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17.524 2004秋季課程:民族主義(Nationalism, Fall 2004)

翻譯:汪茂

編輯:馬景文 陳盈

 

   

 

European UN headquarts in Geneva, Switzerland.
歐盟總部,位於瑞士的日內瓦。 (圖片來源:維基共用媒體。遵循創作共用協議2.5版本,由Paul Wittal授權引用。)
European UN headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. (Image taken from Wikimedia Commons and used courtesy of Paul Wittal under the Creative Commons, Attribution 2.5 License.)

課程重點

本課程包括詳細的閱讀書目,以及課程作業

This course features a detailed reading list and course assignments.

課程描述

本課程提供了對民族主義者觀念和行爲研究的理論和方法的縱覽。同時也探究了一些被稱爲民族主義的相關現象:比如民族意識與民族認同、民族、民族國家、民族 主義意識形態以及民族主義運動。本門課程將分析,作爲現代政治和社會中的一個重要因素的民族主義,它的出現以及它的持久影響。主題包括:民族主義和國家構 建,民族主義與經濟現代化,民族主義與民主化,以及民族主義和宗教矛盾。

This course provides a broad overview of the theories of and approaches to the study of nationalist thought and practice. It also explores the related phenomena termed nationalism: national consciousness and identity, nations, nation-states, and nationalist ideologies and nationalist movements. The course analyzes nationalism's emergence and endurance as a factor in modern politics and society. Topics include: nationalism and state-building, nationalism and economic modernization, nationalism and democratization, and nationalism and religious conflict.

師資

講師:
Melissa Nobles 教授

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每節2小時

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原文聲明

 

 

課程描述

本課程廣泛縱覽研究民族主義思想和行爲的理論和方法。

課程要求:

課程要求學生寫一篇研究論文,長約25-35頁,主題任選。課程假定學生對某地區的民族主義政治有興趣,或(和)熱衷於相關理論,這會指引學生選 題。舉例來說,可以研究一個或多個案例,以檢驗民族主義理論的某個問題或主張。雖然預期學生會大量引用第二手資料,仍然強烈鼓勵學生使用第一手資料。論文 計劃(7-10頁)將分發全班同學,並在堂上討論。計劃應簡述引導研究的問題,研究的方法以及解答問題的相關證據。同時要求列出參考書目。最終的論文(或 是比較完備的論文草稿)將在最後兩節課上討論。

另外,每位學生被安排發表一周閱讀報告。報告之後,全班進行討論。作報告的學生可以印發相關資料,但這不是必需。最後,我們希望,對某一地區或案例有興趣的同學,能够和大家討論這些閱讀書目如何適用(或不適用)於他們的選擇。

 


This course provides a broad overview of the theories of and approaches to the study of nationalist thought and practice.

Course Requirements

Students are expected to write one long research paper, between 25 - 35 pages on a topic of the student's choice. It is assumed that students have either a regional interest in nationalist politics and/or theoretical interest that will guide them in their selection of a paper topic. For example, one paper option would be to use one or more case studies to examine a theoretically-grounded question or claim about nationalism. While it is expected that students will draw heavily upon secondary sources, the use of primary sources is strongly encouraged. Paper proposals (7 - 10 pages) will be distributed among classmates and discussed in class. The proposals should be a concise statement of the question(s) that will guide the research as well as the methods and evidence proposed to answer the question(s). Bibliographies are required. Final papers (or well-developed drafts thereof) will be discussed on the two final class meetings.

In addition, each student will be assigned to present the week's readings. Such presentations will be followed by class discussion. Students may prepare handouts, but they are not required. Finally, it is expected that those students who have already developed an interest in a particular region or set of cases should be prepared to discuss how the readings apply (or not) to their chosen areas.

 

 

Calendar schedule. 週 課程單元
1 導言:本課程的目標和要求
Introduction: Objectives and Requirements of the Course
2 民族主義和種族劃分:先天原生還是後天構建?
Nationalism and Ethnicity: Primordial or Constructed?
3 民主化與民族主義
Democratization and Nationalism
4 經濟現代化作爲民族主義的一個决定性因素
Economic Modernization as a Determinant of Nationalism
5 戰爭,國家構建以及民族主義
War, State-Building, and Nationalism
6 民族主義與現代國家
Nationalism and the Modern State
7 文字中的民族:語言作爲民族主義的源頭和管道
The Nation in Words: Language as a Source and Conduit of Nationalism
8 學生陳述研究論文計劃
Class Presentations of Research Paper Proposals
9 宗教民族主義:矛盾的概念?
Religious Nationalism: A Contradiction in Terms?
10 後殖民民族主義:其植根於殖民主義是否重要?
Post-Colonial Nationalisms: Does their Rootedness in Colonialism Matter?
11 新世界的民族主義:公民民族主義的勝利?
New World Nationalisms: The Triumph of Civic Nationalism?
12 課堂發表研究論文
Class Presentation of Research Papers

 

 

 

必讀書目:
Required Texts

Smith, Anthony.《民族主義和現代主義》.New York, NY: Routledge, 1998. ISBN: 0415063418.
Smith, Anthony. Nationalism and Modernism. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998. ISBN: 0415063418.

Snyder, Jack. 《從投票到暴力:民主化和民族主義的衝突》.New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000. ISBN: 0393048810
Snyder, Jack. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000. ISBN: 0393048810.

Kymlicka, Will.《本地語言的政治:民族主義,文化多元主義與公民身份》. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0199240981.
Kymlicka, Will. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenship. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0199240981.

Horowitz, Donald.《衝突中的族群》. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. ISBN: 0520053850.
Horowitz, Donald. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985. ISBN: 0520053850.

Gellner, Ernest.《民族和民族主義》.Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983. ISBN: 0801492637.
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983. ISBN: 0801492637.

Tilly, Charles.《高壓,資本與歐洲國家》.Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992. ISBN: 1557863687.
Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992. ISBN: 1557863687.

Herbst, Jeffrey.《非洲的國家與權力:威權與管制的比較經驗》. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0691010285.
Herbst, Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0691010285.

Brubaker, Rogers.《重構民族主義》. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN: 0521576490.
Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN: 0521576490.

Greenfeld, Liah. 《民族主義:通往現代性的五條路》. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0674603192.
Greenfeld, Liah. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0674603192.

Chatterjee, Partha.《民族主義思潮與殖民地世界》. London, UK: Zed Books for the United Nations University, 1986. ISBN: 0862325528.
Chatterjee, Partha. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World. London, UK: Zed Books for the United Nations University, 1986. ISBN: 0862325528.

Anderson, Benedict.《想像的社群》. New York, NY: Verso, 1991. ISBN: 0860915468.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York, NY: Verso, 1991. ISBN: 0860915468.

Robinson, Dean E.《美國政治和思潮中的黑人民族主義》. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521626277.
Robinson, Dean E. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521626277.

課節閱讀
Readings by Session


Course readings. 週 課程單元 閱讀資料 READING QUESTIONS
1 導言:本課程的目標和要求
Introduction: Objectives and Requirements of the Course
   
2 民族主義和種族劃分:先天原生還是後天構建?
Nationalism and Ethnicity: Primordial or Constructed?
Smith, Anthony.《民族主義和現代主義》,New York, NY: Routledge, 1998, 導言,第1、7、8章。ISBN: 0415063418.
Smith, Anthony. Nationalism and Modernism. New York, NY: Routledge, 1998, Introduction, chapters 1, 7, and 8. ISBN: 0415063418.

Horowitz, Donald.《衝突中的族群》Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, 第1、2章。ISBN: 0520053850.
Horowitz, Donald. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, chapters 1, and 2. ISBN: 0520053850.

Patterson, Orlando.〈效忠族群的背景及選擇〉"Context and Choice in Ethnic Allegiance."於《種族劃分:理論和經驗》Nathan Glazer和Daniel Moynihan編輯,Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975,305-349頁。ISBN: 0674268563.
Patterson, Orlando. "Context and Choice in Ethnic Allegiance." In Ethnicity: Theory and Experience. Edited by Nathan Glazer, and Daniel Moynihan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975, pp. 305-349. ISBN: 0674268563.
關於種族理論(譯註:指自然的人種區分,比如黑人和白人)和民族身份之間的主要不同之處表現在兩種 看法:有認爲這種身份是持久和建基於文化;亦有認爲這是建構以獲取利益的工具,沒有深厚淵源。不同族群之間的不同文化,是怎樣導致民族主義和種族情感?在 那些方面這是對即時和可認定的動機的理性回應?如果這些身份是建構出來的,是誰人(或什麽)構建的?原因何在?
The principal cleavage among theorists of ethnic and national identities is between those who posit that such identities are enduring and culturally based and those who view them as constructions and instruments for gain, without deep roots. In what ways are nationalist and ethnic sentiments derived from cultural cleavages between groups? In what ways are they rational responses to immediate and identifiable incentives? And if such identities are constructed, who (or what) constructs them and why?
3 民主化與民族主義
Democratization and Nationalism
Greenfeld, Liah. 《民族主義:通往現代性的五條路》,Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992,導言,第1章,第4章,第5章。ISBN: 0674603192.
Greenfeld, Liah. Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992, Introduction, chapters 1, 4, and 5. ISBN: 0674603192.

Snyder, Jack. 《從投票到暴力:民主化和民族主義的衝突》,New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000, 第1至4章。ISBN: 0393048810.
Snyder, Jack. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000, chapters 1-4. ISBN: 0393048810.

Horowitz, Donald. 《衝突中的族群》B,erkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, 第7章。ISBN: 0520053850.
Horowitz, Donald. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, chapter 7. ISBN: 0520053850.
民主化和民族主義之間的聯繫是什麽?什麽决定民主民族主義是以公民還種族形式出現?不同的選舉制度安排對民主制度的種族政治及種族關係有怎樣的影響?
What is the connection between democratization and nationalism? What determines whether democratic nationalism emerges in civic or ethnic form? What effects do different electoral arrangements have on ethnic politics and relations in democracies?
4 經濟現代化作爲民族主義的一個决定性因素
Economic Modernization as a Determinant of Nationalism
Gellner, Ernest. 《民族與民族主義》,Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983, 第2,3,4,8章。ISBN: 0801492637.
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983, chapters 2, 3, 4, and 8. ISBN: 0801492637.

Horowitz, Donald. 《衝突中的族群》,Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, 第3章。ISBN: 0520053850.
Horowitz, Donald. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1985, chapter 3. ISBN: 0520053850.

Mann, Michael.〈近代歐洲民族主義的崛起〉,John Hall, 和I. C. Jarvie編輯。New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0521382025.
Mann, Michael. "The Emergence of Modern European Nationalism. Edited by John Hall, and I. C. Jarvie. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0521382025.
《通往現代性的過渡:論權力、財富與信念》,Transition to Modernity: Essays on Power, Wealth and Belief. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0521382025
" In Transition to Modernity: Essays on Power, Wealth and Belief. Edited by John Hall, and I. C. Jarvie. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1992. ISBN: 0521382025.
工業化、殖民地管治以及突發的經濟變化,全與近代民族主義誕生或晚一些的民族主義動員相聯繫。經濟變化與民族主義之間存在怎樣的聯繫?
Industrialization, colonization, and sudden economic change have all been linked to either the creation of modern nationalism or with more recent nationalist mobilization. What are the connections between economic change and nationalism?
5 戰爭,國家構建以及民族主義
War, State-Building, and Nationalism
Tilly, Charles. 《高壓,資本與歐洲國家》,Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992, 第3,4,7章。ISBN: 1557863687.
Tilly, Charles. Coercion, Capital, and European States. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1992, chapters 3, 4, and 7. ISBN: 1557863687.

Finer, Samuel. 〈歐洲的國家和民族建構:軍隊的角色〉
Finer, Samuel. "State and Nation-Building in Europe: The Role of the Military.
《西歐民族國家的形成》,Charles Tilly編輯。Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975. ISBN: 0691007721.
" In The Formation of National States in Western Europe. Edited by Charles Tilly. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975. ISBN: 0691007721.

Evera, Stephen Van.〈關於民族主義與戰爭的臆測〉"Hypotheses on Nationalism and War." 《國際安全》International Security 18期 4 卷(1994年春): 5-39.
Evera, Stephen Van. "Hypotheses on Nationalism and War." International Security 18, no. 4 (Spring 1994): 5-39.
戰爭、國家、軍事動員以及民族主義之間存在怎樣的聯繫?
What is the connection between war, the state, military mobilization and nationalism?
6 民族主義與現代國家
Nationalism and the Modern State
Herbst, Jeffrey《非洲的國家與權力:威權與管制的比較經驗》全書,Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0691010285.
Herbst, Jeffrey. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0691010285. (Entire)

Brubaker, Rogers 《重構民族主義》,New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 導言,第1,2,4章。ISBN: 0521576490.
Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1996, Introduction, chapters 1, 2, and 4. ISBN: 0521576490.
民族主義被認為是建構國家不可或缺的。這也可以成爲國家崩塌的潜在原因。在怎樣的情况下,民族主義是構建國家或國家崩塌的一股力量?
Nationalism is arguably indispensable to state-building. It can also be an underlying source of state collapse. Under what conditions has nationalism been a force in state-building or in state collapse?
7 文字中的民族:語言作爲民族主義的源頭和管道
The Nation in Words: Language as a Source and Conduit of Nationalism
Anderson, Benedict《想像的社群》全書,New York, NY: Verso, 1991. ISBN: 0860915468.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. New York, NY: Verso, 1991. ISBN: 0860915468. (Entire)

Snyder, Jack. 《從投票到暴力:民主化和民族主義者的衝突》New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000, 第5章。ISBN: 0393048810.
Snyder, Jack. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000, chapter 5. ISBN: 0393048810.
語言和叙事推動民族主義思潮及民族主義和行為,有兩個理論說法。其一:共通語言有助催生“民族意 識”感覺(譯註:一種共同體的感覺)。其二:傳揚民族主義叙事通常是爲了創建或保護民族情緒。現代的傳播方法,比如出版、廣播、電視以及公共教育機構,創 建和傳播民族主義叙事。這些科技和機構是怎樣做到打算要做的這些?知識分子有什麽角色?是知識分子把民族主義叙述施加於大衆,還是大衆自導自演?
Language and narrative have been theorized to contribute to nationalist thought and practice in two ways. First, a common language helps to create a sense of "people-hood." Second, nationalist narratives are often communicated in ways to create and/or entrench nationalist sentiment. Means of modern communication, e.g. printing presses, radio, television as well as public educational institutions create and spread national narratives. How do such technologies and public institutions do what they purportedly do? What is the role of intellectuals? Do they (meaning intellectuals) impose the national narrative on the masses or do the masses create and act upon their own?
8 學生陳述研究論文計劃
Class Presentations of Research Paper Proposals
   
9 宗教民族主義:矛盾的概念?
Religious Nationalism: A Contradiction in Terms?
Akenson, Donald Harman. 《上帝的子民:南非,以色列,(北愛爾蘭)阿爾斯特的盟約和土地》Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992,第1,2,3,7,10,12章。ISBN: 080142755X.
Akenson, Donald Harman. God's Peoples: Covenant and Land in South Africa, Israel, and Ulster. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992, chapters 1-3, 7, 10, and 12. ISBN: 080142755X.

Juergensmeyer, Mark《新冷戰?宗教民族主義面對非宗教國家》 Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993, 第1,2章。ISBN: 0520086511.
Juergensmeyer, Mark. The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1993, chapters 1-2. ISBN: 0520086511.
宗教信仰是否改變了民族主義政治的語調和(或)本質?如果有改變,是以什麽的方法?這有多大的意義和(或)後果?
Do religious beliefs change either the tone and/or nature of nationalist politics? If so, in what ways and of how much significance and/or consequence?
10 後殖民民族主義:其植根於殖民主義是否重要?
Post-Colonial Nationalisms: Does their Rootedness in Colonialism Matter?
Chatterjee, Partha《民族主義思潮與殖民地世界》,London, UK: Zed books for the United Nations University, 1986, 第1,3,4,5,6章。ISBN: 0862325528.
Chatterjee, Partha. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World. London, UK: Zed books for the United Nations University, 1986, chapters 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6. ISBN: 0862325528.

Snyder, Jack《從投票到暴力:民主化和民族主義者的衝突》New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000,第6章。ISBN: 0393048810.
Snyder, Jack. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2000, chapter 6. ISBN: 0393048810.
非歐洲的民族主義與歐洲的民族主義有何相同和不同之處?歐洲和非歐洲的民族主義,實質上和概念上有什麽關係?
How are non-European nationalisms different from and similar to those of Europe? What are the material and ideational relationships between European and non-European nationalisms?
11 新世界的民族主義:公民民族主義的勝利?
New World Nationalisms: The Triumph of Civic Nationalism?
Kymlicka, Will《本地語言的政治:民族主義,文化多元主義與公民身份》New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001,第1,5,8及10-15章。ISBN: 0199240981.
Kymlicka, Will. Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenship. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001, chapters 1, 5, 8, and 10-15. ISBN: 0199240981.

Walzer, Michael〈美國人意味著什麽?〉"What does it Mean to be an American?" 《社會研究》Social Research 57期3卷 (1990年秋).
Walzer, Michael. "What does it Mean to be an American?" Social Research 57, no. 3 (Fall 1990).

Robinson, Dean E.《美國政治和思潮中的黑人民族主義》,New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521626277.(推薦)
Robinson, Dean E. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521626277. (Recommended)

Faust, Drew Gilpin. 《創立聯邦民族主義:美國內戰中南方的意識形態和身份認同》New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN: 0521626277.(推薦)
Faust, Drew Gilpin. The Creation of Confederate Nationalism: Ideology and Identity in the Civil War South. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1988. (Recommended)
有一個廣爲接受、但往往沒有闡明的假定:新世界(主要指美國、加拿大)的自由民主政治似乎走了正途。這說法有多準確?這判斷有什麼根據?
There is a strong, often unstated, presumption that the liberal democracies of the New World (principally the U.S. and Canada) have somehow gotten it right. How accurate and what is the basis of that assessment?
12 課堂發表研究論文
Class Presentation of Research Papers
 

 

 

研究論文指南

課程要求學生寫一篇研究論文,長約25-35頁,主題任選。課程假定學生對某地區的民族主義政治有興趣,或(和)熱衷於相關理論,這會指引學生選 題。舉例來說,可以研究一個或多個案例,以檢驗民族主義理論的某個問題或主張。雖然預期學生會大量引用第二手資料,仍然強烈鼓勵學生使用第一手資料。

論文計劃(7-10頁)將分發全班同學,並在堂上討論。計劃應簡述引導研究的問題,研究的方法以及解答問題的相關證據。同時要求列出參考書目。最終的論文(或是比較完備的論文草稿)將在最後兩節課上討論。

另外,每位學生被安排發表一周閱讀報告。報告之後,全班進行討論。作報告的學生可以印發相關資料,但這不是必需。最後,我們希望,對某一地區或案例有興趣的同學,能够和大家討論這些閱讀書目如何適用(或不適用)於他們的選擇。


Research Paper Guidelines

Students are expected to write one long research paper, between 25 - 35 pages on a topic of the student's choice. It is assumed that students have either a regional interest in nationalist politics and/or theoretical interest that will guide them in their selection of a paper topic. For example, one paper option would be to use one or more case studies to examine a theoretically-grounded question or claim about nationalism. While it is expected that students will draw heavily upon secondary sources, the use of primary sources is strongly encouraged.

Paper proposals (7 - 10 pages) will be distributed among classmates and discussed in class. The proposals should be a concise statement of the question(s) that will guide the research as well as the methods and evidence proposed to answer the question(s). Bibliographies are required. Final papers (or well-developed drafts thereof) will be discussed on the two final class meetings.

In addition, each student will be assigned to present the week's readings. Such presentations will be followed by class discussion. Students may prepare handouts, but they are not required. Finally, it is expected that those students who have already developed an interest in a particular region or set of cases should be prepared to discuss how the readings apply (or not) to their chosen areas.

 

 

對「課程 17.524:民族主義」這門課有興趣的教育家、學生和自學者們,歡迎來和其他應用這個教材學習或教課的人在這個討論群組上互動。

這個服務是由麻省理工學院開放式課程提供,由猶他州立大學教育科技系的「開放持續學習機會研究群」所管理。世界各地的獨立學員可以互相連繫、協同合作、組織學習小組,及就利用麻省理工「開放式課程網頁」教材資源於他們正規或非正規教育學習時得到支援。

「開放式學習支援網」(Open Learning Support, 簡稱OLS)是一個著眼著眼於建立「社群軟體」的研究計劃,讓非正規學習社群利用現存公開的教材而組織起來。OLS基本前提是完整的教育機會必須讓使用者 能夠與能解答其問題或提供支援的其他人建立起溝通管道。贊助者一般只能提供免費開放的網頁教材,但很難提供這樣的社群管道。社群支援必須由其他使用者提 供。因此,OLS是:

在麻省理工「開放式課程網頁」以外獨立運作的。
需要使用者註冊並登入才能參與的。
並不頒授任何學位或文憑的計劃。
不提供與麻省理工或猶他州立大學教職人員直接連繫的管道。

馬上來本課程《17.524 民族主義》的討論群組看看吧。

「開放式學習支援網」是由The William and Flora Hewlett 基金會贊助提供。

 


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