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15.967 2005春季課程:非營利部門中之管理與義務勞動

翻譯:趙安琪
編輯:劉夏泱

Bromley by Bow.

志工於倫敦郊區的布羅尼Bow中心建立蔓棚籐屋 (圖片承蒙快樂大衛提 供。)
Volunteers build a pergola at the London-based Bromley by Bow Centre. (Image courtesy of Happy Dave.)



課程重點
Course Highlights


本課程以一份閱讀資料清單及一系 列課堂講稿為重點。
This course features a reading list, as well as a set of lecture notes.

課程描述
Course Description


本課程期望能提供學生對於非營利部門所面臨之管理面挑戰的寬闊視野。這不是包羅詳盡的管理課程,而是著重在將可能透過各種方式 而與非營利組織產生關係的學生(包括組織成員、志願義工、募款者、偶為員工等身分者)。

This is a course intended to give students a broad overview of the management challenges of the non-profit sector. It is not a detailed management course but rather is aimed at students who will likely relate to non-profits in a variety of ways (on the boards, as volunteers, as fund-raisers, and occasionally as staff).



教學大綱

課程簡介

以維繫社會運作具有重要性。成立、拓展與經營非營利部門導致複雜的挑戰,甚至有些情況較營利部門所面對的挑戰更為複雜。非營利部 門和一般公司一樣,需要確認標示其市場、對抗競爭者、並管理他們內部的作業。

然而,非營利部門部必須致力於眾多贊助支持者的需要,也必須在他們的價值觀與有效管理的需求之間取得平衡,同時必須在缺少如私人 企業所具有之財務資源的特徵下,吸引及留住有經驗的人力。

本課程期望能提供學生對於非營利部門所面臨之管理面挑戰的寬闊視野。這不是包羅詳盡的管理課程,而是著重在將可能透過各種方式而 與非營利組織產生關係的學生(包括組織成員、志願義工、募款者、偶為員工等身分者)。

本課程包括三部份:閱讀資料、個案討論、客座講演、以及學生專題計劃。

每堂課都將有個案討論(除了最後兩堂課將由學生報告之外),學生應該研讀並充分準備以進行每個個案的討論。 有多堂課亦將邀請各式各樣的非營利部門之卓越者,這些客座講者將在課堂上,並依當日主題以互動的方式教授他們經驗(我們將提供 每位客座講者服務單位的背景資料)。 學生團隊將於本學期課程中至波士頓地區的非營利部門工作,然後準備一份報告,並於課堂中進行口頭簡報。針對這部分,更多細節將 於下列說明中提供。

評分

本課程評分標準如下:


Grading Criteria 項目 評分
課堂參與 40%
一份個案評論:此為個人作業,學生可選擇希望評論的個案。 20%
小組專題計劃評論:此為小組作業,並期望每位學生實質參與。 40%



學生團隊簡報


小組專題

本課程很重要的部分就是小組專題,每個小組(大約四位學生)將被分配至波士頓地區之非營利部門。小組專題可由兩種模式中擇一採用 。某些非營利部門已有他們希望小組著手處理之既定的議題或挑戰,在這些情況下,小組將採類似電子實驗室或國際電子實驗室與公司之合作 方式與非營利部門共事。而某些非營利部門則將開放成為小組研習的搖籃,在這類情況下,我們將提供下列的問題以作為小組研討的指南。無 論採取哪一種模式,小組都應提供非營利部門一份書面報告,並且如果該組織要求的話,小組須準備好和非營利部門人員共同討論該組織期望 的報告內容。

各組織的名冊將於第一次課堂中發送給全班,並於第一週上課期間內,小組須成立並應將前三志願(依序排列)以及考慮的理由以電子郵件 方式傳送給保羅.歐斯特曼(Paul Osterman),第二次課堂中將做分配。

至於上課方式,每組均將於學期末前提交小組報告並於最後兩堂課中的一堂課上,呈現其報告結果。大約課程進行到第四週時,每組應和 我們約見以討論其小組專題。

小組可依循下列問題準備針對該組織的報告:

該組織的任務使命為何?是否隨著時間而改變?如何?為什麼? 該任務使命的獨特性為何?為什麼該任務使命應透由非營利組織完成? 它們所服務的市場為何?它們的客戶又是誰? 實踐該任務使命的策略為何? 該組織是有效的嗎?當你要回答這問題時,你會採用哪些標準來衡量?以及該組織自己如何評斷其有效性呢? 它們的預算來源為何? 接受服務者會付費給該組織嗎? 它們如何行銷它們的服務?對誰行銷? 管理架構為何? 你會如何描述該組織的文化?以及該文化是如何發展、維持呢? 人力資源的策略為何?它們會僱用哪些人?這些人會待多久? 你看到有哪些為達成組織任務使命時的作業障礙呢? 擴大現已提供之服務規模的前景如何?又該如何達成?



Syllabus

Course Description

The non-profit sector plays a key role in society and in the economy. Many goods and services, such as education and health care, are delivered by non-profits. Non-profits also play a central role in delivering charitable services of the kind that are often under-provided by the market. Non-profits also are active in political and public-policy arenas. Finally, non-profits are important in providing the glue - the social capital - that holds societies together and makes them work.

Starting, growing, and managing non-profits leads to challenges as complex as, and in some cases more complex than, the challenges facing the private sector. Non-profits need to identify their market, confront competitors, and manage their internal operations just as do firms. However, non-profits must address the needs of multiple constituencies, they must balance their values against the requirements of effective management, and they must attract and retain a skilled labor force without the financial resources that characterize much of the private sector.

This is a course intended to give students a broad overview of the management challenges of the non-profit sector. It is not a detailed management course but rather is aimed at students who will likely relate to non-profits in a variety of ways (on the boards, as volunteers, as fund-raisers, and occasionally as staff).

The course has three components: readings, cases, guest speakers, and student projects.

There will be case discussions in each class (except the final two, in which there will be student reports). Students should read and come prepared to discuss each case. Many of the classes will also have distinguished visitors from a wide range of non-profits. These visitors will speak and interact with the class regarding their experiences that are relevant to the topic of that day (we will provide a background packet on each of the visitors' institutions). Teams of students will work with Boston-area non-profits over the course of the semester and then prepare a paper and make an oral presentation to the class. More details are provided below about this component.

Grading

Grading for the course is as follows:


Grading Criteria ACTIVITIES PERCENTAGES
Class Participation 40%
One Case Write-up: This is an individual assignment. Students select the case they want to write up. 20%
Team Project Write-up: This is a group assignment with the standard expectations regarding substantial participation by each student. 40%



Student Team Presentations


The Team Project

An important component of the course will be team projects. Each team (of about four students) will be assigned a Boston-area non-profit. The team projects may take one of two forms. In some cases the non-profit will have in mind an issue or challenge that they wish the team to address. In these cases the team will work with the non-profit in much the same way that teams in E-lab and Global E-lab work with firms. In other instances the non-profit is making itself available to the team as a site for study and learning. In these cases we have provided a set of questions, below, that should guide the team's work. In both cases the team should make available to the non-profit a copy of its written report and also be prepared to meet with the non-profit's staff to discuss the report should the organization request it.

A list of the organizations will be handed out to the class during the first meeting, and over the course of the first week, teams should form and should email to Paul Osterman their first three choices (ranked) along with any rationales that they care to attach. Assignments will be made in the second class.

With respect to the class, each team will be expected to hand in their report at the end of the semester and to also present their findings to the class in one of the two final sessions. About four weeks into the course, each team should make an appointment to meet with us to discuss their project.

Teams preparing general reports on an organization can be guided by the following questions:

What is the mission of the organization? Has it changed over time? How? Why? What's unique about the mission? Why should it be done by a non-profit organization? What market do they serve? Who are their clients? What is the strategy for carrying out this mission? Is the organization effective? What metrics would you look at to answer this, and how does the organization itself judge its effectiveness? Where does their budget come from? Do the recipients of the services pay for them? How do they market their services, and to whom? What does the management structure look like? How would you describe the culture of the organization, and how is it developed and maintained? What is the HR strategy? Who do they hire, and how long do they stay? What operational impediments do you see in reaching the mission of the organization? What are the prospects of scaling up the services provided? How could that be done?



教學時程
Calendar


Course calendar. 堂數
SES # 課程主題
TOPICS
1 導論
Introduction
2 策略/成長
Strategy/Growth
3 員工管理
Managing The Workforce
4 統御領導
Governance
5 評估
Evaluation
6 資金籌措與行銷
Funding, Marketing
7 組織改變
Organizational Change
8 大學
Universities
9 基金會
Foundations
10 非營利部門的諮商
Consulting For The Non-Profit Sector




閱讀參考資料
Readings


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Readings Table 堂數
SES # 課程主題
TOPICS 閱讀參考資料
READINGS
1 導論
Introduction
菲爾斯.小詹姆士《無樂之聲》。史丹佛社會創新評論 (2004年秋):44-53頁。
Phills, J., Jr. "The Sound of No Music." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Fall 2004): 44-53.

普特男.R.《美國公民的奇異消失》。美國展望,1996年冬,34-48頁。
Putnam, R. "The Strange Disappearance of Civic America." The American Prospect, Winter 1996, 34-48.

Amazon logo 杜拉克.P.《第一部:任務使命優先:第一節 (承諾) 與第 二節 (領導是如同惡劣氣候般的工作)》。非營利組織的管理:原理與實務。紐約,紐約:哈潑商業,3-27頁。國際標準書號: 0887306012。
Drucker, P. "Part One: The Mission Comes First: Sections 1 (The Commitment) and 2 (Leadership Is a Foul-Weather Job)." Managing the Nonprofit Organization: Principles and Practices. New York, NY: HarperBusiness, pp. 3-27. ISBN: 0887306012.
2 策略/成長
Strategy/Growth
格魯伯.R.和M..摩爾《多重規劃的非營利組織之策略管理》。加州管理評論 (1982年春):15-22頁 。
Gruber, R., and M. Mohr. "Strategic Management for Multiprogram Nonprofit Organizations." California Management Review (Spring 1982): 15-22.

布拉達克.J.《規模化的歷程:複製社會福利計劃之挑戰》。史丹佛社會創新評論 (2003春):18-25頁。
Bradach, J. "Going to SCALE: The Challenge of Replicating Social Programs." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Spring 2003): 18-25.
3 員工管理
Managing The Workforce
Amazon logo 萊茲.C.,W..萊恩,和A..葛羅 斯曼《高績效的非營利組織:向上管理以達更佳效應》第六章《人力資源:培養員工以促進組織目標》。紐約,威立出版社,107 -128頁。國際標準書號:0471164562。
Letts, C., W. Ryan, and A. Grossman. "Human Resources: Developing Employees to Advance Organizational Goals." Chapter 6 in High Performance Nonprofit Organizations: Managing Upstream for Greater Impact. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 107-128. ISBN: 0471174572.

Amazon logo 歐斯特.S.《非營利組織之策略管理:理論和案例》 第五章《人力資源管理》,紐約,紐約:牛津大學出版社,65-74頁。國際標準書號:0195085035。
Oster, S. "Human Resource Management." Chapter 5 in Strategic Management for Non-Profit Organizations: Theory and Cases. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 65-74. ISBN: 0195085035.
4 統御領導
Governance
鮑溫.W.《當企業領導人加入非營利組織理事會》。哈佛商業評論 (1994年九月-十月):38-42頁。
Bowen, W. "When a Business Leader Joins a Nonprofit Board." Harvard Business Review (September-October 1994): 38-42.

史扥福.D.《志工服務的「回報」可能包含生涯收益》。哈佛管理更新 (1998年八月):1-4頁。
Stauffer, D. "The ‘Pay’ from Volunteer Service Can Include Career Gains." Harvard Management Update (August 1998): 1-4.

泰勒.B.,R..柴特,和T..荷蘭《非營利組織理事會的新工作架構》。哈佛商業評論 (1996年九月-十月):36-43頁。
Taylor, B., R. Chait, and T. Holland. "The New Work of the Nonprofit Board." Harvard Business Review (September-October 1996): 36-43.
5 評估
Evaluation
索希爾.J.,和D..威廉森《不可能的任務?評估非營利組織的成就》。非營利管理與領導 (2001年 春):371-386頁。
Sawhill, J., and D. Williamson. "Mission Impossible? Measuring Success in Nonprofit Organizations." Nonprofit Management & Leadership (Spring 2001): 371-386.

寇比.S.,N..史東,和P..卡爾塔爾《歸零衝擊》。史丹佛社會創新評論 (2004年秋):24-33頁。
Colby, S., N. Stone, and P. Carttar. "Zeroing in on Impact." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Fall 2004): 24-33.
6 資金籌措與行銷
Funding, Marketing
Amazon logo 勞佛.A.《非營利組織之策略 行銷:方案與資源發展》第一章《策略行銷方法》。紐約,紐約:福利出版社,3-15頁。國際標準書號:0029182603。
Lauffer, A. "The Strategic Marketing Approach." Chapter 1 in Strategic Marketing for Not-for-Profit Organizations: Program and Resource Development. New York, NY: Free Press, pp. 3-15. ISBN: 0029182603.

齊歐迪尼.R.《說服的力量:將影響的科學導入資金籌措》。史丹佛社會創新評論 (2003年夏):18-27頁。
Cialdini, R. "The Power of Persuasion: Putting the Science of Influence to Work in Fundraising." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Summer 2003): 18-27.
7 組織改變
Organizational Change
Amazon logo 葛得瑞斯.J.,和B..偉斯布羅德 《非營利部門與政府:合作與衝突》第七章《為何不是營利部門?轉換與公共政策》,華盛頓特區,都市學會出版社, 235-265頁。國際標準書號:0877666873。
Goddeeris, J., and B. Weisbrod. "Why Not For-Profit? Conversions and Public Policy." Chapter 7 in Nonprofits and Government: Collaboration and Conflict. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press, pp. 235-265. ISBN: 0877666873.
8 大學
Universities
 
9 基金會
Foundations
霍爾.H.《基金會的內部運作:如何發送補助金》。慈善大事紀 (1990年十二月十一日):6-7頁,和 16-21頁。
Hall, H. "Inside a Foundation: How Grants Are Made." The Chronicle of Philanthropy (December 11, 1990): 6-7, and 16 -21.

Amazon logo 萊茲.C.,W..萊恩,和A..葛羅斯曼《高績效的非營利 組織:向上管理以達更佳效應》第九章《有效的資本:績效投資》。紐約,威立出版社,169-191頁。國際標準書號: 0471164562。
Letts, C., W. Ryan, and A. Grossman. "Virtuous Capital: Investing in Performance." Chapter 9 in High Performance Nonprofit Organizations: Managing Upstream for Greater Impact. New York, NY: Wiley, pp. 169-191. ISBN: 0471174572.

萊茲.C.,W..萊恩,和A..葛羅斯曼《填補績效缺口:高度投入的慈善》。史丹佛社會創新評論 (2003年春):26-33 頁。
Letts, C., and W. Ryan. "Filling the Performance Gap: High Engagement Philanthropy." Stanford Social Innovation Review (Spring 2003): 26-33.
10 非營利部門的諮商
Consulting For The Non-Profit Sector
 




講義
Lecture Notes


The following is a collection of lecture notes related to the cases studied in each session, prepared by Paul Osterman.

Course notes. 堂數
SES # 課程主題
TOPICS 講義
LECTURE NOTES
1 導論
Introduction
案例:國際仁人家園
Case: Habitat for Humanity International

導論,非營利組織概論(PDF)
Introduction, Overview of Non-Profits (PDF)
2 策略/成長
Strategy/Growth
案例:就業訓練組織 (STRIVE,註:支持和訓練產生具價值員工之組織,Support and Training Result in Valuable Employees)
Case: STRIVE

就業訓練組織(PDF),教學講義 (PDF)
STRIVE (PDF), Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:奈德.瑞門,社會公民大學創始人兼總經理
Guest: Ned Rimer, Co-Founder and Managing Director, Citizen Schools
3 員工管理
Managing The Workforce
案例:薛普.奎瑞希合夥公司(A)
Case: Shepard Quraeshi Associates (A)

非營利人力資源出版品(PDF),教學講義(PDF)
Non-profit HR Issues (PDF), Teaching Notes (PDF)
4 統御領導
Governance
案例:全國有色人種促進會
Case: The NAACP

全國有色人種促進會(PDF),教學講義(PDF)
NAACP (PDF), Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:威廉.龐茲,麻省理工學院教授,波士頓美術館董事
Guest: William Pounds, Professor, MIT; Board of Directors, MFA
5 評估
Evaluation
案例:哈林兒童特別區:運用方法和評估手段促進表現
Case: The Harlem Children's Zone: Driving Performance with Measurement and Evaluation

評估 (PDF),教學講義(PDF)
Evaluation (PDF), Teaching Notes (PDF)
6 資金籌措與行銷
Funding, Marketing
案例:國際特赦組織
Case: Amnesty International

國際特赦組織教學講義(PDF)
Amnesty International Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:蘭斯.歐濟爾,波士頓公眾電台(WGBH)財務行政副總裁兼全國節目行銷部門事務副總裁
Guest: Lance Ozier, Vice President Finance and Administration & Vice President for National Program Marketing & Board Affairs, WGBH
7 組織改變
Organizational Change
案例:聖荷西(San Jose)的羅馬天主主教教區
Case: The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose

主教教區 (PDF),教學講義(PDF)
The Diocese (PDF), Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:保羅.李維,貝斯以色列女執事醫學中心院長兼執行長
Guest: Paul Levy, President and CEO, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
8 大學
Universities
案例:三一學院 (A)
Case: Trinity College (A)

三一學院之教學講義(PDF)
Trinity Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:羅倫斯.巴果,塔夫斯大學校長
Guest: Lawrence Bacow, President, Tufts University
9 基金會
Foundations
案例:EMCF(艾德納.麥康諾、克拉克基金會):舊基金會採用新方法
Case: EMCF (Edna McConnell Clark Foundation): A New Approach at an Old Foundation

EMCF(艾德納.麥康諾、克拉克基金會)教學講義 (PDF)
EMCF Teaching Notes (PDF)

客座講者:保羅.葛羅根,波士頓基金會會長兼執行長
Guest: Paul Grogan, President and CEO, The Boston Foundation
10 非營利部門的諮商
Consulting For The Non-Profit Sector
案例:布里姬斯班(Bridgespan)集團
Case: The Bridgespan Group

客座講者:喬治.朱,布里姬斯班(Bridgespan)集團
Guest: George Chu, The Bridgespan Group




作業
Assignments


The following case study topics and questions are presented for discussion in class, and should be prepared in advance.

Assignments Table 堂數
SES # 課程主題
TOPICS 個案討論
CASE STUDIES
1 導論
Introduction
案例:國際仁人家園
Case: Habitat for Humanity International

問題:
Questions:
1.國際仁人家園的客戶群是哪些人?
1. Who are Habitat's customers?
2.國際仁人家園和其他慈善組織有何不同?
2. What makes Habitat unusual among charitable organizations?
3.國際仁人家園應追求什麼成長發展方式呢?
3. What growth options should Habitat pursue?
4.依據國際仁人家園的任務使命與歷史沿革,史耐德(Snider)應該採取哪些特殊行動方案, 讓國際仁人家園成為更有效用的服務組織?他應該會面對哪些反對阻力?
4. In light of Habitat's mission and history, what specific actions should Snider take to make Habitat a more effective service organization? What resistance should he expect to face?
2 策略/成長
Strategy/Growth
案例:就業訓練組織 (STRIVE,註:支持和訓練產生具價值員工之組織,Support and Training Result in Valuable Employees)
Case: STRIVE
3 員工管理
Managing The Workforce
案例:薛普.奎瑞希合夥公司(A)
Case: Shepard Quraeshi Associates (A)
4 統御領導
Governance
案例:全國有色人種促進會
Case: The NAACP

問題:
Questions:
1.你如何評定董事會的管理技巧?
1. How would you assess the Board's management skills?
2.這個危機源自於統御領導的失敗嗎?
2. Did this crisis stem from a governance failure?
3.針對NAACP(全國有色人種促進會)個案,你會採取什麼樣的變革呢?
3. What changes would you have made at the NAACP?
5 評估
Evaluation
案例:哈林兒童特別區:運用方法和評估手段促進表現
Case: The Harlem Children's Zone: Driving Performance with Measurement and Evaluation

問題:
Questions:
1.在進行策略規劃之前,瑞德蘭 (Rheedlen)的主要成功因素為何?
1. What were the key success factors for Rheedlen before the strategic planning process?
2.對於HCZ (哈林兒童特別區)來說,需要哪些組織要 素才可以逐步擴大?
2. What are the organizational elements needed for HCZ to go to scale?
3.HCZ (哈林兒童特別區)的管理階層應該如何運用方法?針對運用閱 讀技巧作為該組織向上攀升的方法,你的評估為何?
3. How should the management of HCZ use measurement? What is your assessment of using reading skills as a Roll-up measure for the organization?
4.在案例的最後,坎納達(Canada)獲得接手特別區外學校的機會,他應該接受嗎?
4. Canada is presented an opportunity at the end of the case to take over a school outside the zone. Should he do it?
6 資金籌措與行銷
Funding, Marketing
案例:國際特赦組織
Case: Amnesty International

問題:
Questions:
1.AI(國際特赦組織)如何發展它的全球聲譽?
1. How did AI develop its worldwide reputation?
2.2001年時AI有什麼非常明顯的弱點?
2. What weaknesses were evident at AI in 2001?
3.評估AI於2001-2002年間所做的改革。
3. Evaluate the changes that have been made at AI in 2001-2002.
4.你會推薦哪一種品牌定位方式?為什麼?
4. Which of the brand positions would you recommend and why?
7 組織改變
Organizational Change
案例:聖荷西(San Jose)的羅馬天主主教教區
Case: The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Jose

問題:
Questions:
1. 哪些利益相關者是主教必須知道的,以及他們想改變的可能有多大?為何這些利益相關者會與教會相關,以及 他們又如何和教會改變的過程貫穿一致呢?
1. Who are the stakeholders the bishop must be aware of and how likely are they to want change? Why are these stakeholders involved with the church and how does that intersect with the objectives of the church's change process?
2. 本案暗指的資料分析、責任以及策略規劃之概念如何與聖荷西天主主 教教區之任務使命貫穿呢?
2. How do the concepts of data analysis, accountability, and strategic planning alluded to in the case intersect with the mission of the Catholic Diocese of San Jose?
3.此教會是一個非常扁平的組織。主教擁有哪些能力以及他如何使用這些力量還影響改革呢?
3. The church is an extremely flat organization. What are the powers that the bishop possesses and how has he used them to affect change?
4.在此案例的最後,主 教表示:「對我來說,這像是跳進一個深淵,沒有任何一個模範標竿讓我遵循。」他可能在此混沌中發現什麼?他應該注意關心嗎?
4. At the end of the case, the bishop states, "For me, this is like jumping off into the abyss. There is really no role model for me to follow." What might he find in this abyss? Should he be concerned?
5.更進一步來說,為了達成目標,主教應該做些什麼呢?
5. Moving forward, what should the bishop do to succeed?
8 大學
Universities
案例:三一學院 (A)
Case: Trinity College (A)
9 基金會
Foundations
案例:EMCF(艾德納.麥康諾、克拉克基金會):舊基金會採用新方法
Case: EMCF (Edna McConnell Clark Foundation): A New Approach at an Old Foundation

問題:
Questions:
1.舊有改善之贊助模式與新模式,即建立機構實地環境,之優缺點為何?
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the old Systems Reform funding model and the new, Institutional Field Building, approach?
2. 促進艾德納.麥康諾、克拉克(Edna McConnell Clark)基金會改革的內部和外部驅力為何?
2. What are the internal and external forces driving change at the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation?
3.評估貝林(Bailin)為達成改革EMCF的方法 過程。
3. Assess Bailin's process for achieving change at EMCF.
4.貝林(Bailin)應如何為建立機構實地環境模式,而從其他贊助者取得支持與投入 ?這樣的支持又有多重要呢?
4. How should Bailin go about building support and involvement from other grantmakers for Institutional Field Building? How critical is that support?
10 提供非營利部門諮商服務
Consulting For The Non-Profit Sector
案例:布里姬斯班(Bridgespan)集團
Case: The Bridgespan Group

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