizations to the evolution of television in general. Some possibilities: Mary Tyler Moore, Elizabeth Montgomery, Robert Young, James Garner, Harry Morgan, Bill Cosby.

描述由某个制片人、制作公司或创意小组推出的若干连续剧,重点关注它们在视觉类型、主题和意识形态方面的相似之处。探讨这些连续剧之间的变化和发展,并且思索它们的历史或文化情境。一些可能选择:
2. Describe several series by a single producer, production company or creative team, emphasizing their similarities in visual style, subject matter and ideology. Discuss changes or developments among your series and speculate about their historical or cultural context. Some possibilities:

洛利玛影艺公司:《沃尔顿一家》、《8个就够了》、《海洛因》、《绳结登陆》、《达拉斯》、《鹰冠庄园》
Lorimar: The Waltons, Eight Is Enough, Skag, Knots Landing, Dallas, Falcon Crest.

洛利玛影艺公司:《沃尔顿一家》、《8个就够了》、《海洛因》、《绳结登陆》、《达拉斯》、《鹰冠庄园》
Mark VII Productions (Jack Webb): Dragnet, Adam 12, Emergency.

阿隆·斯帕林:《扫荡三人组》、《新兵》、《特警雄风》、《警网双雄》、《霹雳娇娃》、《梦幻岛》、《爱之船》、《维加斯》、《飞越比佛利》
Aaron Spelling: The Mod Squad, The Rookies, SWAT, Starsky and Hutch, Charlie's Angels, Fantasy Island, The Love Boat, Vegas, Beverly Hills 90210.

QM制作公司:《义胆雄心》、《入侵者》、《亡命天涯》、《联邦调查局》、《炮弹》、《巴纳比?琼斯》、《旧金山大道》、《头号通缉犯》、《丹·奥古斯特》。
QM Productions: The Untouchables, The Invaders, The Fugitive, The FBI, Cannon, Barnaby Jones, The Streets of San Francisco, Most Wanted, Dan August.

MTM制作公司:《玛丽·泰勒·摩尔秀》、《罗达》、《菲利斯》、《保罗·桑德秀》、《托尼·兰达尔》、《卢·格兰特》、《辛辛纳提的WKRP电视台》、《白影》、《山街蓝调》、《霹雳游龙》、《波城杏话》
MTM Productions: The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Rhoda, Phyllis, The Paul Sand Show, The Tony Randall Show, Lou Grant, WKRP, The White Shadow, Hill Street Blues, Bay City Blues, St. Elsewhere.

诺曼·李尔(坦德姆制作公司、TAT制作公司等):《家庭琐事》、《茂迪》、《杰斐逊》、《一次一天》、《玛丽?哈特曼》、《巴尔的摩热L》、《羊齿林两夜》、《星梦泪痕》、《快乐时光》
Norman Lear [Tandem Prods., TAT Prods, etc.]: All in the Family, Maude, The Jeffersons, One Day at a Time, Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman, Hot-L Baltimore, Fernwood 2 Night, All that Glitters, Good Times.

加里·马歇尔:《单身公寓》、《快乐日子》、《拉维恩和雪莉》、《默克和明迪》
Garry Marshall: The Odd Couple, Happy Days, Laverne and Shirley, Mork and Mindy.

爱德华·兹维克和马歇尔·赫斯科维兹:《三十而立》、《我的所谓人生》、《再续前缘》
Edward Zwick and Marshall Herskovitz: Thirtysomething, My So-Called Life, Once and Again.

戴维·E·凯利:《洛城法网》、《小城风云》、《艾莉的异想世界》、《律师本色》、《高校风云》
David E. Kelley: LA Law, Picket Fences, Alley McBeal, The Practice, Boston Public.

斯蒂芬·布奇柯(常和戴维·米尔奇一起): 《山街蓝调》、《湾城蓝调》、《警界巨岩》、《妙探长》、《纽约重案组》
Stephen Bochco (and often David Milch): Hill Street Blues, Bay City Blues, Cop Rock, Hooperman, NYPD Blue.

沃尔夫电影公司: 《法律与秩序》、《法律与秩序:特殊受害者单元》、《法律与秩序:犯罪动机》、《警网(2003年版)》
Wolf Films: Law and Order, Law and Order: Special Victims Unit, Law and Order: Criminal Intent, Dragnet (2003 version).

福克斯频道节目: 《辛普森家庭》、《憔悴潘郎》(又译作《凡夫俗妻妙宝贝》)、《马丁》、《X档案》、《左右做人难》、《忠实的背叛》
Fox Channel shows: The Simpsons, Married ... With Children, Martin, The X-Files, Malcolm in the Middle, Titus.

WB电视网节目: 《韦恩斯兄弟》、《捉鬼者巴菲》(又译作《魔法奇兵》)、《天使》、《恋爱世代》、《圣女魔咒》、《吉尔莫女孩》
WB Network shows: The Wayans Bros., Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Angel, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, Gilmore Girls.

UPN电视网节目: 《捉鬼者巴菲》(从WB电视网转移以后)、《默沙》、《企业号》(又译作《星舰前传》)
UPN Network shows: Buffy the Vampire Slayer (after its move from the WB), Moesha, Enterprise.

3. 探讨20世纪50年代至今美国电视对黑人角色的处理,从巴尔诺、MacDonald、Ely的论述和百科全书的词条中获取资料。务必查阅以下条目:《先知安迪》、《纳金高秀》、《我是间谍》、《朱莉娅》、《杰弗森一家》、《快乐时光》、《根》、《切割机》、《特纳夫莱》、《东风西风》、《科斯比秀》、《默沙》、《马丁》。可获取录音带的有:《比拉》、《东风西风》、《朱莉娅》、《桑福德和儿子》、《杰弗森一家》、《宝贝》、《我已归来》、《先知安迪》、《我是间谍》、《杰克·本尼秀》、《珍必曼自传》、《根》、《国王》和其它相关节目。
3. Discuss the treatment of blacks on American television from the 1950s to the present, drawing material from Barnouw, MacDonald, Ely, encyclopedia entries. Be sure to consult entries on: Amos 'n Andy, The Nat "King" Cole Show, I Spy, Julia, The Jeffersons, Good Times, Roots, Cutter, Tenafly, East Side/West Side, Good Times, Bill Cosby's shows, Moesha, Martin. Available on tape: Beulah, East Side/West Side, Julia, Sanford & Son, The Jeffersons, Baby, I'm Back, Amos 'n Andy, I Spy, The Jack Benny Show, The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman, Roots, King, other relevant programs.

4.从指定的阅读材料和课堂讨论的补充说明中筛选信息,写一篇关于1948-1960年间美国电视的论文。论文必须包含对这一时期内黄金时段电视节目特性的说明,并且探讨团体、政府和科技对这些节目造成的主要影响。
4. Drawing on information culled from assigned reading and supplemented in class discussions, write an essay on television in America from 1948-1960. Be sure to include an account of the nature of prime-time programming in this period and to discuss the major corporate, governmental and technological influences on such programming.

5. 在《纽约时报电视百科全书》中查阅有关环球电影公司的词条,在Brooks、Marsh和Alex McNeil所著的《完全电视》中查阅有关电视电影和环球电影公司制作的其它连续剧的条目;回顾巴尔诺对“电视影片”的观点和其它相关阅读材料。然后写一篇关于《游戏名称》《鲁莽的人》的论文,特别关注这些连续剧的主题、意识形态和视觉类型。务必就连续剧主题与20世纪60年代末历史背景间的联系作出评论。
5. Consult the entries on Universal Studios in the NY Times Encyclopedia of Television, entries on TV movies and other Universal series in Brooks and Marsh and Alex McNeil (Total Television); review Barnouw on "telefilms" and other relevant reading. Then write an essay on The Name of the Game and The Bold Ones, giving particular attention to the subject-matter, ideology and visual style of these series. Be sure to comment on the relation between the series' themes and the historical context of the late 1960s.

6. 描述情景喜剧从广播时代到20世纪70年代走上电视(你也可以选择写到70年代以后)的发展历程。查阅百科全书中有关下列名词的条目:德西鲁工作室、《我爱露西》、《先知安迪》、《杰基·格利森》、《戈德堡系列》以及此后相关的剧集,包括《迪克·范·戴克秀》、《安迪·格里菲思秀》、《那个女孩》、《布雷迪家庭》、《家庭琐事》、《玛丽·泰勒·摩尔秀》、《外科医生》和加里·马歇尔的各类表演节目。
6. Describe the development of situation comedy from its radio days through television of the 1970s (and beyond if you choose). Consult encyclopedia entries on Desilu Studios, I Love Lucy, Amos 'n Andy, Jackie Gleason, The Goldbergs, and relevant later series including The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Andy Griffith Show, That Girl, The Brady Bunch, All in the Family, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, MASH, various Garry Marshall shows.

7. 写一篇论文,对比20世纪70年代和80、90年代的喜剧。年代稍晚的剧作包括:《科斯比秀》、《干杯》(又译作《欢乐酒店》)、《欢乐单身派对》、《为你疯狂》、《弗雷泽》、《老友记》、《左右做人难》
7. Write an essay contrasting comedy series of the 1970s with those of the 1980s and 90s. Among the later shows: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Seinfeld, Mad About You, Frazier, Friends, Malcolm in the Middle.

8. 选择至少3部不同年代的情景喜剧,探讨它们对女性角色的处理,重点关注它们对婚姻和两性态度的戏剧化呈现方式。
8. Discuss the treatment of women in at least three situation comedies from different decades, giving special attention to the ways in which marriage and sexual attitudes are dramatized.

9. 探讨至少3部不同年代连续剧中的儿童角色。你所选择的节目中儿童面临的典型问题是什么?可选择的剧集有:《老爷大过天》、《反斗小宝贝》、《布雷迪家庭》、《帕特里奇家庭》、《一次一天》、《家庭》、《15岁的詹姆斯》、《罗珊娜》(又译作《我爱罗珊》)、《憔悴潘郎》、《左右做人难》、《吉尔莫女孩》
9. Discuss the role of children in at least three series from different decades. What kinds of problems do the children in your shows typically confront? Possible choices: Father Knows Best, Leave It to Beaver, The Brady Bunch, The Partridge Family, One Day at a Time, Family, James at 15, Roseanne, Married With Children, Malcolm in the Middle, The Gilmore Girls.

10.〈家庭琐事〉这个标题可以用来概括1950至1980年间大部分的电视喜剧。从至少两个不同年代中选出2或3部有代表性的连续剧,写一篇论文考察它们对家庭生活的处理方式,重点关注其中子女与父母、丈夫与妻子间的关系。你所选择的内容是如何假设并戏剧化呈现家庭的?在你选择的剧作中,家长和子女在表演中体现了哪些暗含或明晰的特质?在这些家庭中,道德权威落在何处?
10. "All in the Family" might serve as a general title for most television comedy from 1950 through 1980. Choose two or three representative series from at least two different decades and write an essay examining their treatment of family life, giving special attention to the relations between children and parents and between husbands and wives. How are families imagined and dramatized in your texts? What implicit and explicit virtues are displayed by adults and their children in the shows you have chosen? Where is moral authority located in these families?

11. 第5题的一个变形:写一篇论文来考察为电视制作的电影的发展,将《游戏名称》作为先驱性案例,并以我们关于电视电影的档案文件作为参考。
11. A variation on question 5 above: write an essay discussing the development of the made-for-television film, using The Name of the Game as a precursor example and drawing on our archive of TV movies.

12. 撰写一篇有关电视电影和短篇电视连续剧如何处理历史事件的论文。可选择的剧集有:《根》、《大屠杀》、《苏醒的土地》、《有种就杀我》(艾伦·阿尔达在片中饰演一个著名的死囚杀手)、《国王》、《我将永不再战斗》、《肯特州》、《十月导弹》、《兄弟连》(又译作《诺曼底大空降》)。
12. Write an essay about the treatment of historical events in TV movies and mini-series. Some possibilities: Roots, Holocaust, The Awakening Land, Kill Me If You Can (Alan Alda playing a famous death-row murderer), King, I Will Fight No More Forever, Kent State, The Missiles of October, Band of Brothers.

13. 将当代某部影响重大的连续剧与某主要电视网的节目进行对比——例如将《白宫群英》(又译作《白宫风云》)或《再续前缘》与家庭影院频道的连续剧(例如《六呎风云》《黑道家族》)进行比较。这些节目间的差别说明了当前电视环境的哪些问题?
13. Compare a significant contemporary series from a major network - The West Wing, say, or Once and Again - with an HBO series such as Six Feet Under or The Sopranos. What do the differences between these programs signify about today's television environment?

14. 近些年来,许多电视连续剧十分倚重因特网的作用,它们创建网站,提供角色的背景数据,有时甚至提供电视观众无法看到的整段情节。选择一个或两个这种节目,探讨它们具有〈混血〉特征的文化和审美意义。
14. In recent years many TV series have made intense use of the Internet, creating web sites to provide background on characters and sometimes entire plots that are not available to TV viewers. Choose one or two such programs and discuss the cultural and aesthetic significance of their hybrid natures.

14. 近些年来,许多电视连续剧十分倚重因特网的作用,它们创建网站,提供角色的背景数据,有时甚至提供电视观众无法看到的整段情节。选择一个或两个这种节目,探讨它们具有〈混血〉特征的文化和审美意义。
15. Write an essay about The Sopranos in relation to the film and TV traditions out of which it comes. Is it a gangster story? A family melodrama? How does this series exploit the medium of television?



关于剽窃的说明
A Note About Plagiarism

剽窃——未经说明使用他人的智力成果——是一种严重的违规。按照文学系的政策,学生如有剽窃现象,该科成绩将记为F,教师还会将事件提交给纪律委员会处理。在所有的写作作业中,一切从课堂外来源获得的信息都必须清晰、完整地予以说明。所有来自他人著作的观点、意见和直接引语都必须指明,并加以适当的脚注。从其它来源引用的数据必须清晰标注,以示与学生自己作品的区别。
Plagiarism -- use of another's intellectual work without acknowledgement -- is a serious offense. It is the policy of the Literature Faculty that students who plagiarize will receive an F in the subject, and that the instructor will forward the case to the Committee on Discipline. Full acknowledgement for all information obtained from sources outside the classroom must be clearly stated in all written work. All ideas, arguments, and direct phrasings taken from someone else's work must be identified and properly footnoted. Quotations from other sources must be clearly marked as distinct from the student's own work.

如果你借用他人的言论,这段材料必须加上引号。如果你采用了他人所持的观点,但用自己的话重新进行了组织,那么你必须采用以下两种方式之一来对你的作法加以确认:在你的正文中明确说明(“正如莱昂内尔·特里林在他对《傲慢与偏见》的介绍中所说的那样,……”),或在脚注中完整引用你的材料来源。
If you borrow another person’s phrasing, that material must be enclosed in quotation marks. If you use ideas conceived by others but reformulate them in your own prose, then you must acknowledge your collaboration in one of two ways: explicit acknowledgment in the body of your text ("As Lionel Trilling argues in his introduction to Pride and Prejudice, . . .") or in a footnote fully citing your source.

要了解更多关于材料来源合理说明形式的指导,可参考写作和传播中心提供的格式规范(14N-317),麻省理工学院网站对剽窃的说明可在下面的网址中看到:http://web.mit.edu/writing/Special/plagiarism.html
For further guidance on the proper forms of attribution consult the style guides available in the Writing and Communication Center, 14N-317, and the MIT Website on plagiarism located at:
http://web.mit.edu/writing/Special/plagiarism.html



格式和引用指南
Guidelines for Formatting and Citation

引用和脚注可采用多种形式。我个人比较青睐下面列出的简单原则。
There are many accepted formats for citations and footnotes. I prefer the following simple principles.

书籍、戏剧或影片的名字用斜体(或加下划线);用引号标明诗歌、短篇小说或文章的标题。以单行本形式发行的中篇小说或长篇小说用斜体标出,如同它们是全文照录一样。因此:康拉德的短篇小说"Youth"(《青春》)要用引号标注,叶慈的诗歌"The Second Coming"(《基督重临》)同样要用引号,但Heart of Darkness(《黑暗的心》,中篇小说)、Lord Jim(《吉姆爷》,长篇小说)和 Modern Times (《摩登时代》,电影)则要用斜体。
Italicize (or underline) titles of books, plays or feature films; use quotation marks to indicate titles of poems, stories or articles. Novellas or long stories that have been published in individual bindings are italicized as if they were full-length texts. So: Conrad's short story "Youth" is placed in quotation marks as is Yeats' poem "The Second Coming," but Heart of Darkness (a novella), Lord Jim (a novel), and Modern Times (a feature film) are italicized.

在任何可能的地方,采用带附加说明的引用而不是脚注。例如,如果要引用原文的某些段落,第一次提及时应该包括完整的标题、出版的地点和时间以及引文所在的页码;其后则只用标明引文页码即可。例如:(Heart of Darkness, 伦敦, 1898, p. 6)。第二次引用时:(p. 8)。注意:结束句子的句末标点打在标注引文页码的括号外。
Use parenthetic citations instead of footnotes wherever possible. For instance, in citing quoted passages from the primary text under discussion, the first reference should include full title, place and date of publication, and a page citation; thereafter, only the page citation is necessary. Eg: (Heart of Darkness, London, 1898, p. 6). In the next citation: (p. 8). Note that the period concluding the sentence goes outside the parenthesis citing the page number(s).

相同情况的另一种选择:第一次提及可以用脚注,脚注中可包括这样的说明:“下文括号说明中引用的是这个版本。”
An alternative to this practice: the first reference to the text can be footnoted, which note can include the remark "Subsequent parenthetic references are to this edition."

如果你引用的是二手材料,脚注使用如下格式:戴维·索伯恩,Conrad's Romanticism (《康拉德的浪漫主义》)(新港出版社,1974年版),第17页。注意:出版商并不是必须的。
If you cite secondary works in footnotes, use the following format: David Thorburn, Conrad's Romanticism (New Haven, 1974), p. 17. Note that publisher is not required.

最重要的是:不要无谓地重复信息。例如,如果你的正文是“正如戴维·索伯恩所言,……”,脚注就不需要再重复作者的名字;如果你在正文中也提到了书名,那么脚注则只需要包括出版地点、时间和页码。
Most Important: Do not repeat information unnecessarily. For example, if your text reads "As David Thorburn suggests, .....," then the footnote should not repeat the author's name; if you also mention the book title in your text, then the footnote should include only the place and date of publication and the page number.

引用的格式:引用材料时,如果所引文段不超过4行,就用引号将引文包含在你自己的文本中。如果引文长于4行,则在其左右两端各缩进5格,不用引号,使用单倍行距。
Formatting Quotations: When quoting material, integrate the quoted passage into the body of your own text using quotation marks if the passage is not longer than four lines. If the passage is longer than four lines, indent an extra five spaces left and right, forgo the quotation marks, and use single spacing.

省略号(三个点)来标明省略的材料。如果省略的部分是从一个完整的句子后面开始的,保留原有的句点, 然后引入省略号
Use an ellipsis (three spaced dots) to indicate omitted material. If the omission begins after a complete sentence, retain the original period and then introduce the ellipsis.

用方括号[ ]标明你对原有材料的添加或改动。
Use square brackets [ ] to indicate your additions or changes in the original material.

举例如下。
Examples below.

在你的内容中包括引用文段:
Quoted passage integrated into your text:

The Shadow Line(《阴影线》)不断戏剧化地呈现了年轻的主角和一些年长者之间剑拔弩张的对话,甚至是言语相迫的场景。正如戴维·索伯恩所言:“尽管他笔下所有的人物都是孤儿,康拉德仍然成为苦恼、虚弱父权的伟大肖像画家之一。他所设定的主题之一就是成人面对年轻人时无益的慷慨。”1
The Shadow Line repeatedly dramatizes scenes of tense conversation and even verbal coercion between the young protagonist and a series of older figures. As David Thorburn writes, "Though all his people are orphans, Conrad remains one of the great portrayers of the anguished impotence of fatherhood. One of his defining subjects is maturity's useless generosity toward the young."¹

用缩排区分正文和较长的引用:
Extended quotation, separated by indentation from your text:

乔治·艾略特总能维持与读者的亲密交流,她伤感而密切关注着社会对我们的塑造和约束,她敬重日常生活中平凡的英雄主义,她有着道德上的智慧和慷慨——所有这些都在她最伟大小说的结束段落中清晰呈现出来:
George Eliot's power to create and sustain an intimate communion with her readers, her sad stringent awareness of how society shapes and constrains us, her respect for the ordinary heroism of daily life, her moral wisdom and generosity--all this is crystalized in the final paragraphs of her greatest novel:

显然,这些充满决心的行为. . . [多萝西亚的]生活并不完美。它们是年轻而高贵的冲动在不完美的社会状况中挣扎所混合成的结果。在这样的社会里,伟大的情感总被视为错误,而伟大的忠诚则被看作幻觉。因为没有人的内在能强大到不受外部世界太多的影响. . .
Certainly those determining acts of . . . [Dorothea's] life were not ideally beautiful. They were the mixed result of young and noble impulse struggling amidst the conditions of an imperfect social state, in which great feelings will often take the aspect of error, and great faith the aspect of illusion. For there is no creature whose inward being is so strong that it is not greatly determined by what lies outside it. . . .
她那质感柔和的灵魂仍然保持着美好的特点,尽管能发现它们的人并不多。她完整的天性. . .在世上不知名的河里涌流。但是,她的存在给周围人带来的影响曾经不可胜数地四处扩散:因为世上不断增长的善,部分地是由不具历史意义的行为决定着;而你我周围恶的事物之所以没有像它们本来会成为的那样坏,一半也要归功于那些忠实地过着隐秘的生活,如今安息在无人拜祭的坟茔中的人。²
Her finely-touched spirit had still its fine issues, though they were not widely visible. Her full nature . . . spent itself in channels which had no great name on the earth. But the effect of her being on those around her was incalculably diffusive: for the growing good of the world is partly dependent on unhistoric acts; and that things are not so ill with you and me as they might have been, is half owing to the number who lived faithfully a hidden life, and rest in unvisited tombs.²


¹ Conrad's Romanticism (《康拉德的浪漫主义》)(新港出版社,1974年版),第45页。 ¹ Conrad's Romanticism (New Haven, 1974), p. 45.

²Middlemarch,( 《米德镇的春天》)戈登·海特编辑(波士顿出版社,1956年版), 第612-613页。
² Middlemarch, ed. Gordon Haight (Boston, 1956), pp. 612-13.
1871-1872年首次出版。
First published 1871-72.




 
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