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課程來源:MIT
     

MAS.965 2003年秋季課程:媒體科技特論:合作機械(Special Topics in Media Technology: Cooperative Machines, Fall 2003)

翻譯:鍾運來
編輯:陳玉侖

 

 

Leo
機器人 Leo(圖片由Andrea Lockerd 與 Guy Hoffman提供)。
The robot Leo. (Image courtesy Andrea Lockerd and Guy Hoffman.)

課程重點

本課程涵蓋了一套完整的課堂講稿,包括學生針對每週閱讀資料所寫的評論文章。也包括了一個期末專題的樣本。
This class includes a complete set of lecture notes, which consist of critiques of the week's readings by the students. A sampling of the final projects is also included.

課程描述

本課程檢視製造和人類以及其他機器相結合的機器時所面臨的問題、原理、挑戰。主題包含由原理、科學、理論方面去深究此議題,以及這些概念如何清楚的表現在自然和人工系統上(例如:軟體代理人和機器人)。
This course examines the issues, principles, and challenges toward building machines that cooperate with humans and with other machines. Philosophical, scientific, and theoretical insights into this subject will be covered, as well as how these ideas are manifest in both natural and artificial systems (e.g. software agents and robots).


技術需求:
Technical Requirements

需要RealOne播放器去執行本課程網站中的.rm檔案。
RealOne™ Player software is required to run the .rm files found on this course site.

師資

講師:
Cynthia Breazeal 教授

上課時數

教師授課:
每週1節
每節2小時

程度

研究所

 

回應

告訴我們您對本課程或「開放式課程網頁」的建議。

聲明

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此 處麻省理工學院開放式課程之資料乃由 開放式課程計畫(OOPS) 譯為正體中文。麻省理工學院開放式課程在此聲明,不論是否遭遇或發現相關議題,麻省理工學院開放式課程、麻省理工學院教師、麻省理工學院校方並不對翻譯正 確度及完整性作保證。上述單位並對翻譯後之資料不作明示或默許對任一特定目的之適合性之保證、非侵權之保證、或永不出錯之保證。麻省理工學院校方、麻省理 工學院開放式課程對翻譯上之不正確不負任何責任。由翻譯所引發任何關於此等資料之不正確或其他瑕疵,皆由開放式課程計畫(OOPS)負全責,而非麻省理工 學院開放式課程之責。

原文聲明

 

 

本課程檢視製造和人類以及其他機器相結合的機器時所面臨的問題、原理、挑戰。主題包含由原理、科學、理論方面去深究此議題,以及這些概念如何清楚的表現在自然和人工系統上(例如:軟體代理人和機器人)。成績將基於每週的作業、簡報、課堂討論中的參與度,再加上期末專題。

評分:

活動 百分比
摘要/評論 25%
課程參與/簡報 25%
期末專題/報告 50%


每週閱讀:

有兩項:摘要和評論。
每次閱讀資料的報告最多一頁。
星期二中午,每次課堂前截止。

學生針對閱讀資料所作的簡報:

每週星期五會給予下星期三須報告的簡報作業。
先口頭報告三十分鐘,接著每篇論文討論三十分鐘。
學生的簡報必須包含作品摘要、評論及和其他相關文獻的關聯性。希望報告者能追加課程中指定讀物以外的資料,譬如查閱參考資料中的關鍵論文。

期末專題:

使用文獻的原始觀點來完成分析式的報告,或建立並評估與論述計算機模型,然後再和文獻相結合。
提案在第9週截止。
期末專題簡報和研討會格式的論文(最多8頁)在第13週繳交。

This course examines the issues, principles, and challenges toward building machines that cooperate with humans and with other machines. Philosophical, scientific, and theoretical insights into this subject will be covered, as well as how these ideas are manifest in both natural and artificial systems (e.g. software agents and robots). Course grade will be based on weekly student assignments and presentations, participation in lively class discussion, and a final term project.

Grading

ACTIVITIES PERCENTAGES
Summaries/Critiques 25%
Class Participation/Presentations 25%
Term Project/Paper 50%


Weekly Readings

Two components: summary and critique.
One page per reading maximum.
Due at noon, Tuesday before each class.

Student Presentation of Readings

Presentation assignments are made by Friday of each week for the following Wednesday.
30 minutes of presentation followed by 30 minutes of discussion per paper.
Student presentations should include summary of work, critique, and connections to other relevant literature. The presenter is expected to include material from papers outside of those assigned by the class reading list, such as looking up key papers from the cited references.

Term Project

Analytical paper with original perspectives on literature, OR build and evaluate computational model, and connect to literature.
Proposals due in Week 9.
Final project presentations and conference style paper (8 pages max) due in Week 13.

 

 

週 課程單元
1 課程介紹
Introduction to Course
2 原理
Philosophy
3 心智理論的發展
Development of Theory of Mind
4 心智理論模型
Models of Theory of Mind
5 閱讀行為、閱讀心靈:靈長類動物
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Primates
6 閱讀行為、閱讀心靈:孩子
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Children
7 以TOM(心智理論)朝機器發展Toward Machines with ToM
8 共同意圖及行動
Joint Intention and Action
9 小組分工
Teamwork
10 機器人團隊
Robot Teams
11 合作交談理論
Collaborative Discourse Theory
12 工作導向的對談
Task-oriented Dialogs
13 合作學習
Collaborative Learning
14 系統:人類機器合作
Systems: Human Machine Collaboration
15 學生報告期末專題
Student Presentations of Term Projects

 

 

 

週 課程單元 閱讀資料
1 課程介紹
Introduction to Course
 
2 原理
Philosophy
Malle, Bertram F., and J. Knobe.〈慾望和意圖的分別:一個民間概念分析〉《意圖及意向性》第二章. Edited by Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses, and Dare A. Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001. ISBN: 0262133865.
Malle, Bertram F., and J. Knobe. "The Distinction between Desire and Intention: A Folk-Conceptual Analysis." Chapter 2 in Intention and Intentionality. Edited by Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses, and Dare A. Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001. ISBN: 0262133865.

Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001. ISBN: 0262133865.Bratman, M,〈什麼是意圖?〉,《溝通的意圖》第二章.Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan和 Martha E. Pollack 編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990年6月. ISBN: 0262031507.
Bratman, M. "What is Intention?" Chapter 2 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

Dennett, Daniel C,〈意向心理學的三個種類〉,《意向模型》第三章. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989年3月. ISBN: 0262540533.
Dennett, Daniel C. "Three Kinds of Intentional Psychology." Chapter 3 in The Intentional Stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, March 1989. ISBN: 0262540533.
3 心智理論的發展
Development of Theory of Mind
Meltzoff和 J. Decety,〈模仿所告訴我們的社會認同: 重新了解發展心理學與認知神經科學之間的關係〉, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 358 (2003): 491-500.
Meltzoff, and J. Decety. "What Imitation Tells Us about Social Cognition: A Rapproachment between Developmental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London B 358 (2003): 491-500.

Cohen, S. Baron,〈心智理論的先驅:了解其他人的意圖〉,《自然心智理論》第16章. Andrew Whiten編輯. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1 January 1993. ISBN: 0631185526.
Cohen, S. Baron. "Precursers to a Theory of Mind: Understanding Attention in Others." Chapter 16 in Natural Theories of Mind. Edited by Andrew Whiten. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1 January 1993. ISBN: 0631185526.

Wellman, H,〈從慾望到信任:學習心智理論〉,《自然心智理論》第2章.,Andrew Whiten編輯. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1993年一月一日. ISBN: 0631185526
Wellman, H. "From Desires to Beliefs: Acquisition of a Theory of Mind." Chapter 2 in Natural Theories of Mind. Edited by Andrew Whiten. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1 January 1993. ISBN: 0631185526.
4 心智理論的模型
Models of Theory of Mind
Gopnick, A. 和 H. Wellman,〈為什麼孩子的心靈理論實際上是一個理論用〉,《心靈及語言7》, no. 1-2 (1992): 145-171.
Gopnick, A., and H. Wellman. "Why the Child's Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory." Mind and Language 7, no. 1-2 (1992): 145-171.

Carey, S.和 E. Spelke,〈科學與知識〉,《科學的哲學63》 (1996): 515-533
Carey, S., and E. Spelke. "Science and Knowledge." Philosophy of Science 63 (1996): 515-533.

背景閱讀資料
Background Readings

Gordon R,〈模仿民眾心理〉,《心靈及語言3》, no. 2 (1986): 158-171.
Gordon R. "Folk Psychology as Simulation." Mind and Language 3, no. 2 (1986): 158-171.

Nichols, S., S. Stich, A. Leslie, 和 D. Klein,〈離線式模擬的變數〉,見用《心智理論的理論》第四章. Peter Carruthers 和 Peter K. Smith編輯. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996年二月二十三日. ISBN: 0521559162.
Nichols, S., S. Stich, A. Leslie, and D. Klein. "Variations of Off-line Simulation." Chapter 4 in Theories of Theories of Mind. Edited by Peter Carruthers, and Peter K. Smith. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 23 February 1996. ISBN: 0521559162.
5 閱讀行為,閱讀心靈:靈長類
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Primates
Whiten, A,〈什麼時候聰明的閱讀習慣會變成心靈閱讀〉,《心智理論的理論》第17章. Peter Carruthers和 Peter K. Smith編輯. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996年二月二十三日. ISBN: 0521559162
Whiten, A. "When does Smart Behavior-reading become Mind-reading." Chapter 17 in Theories of Theories of Mind. Edited by Peter Carruthers, and Peter K. Smith. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 23 February 1996. ISBN: 0521559162.

Povinelli, D.,〈猩猩的心智理論?強力推斷的漫長道路〉,《心智理論的理論》第18章. Peter Carruthers和 Peter K. Smith編輯. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996年2月23日. ISBN: 0521559162.
Povinelli, D. "Chimpanzee Theory of Mind? The Long Road to Strong Inference." Chapter 18 in Theories of Theories of Mind. Edited by Peter Carruthers, and Peter K. Smith. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 23 February 1996. ISBN: 0521559162.

Butterworth, G,〈心智理論和具體化的事實〉,《孩子們早期所知道的心智》第6章. Charles Lewis和 Peter Mitchell編輯. London, UK: Psychology Press, 1994年12月1日. ISBN: 0863773338.
Butterworth, G. "Theory of Mind and the Facts of Embodiment." Chapter 6 in Children's Early Understanding of Mind. Edited by Charles Lewis, and Peter Mitchell. London, UK: Psychology Press, 1 December 1994. ISBN: 0863773338.
6 閱讀行為,閱讀心靈:小孩
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Children
Woodward, A., J. Sommerville, and J. Guajardo,〈嬰兒如何了解意向行為〉,《意圖及意向》性第七章. Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses和 Dare A. Baldwin編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001年四月. ISBN: 0262133865.
Woodward, A., J. Sommerville, and J. Guajardo. "How Infants Make Sense of Intentional Action." Chaper 7 in Intention and Intentionality. Edited by Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses, and Dare A. Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001. ISBN: 0262133865.

Gleissner, B., A. Meltzoff和 H. Bekkering,〈小孩對人類行為的分辨:三歲小孩的認知因素影響到他們的模仿〉,《啟發性科學3》, no. 4 (2000): 405-414.
Gleissner, B., A. Meltzoff, and H. Bekkering. "Children's Coding of Human Action: Cognitive Factors Influencing Imitation in 3 Year Olds." Developmental Science 3, no. 4 (2000): 405-414.

Baldwin, D.和J. Baird,〈識別動態人類行為的行為〉,《認知科學的趨勢 5》, no. 4 (2001): 171-178.
Baldwin, D., and J. Baird. "Discerning Intensions in Dynamic Human Action." Trends in Cognitive Science 5, no. 4 (2001): 171-178.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Povinelli, D,〈了解他們之前就能察覺他們意圖的可能性〉,《意圖及意向性》. Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses和 Dare A. Baldwin編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001年四月, pp. 225-248.
Povinelli, D. "On the Possibility of Detecting Intentions Prior to Understanding Them." In Intention and Intentionality. Edited by Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses, and Dare A. Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001, pp. 225-248.

Schultz, T,〈從起念頭到意圖:基於一個準則,計算的方法〉,《心智理論的理論》第六章. Peter Carruthers和 Peter K. Smith 編輯. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996年2月23日.
Schultz, T. "From Agency to Intention: A Rule-based, Computational Approach." Chapter 6 in Theories of Theories of Mind. Edited by Peter Carruthers, and Peter K. Smith. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 23 February 1996.

Baird, J.和Dare A. Baldwin,〈了解人類行為:從語法上的分析及意向推論〉,《意圖及意向性》. Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses和Dare A. Baldwin編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001年4月, pp. 193-206.
Baird, J., and Dare A. Baldwin. "Making Sense of Human Behavior: Acting Parsing and Intentional Inference." In Intention and Intentionality. Edited by Bertram F. Malle, Louis J. Moses, and Dare A. Baldwin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, April 2001, pp. 193-206.
7 以TOM(心智理論)朝機器發展
Toward Machines with ToM
Mataric, M,〈讓仿人之物作動作、模仿〉,《電氣和電子工程師協會智慧系統》(July 2000): 18-24.
Mataric, M. "Getting Humanoids to Move and Imitate." IEEE Intelligent Systems (July 2000): 18-24.

Scassellati, B,〈仿真機器人的心智理論基礎〉,博士論文, MIT Dept EECS. Cambridge, MA, 2000, 節選章節: 3, 7, 9, 10, 11.
Scassellati, B. "Foundations of Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot." PhD Thesis, MIT Dept EECS. Cambridge, MA, 2000, selected chapters: 3, 7, 9, 10, 11.

Breazeal, C., D. Bushbaum, J. Gray和 B. Blumberg,〈從別人身上學習及瞭解對方: 經由模仿建立機器人之社群競爭力〉,《人工生活》, 2004.
Breazeal, C., D. Bushbaum, J. Gray, and B. Blumberg. "Learning From and About Others: Towards Using Imitation to Bootstrap the Social Competence of Robots." In Artificial Life, 2004.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Scassellati, B,〈仿真機器人的心智理論〉,《仿真機器人2000會議論文集》. Cambridge, MA, 2000.
Scassellati, B. "Theory of Mind for a Humanoid Robot." In Proceedings of Humanoids 2000. Cambridge, MA, 2000.
8 共同意向及行動
Joint Intention and Action
Gross, B,〈合作系統: 1994美國人工智慧協會理事長致詞稿〉,《人工智慧雜誌 17》, no. 2 (1996): 67-85.
Gross, B. "Collaborative Systems: The1994 AAAI Presidential Address." AI Magazine 17, no. 2 (1996): 67-85.

Bratman, M,〈分享合作活動〉,《哲理檢討雜誌101》, no. 2 (1992): 327-341.
Bratman, M. "Shared Cooperative Activity." The Philosophical Review 101, no. 2 (1992): 327-341.

Searle, J,〈合作意圖與行動〉,《溝通與意圖》第19章. Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan和Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.
Searle, J. "Collective Intentions and Actions." Chapter 19 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.
9 小組分工
Teamwork
Cohen, P,〈小組分工〉,《Nous雜誌》25 (1991): 487-512.
Cohen, P. "Teamwork." Nous 25 (1991): 487-512.

背景閱讀
Background Readings

Cohen, Philip R.和H. Levesque,〈堅持、企圖、承諾〉,《溝通意圖》第3章,Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, 和 Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990年六月. ISBN: 0262031507.
Cohen, Philip R., and H. Levesque. "Persistence, Intention, and Commitment." Chapter 3 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

Levesque, H., P. Cohen和 J. Nunes (1994) ,〈一起行動〉,《第八次人工智慧國家會議會議論文集》
Levesque, H., P. Cohen, and J. Nunes (1994). "On Acting Together." In Proceedings of the Eighth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-90). Boston, MA, 1990, pp. 94-99.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Sullivan, D., A. Glass, B. Grosz, 與 S. Kraus. 〈團隊合作環境下的動機妥協:初探其架構〉,摘自《合作資訊代理人III,人工智慧中的講稿》。 Vol 1652. Klusch, Shehory, 與 Weiss合編,Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1999, 第 149-162 頁。
Sullivan, D., A. Glass, B. Grosz, and S. Kraus. "Intention Reconciliation in the Context of Teamwork: An Initial Empirical Investigation." In Cooperative Information Agents III, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Vol 1652. Edited by Klusch, Shehory, and Weiss. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1999, pp. 149-162.
10 機器人團隊
Robot Teams
Jones, H., and P. Hinds,〈極限工作團隊:以SWAT團隊作為協調分散機器人的模式〉,《電腦輔助合作工作2002會議論文集》. Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA: ACM Press, 2002年11月16-20. ISBN: 1581135602.
Jones, H., and P. Hinds. "Extreme Work Teams: Using SWAT Teams as a Model for Coordinating Distributed Robots." In Proceedings of CSCW 2002. Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA: ACM Press, 16-20 November 2002. ISBN: 1581135602.

Stone, P.和M. Veloso,〈即時的策略小組工作分解、動態角色指派和低頻寬溝通〉,《人工智慧 110》, no. 2 (1999): 241-273.
Stone, P., and M. Veloso. "Task Decomposition, Dynamic Role Assignment, and Low-Bandwidth Communication for Real-Time Strategic Teamwork." Artificial Intelligence 110, no. 2 (1999): 241-273.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Stone, P., and M. Veloso,〈邁向合作與對抗式學習:機器人足球的例子〉,見於《IJHCS會議論文集》. 1996.
Stone, P., and M. Veloso. "Towards Collaborative and Adversarial Learning: A Case Study in Robotic Soccer." In Proceedings of IJHCS. 1996.

Veloso, M., P. Stone和 M. Bowling,〈期望: 一群代理人團隊合作的關鍵〉,見於《第三屆自主代理人會議論文集》. 1998.
Veloso, M., P. Stone, and M. Bowling. "Anticipation: A Key for Collaboration in a Team of Agents." In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Autonomous Agents. 1998.
11 合作講述理論
Collaborative Discourse Theory
Litman, D.和J. Allen,〈談話處理和常識計畫〉,《溝通企圖》第17章. Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan和Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.
Litman, D., and J. Allen. "Discourse Processing and Commonsense Plans." Chatper 17 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

Grosz, B.和 C. Sider,〈交談計畫〉,《溝通企圖》第20章. Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan和Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990年6月. ISBN: 0262031507.
Grosz, B., and C. Sider. "Plans for Discourse." Chapter 20 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

Rich, C., C. Sidner和 N. Lesh,〈膠原:應用合作式交談理論於人類與電腦界面〉,《人工智慧雜誌》, 2001年冬季刊, 15-25.
Rich, C., C. Sidner, and N. Lesh. "Collagen: Applying Collaborative Discourse Theory to Human-Computer Interaction." AI Magazine, Winter 2001, 15-25.

背景閱讀
Background Readings

Grosz, B.和 C. Sidner,〈專注、意圖和交談的結構〉,《計算機語言 12》, no. 3 (1986): 175-202.
Grosz, B., and C. Sidner. "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse." Computational Linguistics 12, no. 3 (1986): 175-202.

Pollack, Martha E,〈計畫就像複雜的內心態度〉,《溝通意圖》第5章,Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, 和 Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990年6月. ISBN: 0262031507.
Pollack, Martha E. "Plans as Complex Mental Attitudes." Chapter 5 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Lochbaum, K,〈一個合作計畫的模型作為意圖的結構〉,《計算機語言4》, no. 24 (1998): 525-571.
Lochbaum, K. "A Collaborative Planning Model for Intentional Structure." Computational Linguistics 4, no. 24 (1998): 525-571.

Lesh, N., C. Rich和 C. L. Sidner,〈應用計畫辨識在人類電腦合作上〉,《使用者模式國際研討會會議論文集 (UM-99) 》. 1999.
Lesh, N., C. Rich, and C. L. Sidner. "Using Plan Recognition in Human-Computer Collaboration." In Proceedings of the International Conference on User Modelling (UM-99). 1999.
12 工作導向的對話
Task-oriented Dialogs
Rickel, J.和 L. Johnson,〈虛擬世界中仿真代理人的合作任務取向〉,《仿真會話代理人》第 四章. Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost, 和 Elizabeth Churchill編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000年4月3日, pp. 95-122. ISBN: 0262032783.
Rickel, J., and L. Johnson. "Task-oriented Collaboration with Embodied Agents in Virtual Worlds." Chapter 4 in Embodied Conversational Agents. Edited by Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost, and Elizabeth Churchill. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 3 April 2000, pp. 95-122. ISBN: 0262032783.

Cohen, P., H. Levesque, J. Nunes和 S. Oviatt. ,〈工作導向的對話是共同行為的結果〉,《環太平洋人工智慧研討會所(PRICAI-90)會議論文集》. 1990, pp. 203-208.
Cohen, P., H. Levesque, J. Nunes, and S. Oviatt. "Task-oriented Dialogue as a Consequence of Joint Activity." In Proceedings of PRICAI-90. 1990, pp. 203-208.

Clark, H.和D. Wilkes-Gibbs,〈作為合作處理〉,《溝通意圖》第23章. Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan和 Martha E. Pollack編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990年6月. ISBN: 0262031507.
Clark, H., and D. Wilkes-Gibbs. "Referring as a Collaborative Process." Chapter 23 in Intentions in Communication. Edited by Philip R. Cohen, Jerry Morgan, and Martha E. Pollack. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, June 1990. ISBN: 0262031507.

背景閱讀
Background Readings

Cassell, J,〈輕推輕推眨眼眨眼:仿真會話代理人面對面對話時的要素〉,《仿真會話代理人》第一章. Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost和 Elizabeth Churchill編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000年4月3日, pp. 1-28. ISBN: 0262032783.
Cassell, J. "Nudge Nudge Wink Wink: Elements of Face-to-Face Conversation for Embodied Conversational Agents." Chapter 1 in Embodied Conversational Agents. Edited by Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost, and Elizabeth Churchill. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 3 April 2000, pp. 1-28. ISBN: 0262032783.

Grice, H,〈邏輯與對話〉,見於《語法和語意學:演說作用》 Vol. 3.由 P. Cole,和 J. Morgan所編輯. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp. 41-58.
Grice, H. "Logic and Conversation." In Syntax & Semantics: Speech Acts. Vol. 3. Edited by P. Cole, and J. Morgan. New York: Academic Press, 1975, pp. 41-58.

Duncan, S. ,〈交換談話期間說者-聽者的互動結構〉,《社區語言2》(1973): 160-180.
Duncan, S. "On the Structure of Speaker-Auditor Interaction during Speaking Turns." Lang. Soc. 2 (1973): 160-180.

Chovil, N,〈會話當中談話取向的臉部表情〉,《語言及社會互動研究25》 (1992): 163-194.
Chovil, N. "Discourse-Oriented Facial Displays in Conversation." Research on Language and Social Interaction 25 (1992): 163-194.

Argyle, M., R. Ingham, F. Alkema和 M. McCallin,〈凝視的各種作用〉,《Semiotica 符號學期刊》. 1973.
Argyle, M., R. Ingham, F. Alkema, and M. McCallin. "The Different Functions of Gaze." Semiotica. 1973.

McClave, E,〈演說中頭部移動的語言功能〉,《語用學期刊32》(2000): 855-878.
McClave, E. "Linguistic Functions of Head Movements in the Context of Speech." Journal of Pragmatics 32 (2000): 855-878.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Smith, I., P. Cohen, J. Bradshaw, M. Greaves和 H. Holmback. (1990) ,〈利用共同意向理論去設計對話策略〉,《多代理人系統第三屆國際研討會會議論文集》. 1998.
Smith, I., P. Cohen, J. Bradshaw, M. Greaves, and H. Holmback. (1990). "Designing Conversation Policies Using Joint Intention Theory." In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS98). 1998.
13 合作學習
Collaborative Learning
Nicolescu, M.和M. Mataric,〈機器人工作學習的自然方法:啟發論證、總結和練習〉,《自主代理人和多代理人系統會議論文集》. Melbourne, Australia, 2003.
Nicolescu, M., and M. Mataric. "Natural Methods for Robot Task Learning: Instructive Demonstrations, Generalization and Practice." In Proceedings of AAMAS 2003. Melbourne, Australia, 2003.

Tan, M,〈多代理人加強學習:獨立VS合作演者〉,《代理人之閱讀》由 Michael N. Huhns, 和 Munindar P. Singh所編輯. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1997年十月一日,頁數: 487-494. ISBN: 1558604952.
Tan, M. "Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: Independent vs. Cooperative Agents." In Readings in Agents. Edited by Michael N. Huhns, and Munindar P. Singh. San Francisco, CA: Morgan Kaufmann, 1 October 1997, pp. 487-494. ISBN: 1558604952.
14 系統:人類機器合作
Systems: Human Machine Collaboration
Hayes Roth, B.和 L. Brownston,〈指導即興作品當中多代理人合作〉,《Stanford University 技術報告 KSL-94-61》.1994年十月.
Hayes Roth, B., and L. Brownston. "Multi-Agent Collaboration in Directed Improvisation." In Stanford University Technical Report KSL-94-61. October 1994.

Rickel, J., N. Lesh, C. Rich, C. Sidner和 A. Gertner,〈合作交談理論作為指導對話的基礎〉,《智慧指導系統第六次國際會論文集》. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002, 頁數: 512-551.
Rickel, J., N. Lesh, C. Rich, C. Sidner, and A. Gertner. "Collaborative Discourse Theory as a Foundation for Tutorial Dialog." In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2002, pp. 512-551.

Allen J.等人,〈訓練計畫:研究建立對話者之案例〉,見於《技術筆記》 Technical Note 94-3. Rochester大學資訊科學系,1994
Allen J., et. al. "The TRAINS Project: A Case Study in Building a Conversational Planning Agent." In Technical Note 94-3. University of Rochester, Computer Science Department, 1994.

選修閱讀
Optional Readings

Lesh, N., C. Rich和 C. Sidner,〈在不完整的溝通之下的專注和不專注的使用者〉,《使用者模式國際會議論文集》,Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2001, 頁數: 64-73.
Lesh, N., C. Rich, and C. Sidner. "Collaborating with Focused and Unfocused Users under Imperfect Communication." In Proceedings of the International Conference on User Modelling. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 2001, pp. 64-73.

Churchill, Elizabeth, L. Cook, P. Hodgson, Scott Prevost和 Joseph Sullivan,〈我能幫助你嗎?:設計具體的對話者聯盟〉,《具體會話者》第 三章. 由 Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost和 Elizabeth Churchill編輯. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000年四月三日,頁數:64-94. ISBN: 0262032783.
Churchill, Elizabeth, L. Cook, P. Hodgson, Scott Prevost, and Joseph Sullivan. "May I Help You?: Designing Embodied Conversational Agent Allies." Chapter 3 in Embodied Conversational Agents. Edited by Justine Cassell, Joseph Sullivan, Scott Prevost, and Elizabeth Churchill. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 3 April 2000, pp. 64-94. ISBN: 0262032783.
15 學生期末專題報告
Student Presentations of Term Projects
 

 


以下的課堂講稿是學生,Guy Hoffman,針對課堂指定閱讀資料所作的心得報告,所有文章使用皆獲得許可,查詢完整的引用書目,請看閱讀部份。
The following lecture notes are responses by one student, Guy Hoffman, to the readings assigned in class. All of the work is used with permission. For the complete citations, please see the readings section.

 
週 課程單元 student responses
2 哲學
Philosophy
M. Bratman (1990),〈什麼是意向?〉
M. Bratman (1990), "What is intention?"
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)


D. Dennett (1987) ,〈意向心理學的三個種類〉
D. Dennett (1987), "Three kinds of intentional psychology."
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)


B. Malle and J. Knobe (2001) ,〈慾望和意向的分別:一個民間概念分析〉
B. Malle and J. Knobe (2001), "The Distinction between Desire and Intention: A Folk-Conceptual Analysis."
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)
3 心智理論發展
Development of Theory of Mind
A. N. Meltzoff 和 J. Decety (2003) ,〈模仿所告訴我們的社會認同: 重新了解發展心理學與認知神經科學之間的關係〉
A. N. Meltzoff and J. Decety (2003), "What Imitation Tells Us About Social Cognition: a Rapprochement Between Developmental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience"
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)


S. Baron-Cohen (1991) ,〈心智理論的先驅:了解其他人的意向〉
S. Baron-Cohen (1991), "Precursors to a Theory of Mind: Understanding Attention in Others"
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)


H. Wellman (1991) ,〈從慾望到信任:學習心靈理論〉
H. Wellman (1991), "From Desires to Beliefs: Acquisition of a Theory of Mind"
(英文PDF)、 (英文DOC)
4 心智理論模型
Models of Theory of Mind
A. Gopnick and H. Wellman (1992) ,〈為什麼孩子的心智理論實際上是一個理論〉(PDF)
A. Gopnick and H. Wellman (1992), "Why the Child's Theory of Mind Really Is a Theory" (PDF)

S. Nichols, S. Stich, A. Leslie 和D. Klein (1996) ,〈離線式模擬的變數〉(PDF)
S. Nichols, S. Stich, A. Leslie and D. Klein (1996), "Varieties of off-line simulation" (PDF)

R. M. Gordon (1986) ,〈模仿民眾心裡〉(PDF)
R. M. Gordon (1986), "Folk Psychology as Simulation" (PDF)
5 閱讀習慣、心靈:靈長類
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Primates
A. Whiten (1996) ,〈什麼時候聰明的閱讀習慣會變成心靈閱讀〉(PDF)
A. Whiten (1996), "When Does Smart Behavior-Reading Become Mind-Reading" (PDF)

D. Povinelli (1996) ,〈猩猩的心智理論?強力推斷的漫長道路〉(PDF)
D. Povinelli (1996), "Chimpanzee Theory of Mind? The Long Road to Strong Inference" (PDF)

G. Butterworth (1994) ,〈心智理論和具體化的事實〉(PDF)
G. Butterworth (1994), "Theory of Mind and the Facts of Embodiment" (PDF)
6 閱讀習慣、心靈:小孩
Reading Behavior, Reading Minds: Children
A. Woodward, J. Sommerville 和J. Guajardo (2001) ,〈嬰兒如何了解意向行為〉(PDF)
A. Woodward, J. Sommerville and J. Guajardo (2001), "How Infants Make Sense of Intentional Action" (PDF)

B. Gleissner, A. Meltzoff, 和 H. Bekkering (2000) ,〈小孩對人類行為的分辨:三歲小孩的認知因素影響到他們的模仿〉(PDF)
B. Gleissner, A. Meltzoff, and H. Bekkering (2000), "Children's Coding of Human Action: Cognitive Factors Influencing Imitation in 3 Year Olds" (PDF)

J. Baird 和 D. Baldwin (2001) ,〈了解人類行為:從語法上的分析及意向推論〉(PDF)
J. Baird and D. Baldwin (2001), "Making Sense of Human Behavior: Acting Parsing and Intentional Inference" (PDF)
7 以TOM朝機器發展
Toward Machines with ToM
M. Mataric (2000) ,〈讓仿人之物作動作、模仿〉(PDF)
M. Mataric (2000), "Getting Humanoids to Move and Imitate" (PDF)

C. Breazeal, D. Bushbaum, J. Gray,和 B. Blumberg (2004) ,〈從別人身上學習及瞭解對方: 經由模仿建立機器人之社群競爭力〉
C. Breazeal, D. Bushbaum, J. Gray, and B. Blumberg (2004), "Learning from and about others: towards using imitation to bootstrap the social competence of robots." (PDF)
8 J共同意向及行動
oint Intention and Action
B. Grosz (1996) ,〈合作系統: 1994美國人工智慧協會理事長致詞稿〉(PDF)
B. Grosz (1996), "Collaborative Systems: the 1994 AAAI Presidential Address" (PDF)

M. Bratman (1992) ,〈分享合作活動〉(PDF)
M. Bratman (1992), "Shared Cooperative Activity" (PDF)

J. Searle (1990) ,〈共同意圖與行動〉(PDF)
J. Searle (1990), "Collective Intentions and Actions" (PDF)
9 小組分作
Teamwork
P. Cohen 和 H. Levesque (1991) ,〈小組分工〉(PDF)
P. Cohen and H. Levesque (1991), "Teamwork" (PDF)

H. Levesque, P. Cohen, J. Nunes (1991) ,〈一起行動〉(PDF)
H. Levesque, P. Cohen, J. Nunes (1991), "On Acting Together" (PDF)

D. Sullivan, A. Glass, B. Grosz, 和S. Kraus (1999) ,〈在團隊合作中意圖調和:初期經驗調查〉(PDF)
D. Sullivan, A. Glass, B. Grosz, and S. Kraus (1999), "Intention Reconciliation in the Context of Teamwork: an Initial Empirical Investigation" (PDF)
10 機器人團隊
Robot Teams
H. Jones 和 P. Hinds (2002) ,〈極限工作團隊:以SWAT團隊作為協調分散機器人的模式〉(PDF)
H. Jones and P. Hinds (2002), "Extreme Work Teams: using SWAT Teams as a Model for Coordinating Distributed Robots" (PDF)

P. Stone和 M. Veloso (1996) ,〈邁向合作與對抗性學習:機器人足球的例子〉(PDF)
P. Stone and M. Veloso (1996), "Towards Collaborative and Adversarial Learning: a Case Study in Robotic Soccer" (PDF)

M. Veloso, P. Stone 和M. Bowling (1998) ,〈期望: 一群代理人團隊合作的關鍵〉(PDF)
M. Veloso, P. Stone and M. Bowling (1998), "Anticipation: A Key for Collaboration in a Team of Agents" (PDF)
11 合作講述理論
Collaborative Discourse Theory
報告包括下列三篇論文:(PDF)
Report covering the following three papers (PDF):

D. Litman 和 J. Allen (1990) ,〈談話處理和常識計畫〉
D. Litman and J. Allen (1990), "Discourse processing and commonsense plans"

B. Grosz 和 C. Sider (1990) ,〈交談計畫〉
B. Grosz and C. Sider (1990), "Plans for Discourse"

C. Rich, C. Sidner 和 N. Lesh (2001) ,〈膠原:應用合作式交談理論於人類與電腦界面〉
C. Rich, C. Sidner and N. Lesh (2001), "Collagen: Applying Collaborative Discourse Theory to Human-Computer Interaction"

 

 

 

評分:
Grading

活動
ACTIVITIES 百分比
PERCENTAGES
摘要/評論
Summaries/Critiques
25%
課程參與/簡報
Class Participation/Presentations
25%
期末專題/報告
Term Project/Paper
50%


每週閱讀:
Weekly Readings

有兩項:摘要和評論。
Two components: summary and critique.
每次閱讀資料的報告最多一頁。
One page per reading maximum.
星期二中午,每次課堂前截止。
Due at noon, Tuesday before each class.

學生在閱讀上的簡報:
Student Presentation of Readings

每週星期五會給予下星期三須報告的簡報作業。
Presentation assignments are made by Friday of each week for the following Wednesday.
先口頭報告三十分鐘,接著每篇論文討論三十分鐘。
30 minutes of presentation followed by 30 minutes of discussion per paper.
學生的簡報必須包含作品摘要、評論及和其他相關文獻的關聯性。希望報告者能追加課程中指定讀物,譬如查閱參考資料中的關鍵論文。
Student presentations should include summary of work, critique, and connections to other relevant literature. The presenter is expected to include material from papers outside of those assigned by the class reading list, such as looking up key papers from the cited references.

期末專題:
Term Project

使用文獻的原始觀點來完成分析式的報告,或建立並評估與論述計算機模型,然後再和文獻相結合。
Analytical paper with original perspectives on literature, OR build and evaluate computational model, and connect to literature.
提案在第9週截止。
Proposals due in Week 9.
期末專題簡報和研討會格式的論文(最多8頁)在第13週繳交。
Final project presentations and conference style paper (8 pages max) due in Week 13.

 

 

需要RealOne播放器去啟用在本課程網站上建立的.rm檔案。
RealOne™ Player software is required to run the .rm files in this section.

這個部分展示了學期裡其中一個範例計畫,由Andrea Locked和Guy Hoffman,所有的成品是兩個學生的好意提供且得到他們允許才使用。
This section displays one of the exemplary projects from the semester, by Andrea Lockerd and Guy Hoffman. All of the work is courtesy of the two students, and used with permission.

概要:
Summary

在這個計畫中我們試著將人類和機器工作,共同思考問題的處理方式和共同意見,我們的工作是由渴望造成動機去指導一個機器人從頭到尾處理一件事情,和讓他健全的行動去執行這個任務,且與人類團隊一起合作。為了這些東西,共同的關聯及共的企圖是需要解決的。
In this project we would like to tackle the problems of joint reference and joint intention in a human-robot collaboration task. Our work is motivated by the desire to teach a robot (Leo) a task from beginning to end and then have him act in a robust way to execute this task in collaboration with a human teammate. In order to do so, both the problems of joint reference and of joint intention need to be solved.

教材:
Materials

初始規劃書(PDF)
Initial Proposal (PDF)

最終規劃書(PDF)
Final Proposal (PDF)

影片:工作、目標、以及協同運作(RM - 56K) (RM - 80K) (RM - 220K)
Video: Tasks, Goals, and Collaboration. (RM - 56K) (RM - 80K) (RM - 220K)


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