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11.127

11.127 / 11.252 探究與教育的電腦建模(2003年春季)

11.127 / 11.252 Computer Modeling for Investigation and Education, Spring 2003

譯者:朱鳴

編輯:陳盈、馬景文

Photo of a game played in a classroom.
圖為在課堂玩遊戲。什麼是模擬?什麼是遊戲?遊戲如何有教育意義?11.127課程探討這些問題。(Eric Klopfer教授提供圖片。)

(編註:這課程包括很多電腦模擬遊戲/軟件,為方便識別,以〔〕標示。)


課程重點

這課程包括可觀的資源清單討論如何在課堂使用模擬、遊戲以及「寓教於樂」。詳見教學大綱

 

課程描述

在過去十年間模擬建模已成為電腦科技的主流特別是這能夠幫助人們瞭解複雜系統。例如〔模擬城市Simcity〕和〔文明Civilization等一系列廣泛流行的寓教於樂遊戲軟體,清楚向人們展示模擬遊戲已如何融入流行文化。與此同時,此類遊戲軟體已經運用到課堂教學;因此,研究人員想瞭解學生在此類環境中學會什麼和如何學習,也想瞭解這對設計軟體和課程有何影響。


雖然利用已建成的遊戲軟體,例如〔模擬城市Simcity〕,做實驗可能有用,但通過建立和操控開放結構的建模可以有更深刻的認識。如同孩子把玩事前搭好的玩具橋不可能學到很多東西,如他參與用積木搭橋,從中學到的東西會更豐富;自行設計和建立模型能夠得到更豐富的學習經驗。無論是經濟學到數學,物理學和生物學;要瞭解這些複雜系統,這樣的學習過程至關重要,。


這個以專題為基礎的課程,鼓勵來自各領域的學生瞭解如何在電腦環境中學習,如何開發和探究各自領域的系統和概念。課程第一部份探討課堂使用的遊戲和模擬的設計和應用,以及與這軟體相關的研究和開發問題;然後探討不同的建模和模擬軟體套裝,在既定情況下開發最合適的模擬標準,以及評估模型的實用程度及成功與否的辦法。最後研究人們如何從模擬中學習以及學會什麼(包括實地測試軟體),以及如何在教學環境中運用建模及模擬工具。我們對學生的電腦水平沒有要求。碩士課程學生需完成額外作業。

 

教學大綱,閱讀資料和作業

第一周:課程介紹及概況

1. 課程概況

    課程探討教育遊戲和模擬以及一些電腦建模平臺;著重於有關利用模擬和遊戲學習的設計和研究問題。整個課程會探討適用於多個範疇的建模、模擬和遊戲概念,同時探討不同領域的具體應用,例如氣象、生態學和交通管理。

2. (a) 遊戲的集思廣益及分類(PDF)

(b) 遊戲的最初定義(PDF)

3. 介紹參與式模擬:多福多壽(Live Long and ProsperStar Trek的問候語)

4. (a) 遊戲練習 鏈結SDSU EDTEC 670

(b) 答案 (PDF)

 

第二周:什麼是模擬?什麼是遊戲?

1. 活動:在棋盤中尋樂趣

    (a)什麼定義遊戲?模擬?建模?

    (b) 什麼使遊戲有教育意義?

2. KS. 介紹寓教於樂:〔文明Civilization〕》

3. 教育遊戲設計的議題

   (a) 對象是誰?

   (b) 他們想玩什麼遊戲?

   (c)什麼讓他們覺得好玩?

4. 閱讀材料

   Schelling微觀動機與宏觀行為》Micromotives and Macrobehaviors.

   Rieber.〈認真思考:以融合微觀世界、模擬和遊戲為基礎設計互動的學習環境〉"Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games."

   Squire.〈重新架構電腦及視頻遊戲的文化空間〉"Reframing the Cultural Space of Computer and Video Games."

 

第三周:開發教育性模擬和遊戲

1. Kurt Squire:利用〔文化Civilizations〕學習(220日)

Powerpoint簡報

2. 閱讀材料

  〔模擬城市SimCity 2000〕:權力、政治和規劃

    競爭空間的藝術(英PDF

    Holland, SquireJenkins.〈設計得來的理論〉"Theory by Design." (PDF)

    建國:Sid Meier的〔文明Civilization〕模擬遊戲的生物文化帝國主義Becoming-state: The bio-cultural imperialism of Sid Meier's Civilization(英原文

3. 作業

論文:為遊戲設計課程大綱(PDF)

 

第四周:課堂中寓教於樂

1.〔模擬城市SimCity〕:做一天市長

2. 〔模擬城市SimCity〕在課堂應用的鏈結

     城市規劃Urban Planning

     近乎真實世界Almost the Real World

     遊戲設計者對腳手架的認識What do Game Designers Know about Scaffolding

    〔模擬城市SimCity〕的使用和顛覆性Uses and Subversions of SimCity

    〔模擬城市3000〕教學指導SimCity 3000 Teaching Guide

3. 你從這些環境中學會什麼?

4. 課程大綱如何決定學習體驗?

5. 閱讀材料

  《基於數碼遊戲的學習》Digital Game Based Learning

              第四章:〈以學習者為本的培訓和教育的新希望〉New Hope for Learner-Centered Training and Education

              第六章:〈為何和如何運用?〉Why and How it Works

 

第五周:設計和開發教學遊戲

1. 活動:設計棋盤遊戲

(a)設計教育遊戲涉及什麼問題?

(b)如何解決這些問題?

2. 遊戲設計的當前問題

    遊戲設計和使用的性別問題

    整合創新,打進學校

    知識轉移

3. 教學遊戲:在課堂利用現有工具 (KS34)

    案例學習:〔環境偵探Environmental Detectives〕和〔Supercharged

4. 閱讀材料

    棋盤遊戲設計導論(鏈結SDSU EDTEC 670

    進一步反思芭比娃娃和〔真人快打Mortal Kombat〕遊戲Further Reflections on Barbie to Mortal Kombat

    Cuban〈超賣與低使用率:課室的電腦〉Oversold and Underused - Computers in the Classroom.

5. 作業

教育棋盤遊戲的文檔和陳述(PDF)

 

第六周:玩遊戲和參與式模擬

1. 玩遊戲

2. 棋盤遊戲陳述

3. 參與式模擬:從內部瞭解系統

     (a)大魚小魚

     (b)對比個人數碼助理(PDA)平臺和穿戴式電腦

     (c)PDA參與模擬

4. 閱讀材料

Colella〈參與式模擬〉"Participatory Simulations."

 

第七周:探討模擬

1. Riverdeep探討線上模擬

2. 探討科學 ExploreScience(編註:鏈結失效)

3. 教育組件系統 Educational Object Economy(編註:鏈結失效)

4. 教育改革的建模和模擬工具MASTER Tools @ Shodor

5. Howard Hughes 醫學中心生物模擬HHMI Biological Simulations

6. 華爾街日報股票市場遊戲Stock Market Game

7. 什麼是模擬?

8. 模擬環境概況

    (a) 以代理人模式為基礎(StarLogo, AgentSheets, Stagecastvs. 聚集為基礎(Stella, Vensim, ModelBuilder

    (b) 編程 vs. 方程式 vs. 視覺

    (c) 一般目的vs. 特殊領域

9. MapleExcel的簡單模型

10. 閱讀材料

  〈模擬軟體的分類〉A Taxonomy of Simulation Software

  〈模擬的誘惑〉The Seductions of Sim

  〈鋼琴,不是身歷聲〉Pianos not Stereos

11. 作業

    (a) 為學術模擬設計評估標準Designing Evaluation Criteria for Academic Simulations (PDF)

    (b) 這網站有量規的資訊

 

8周:模擬設計建模的探險

1. 構建的探險:利用StarLogo探討複雜的動態系統

    其後四星期致力於應用StarLogo(或其他工具)開發模擬

    導論:分散系統以及代理與環境相互作用

    關於Starlogo

    關於《建模的探險》Information about Adventures in Modeling

2. 27盲鼠〉:探討分散系統

3. 參與性模擬(如果天氣允許)〔環境偵探Environmental Detectives

4. 閱讀材料

    Klopfer, SquireJenkins〈環境偵探-PDA作為模擬世界的視窗〉"Environmental Detectives - PDAs as a Window into a Virtual World."

    FeurzeigRoberts的分散建模和分散思維

  《建模的探險》Adventures in Modeling導讀章節

5. 作業

    發表第一套模型

    在麻省理工教育系網站Design Discussion Area發表挑戰(鏈結失效)

 

9周:模擬設計:建模的探險

 1. 建模的探險

環境回饋和定義代理人特徵

2. 參與性模擬:〔病毒遊戲The Virus Game

3. 評估模型

好模型和壞模型:什麼定義好模型

意念模型:模型要有多少細節/現實程度?

4. 閱讀材料

《建模的探險》Adventures in Modeling

在構建模型中的嘗試

《成長中的人造社會》Growing Artificial Societies

(學生選擇讀物:模型系統)

5. 作業

〈模型方案白皮書〉White Paper on Model Proposal (PDF)

在麻省理工教育系網站Design Discussion Area發表挑戰(鏈結失效)

 

10周:模擬設計:建模的探險

 

1. 建模的探險

各個代理人之間互相作用

2. 〔模擬創造生物Terrarium!

3. 閱讀材料

  《建模的探險》Adventures in Modeling

    RieberMatzko〈認真設計嚴肅遊戲〉"Serious Design for Serious Play."

4. 作業

    模型概述和需探討方面Model Sketch and Areas for Exploration (PDF)

    在麻省理工教育系網站Design Discussion Area發表挑戰(鏈結失效)

    模型陳述

 

11周:模擬設計:建模的探險

 1. 開始最終模型

2. 指導性設計介紹

3. 閱讀材料

  〈指導性設計方法論及技術〉Instructional Design Methodologies and Techniques

  〈從實踐中學習理論:以學習者為本的設計〉Learning Theory in Practice - Learner Centered Design

  〈研究學習者運用媒體的評估方法和程序〉Evaluation Methods and Procedures for studying learner's use of media

4. 作業

    最終模型和模型分析(堂上陳述)(PDF)

 

第十二周:教育研究:人們如何從模擬中學習?

 1. John Newman《教育研究導論》Introduction to Educational Research.

2. 教育研究設計

3. 閱讀

    Gall等人《教育研究:導論》Educational Research - An Introduction.

 

13周:探討模擬技術的其他平臺

1. 〔配送啤酒遊戲The Beer Game〕(說明

2. 麻省理工學院線上啤酒遊戲

3. STELLA啤酒遊戲:PDFSTELLA(原文沒有鏈結)

4. 動態系統〔VenSim, Stella ModelIt

5. 基於代理人的建模:〔AgentSheetsSwarm

6. 閱讀材料

  〈科學和數學教育的建模和模擬〉Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education

7. 作業

    比較學習科技的異同

 

14周:期末專題陳述

 1. 作業

      期末專案:設計和操作一項試驗,是關於人們如何從你設計的模擬遊戲中學習(PDF)

 

(中譯網頁完)

 


Photo of a game being played in a classroom. What is a Simulation? What is a Game? What makes a Game educational? These are some of the questions explored in 11.127. (Image by Prof. Eric Klopfer.)

Highlights of this Course

This class contains an incredible list of resources discussing the use of simulations, games and 'edutainment' in the classroom. Start with the syllabus.

Course Description

During the past ten years, simulation modeling, especially as it helps people to understand complex systems, has become a mainstream use of computational technology. The widespread popularity of "edutainment" software like SimCity and Civilization gives a clear indication of the extent to which simulation games have permeated popular culture. As these and other games have found places in the classroom, researchers have tried to ascertain what and how students learn from these environments, and what implications this has for software and curriculum design.

While it can be useful to experiment with pre-built models like SimCity, a deeper understanding can come through building and manipulating models whose underlying structure is accessible. Just as a young child learns more by building a bridge out of blocks instead of merely playing with a pre-fabricated bridge, designing and creating your own models provide richer learning experiences than simply playing with pre-built models. This learning process is critically important in domains that require an understanding of complex systems, from economics and mathematics to physics and biology.

In this project-based course, students from all disciplines are encouraged to understand how we learn from computer environments, develop and investigate systems and ideas from their fields of study, and delve into the process of building and testing models and simulations. In the first part of the course we will explore the design and use of games and simulations in the classroom, and the research and development issues associated with this software. We will then explore various modeling and simulation software packages, criteria for developing the most appropriate simulation for a given situation, and methods for evaluating the success and utility of models. We will also study what and how people learn from simulations (including field testing of software), and how modeling and simulation tools can be implemented in educational settings. All levels of computer experience welcome. Graduate students are expected to complete additional assignments.

Syllabus

Week 1 – Introduction and Overview of Course
  • Overview
    • The course will explore educational games and simulations and several computer modeling platforms. We will focus on design and research issues pertinent to learning through simulations and games. Throughout the course we will explore concepts in modeling, simulation, and gaming common to many domains, and investigate specific applications from a variety of fields ranging from weather to ecology to traffic management.

  • Game Brainstorming and Categorization (PDF)
    • Initial Game Definition (PDF)

  • Participatory Simulations Introduction - Live Long and Prosper

  • Game Exercise (Link to SDSU EDTEC 670)
    • Responses (PDF)
Week 2 – What is a Simulation? What is a Game?
Week 3 – Exploring "Educational" Simulation and Games
Week 4 – Edutainment in the Classroom
Week 5 – Designing and Developing Games to Teach
  • Activity - Designing a Board Game
    • What are the issues in designing an educational game?
    • How do we solve these issues?

  • Current Issues in Game Design
    • Gender issues in game deisgn and use
    • Integrating innovations into schools
    • Transferring knowledge

  • Games to Teach - Harnessing Current Tools for the Classroom (3/4 KS)
    • Case Study - Environmental Detectives and Supercharged

  • Readings
  • Assignment
    • Documentation and Presentation of an Educational Board Game (PDF)
Week 6 – Game Play and Participatory Simulations

 

Week 7 – Exploring Simulations
Week 8 – Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling
  • Adventures in Modeling - Exploring Complex Dynamic Systems w/ StarLogo.
  • 27 Blind Mice – Exploring Decentralized Systems

  • Participatory Simulation (Weather Permitting)- Environmental Detectives

  • Readings
    • Klopfer, Squire and Jenkins. "Environmental Detectives - PDAs as a Window into a Virtual World."
    • Decentralized Modeling and Decentralized Thinking in Feurzeig and Roberts
    • Adventures in Modeling - Introductory Chapters

  • Assignment
Week 9 – Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling
  • Adventures in Modeling
    • Environmental Feedback and Defining Agent Characteristics

  • Participatory Simulation- The Virus Game

  • Evaluating Models
    • Good Models and Bad Models – What defines a “good model?”
    • Idea Models – How much detail/reality need to go into a model?

  • Readings
    • Adventures in Modeling
    • Growing Artificial Societies
    • (Student Selected Readings on Models of Systems)

  • Assignment
Week 10 – Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling
  • Adventures in Modeling
    • Agents Interacting with Each Other

  • Check out Terrarium!

  • Readings
    • Adventures in Modeling
    • Rieber and Matzko. "Serious Design for Serious Play."

  • Assignment
Week 11- Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling
Week 12 – Educational Research - How do people learn from simulations?
  • John Newman. Introduction to Educational Research.

  • Educational Research Design

  • Readings
    • Gall et. al. Educational Research - An Introduction.
Week 13 – Exploring Alternative Simulation Platforms
  • The Beer Game Charts (Pictures) (Graphs)

  • Beer Game Online (Also at MIT - Requires Java 1.4)

  • Beer Game in Stella - PDF and Stella

  • System Dynamics - VenSim, Stella and ModelIt

  • Agent Based Modeling - AgentSheets and Swarm

  • Readings
    • Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education

  • Assignment
    • Comparison and Contrast of Technologies for Learning
Week 14 – Final Project Presentations
  • Assignment
    • Final Project - Design and conduct an experiment on how people learn from one of the simulations that you have created. (PDF)
 

Calendar

             
  LEC #       TOPICS       READINGS     ASSIGNMENTS
             
             
  1       Introduction and Overview of Course              
             
             
  2       What is a Simulation? What is a Game?       Schelling. Micromotives and Macrobehaviors.

Rieber. "Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games."

Squire. "Reframing the Cultural Space of Computer and Video Games."
     
             
             
  3       Exploring "Educational" Simulation and Games       SimCity 2000 – Power, Politics and Planning.

The Art of Contested Spaces.

Holland, Squire and Jenkins. "Theory by Design."

Becoming-state: The bio-cultural imperialism of Sid Meier's Civilization
    Paper - Designing Curricula for Games
             
             
  4       Edutainment in the Classroom       Digital Game Based Learning
  • Chapter 4: New Hope for Learner-Centered Training and Education
  • Chapter 6: Why and How it Works?
     
             
             
  5       Designing and Developing Games to Teach       Introduction to Board Game Design  (Link to SDSU EDTEC 670)

Further Reflections on Barbie to Mortal Kombat

Cuban. Oversold and Underused - Computers in the Classroom.
    Documentation and Presentation of an Educational Board Game.
             
             
  6       Game Play and Participatory Simulations       Colella. "Participatory Simulations."

Learning Through Participatory Simulations.
     
             
             
  7       Exploring Simulations       A Taxonomy of Simulation Software

The Seductions of Sim

Pianos not Stereos
    Designing Evaluation Criteria for Academic Simulations

See these Sites for Rubric Info: Site 2
             
             
  8       Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling       Klopfer, Squire and Jenkins. "Environmental Detectives - PDAs as a Window into a Virtual World."

Decentralized Modeling and Decentralized Thinking in Feurzeig and Roberts.

Adventures in Modeling - Introductory Chapters.
    Presentations on First Sets of Models

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area
             
             
  9       Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling       Adventures in Modeling.

Growing Artificial Societies.

(Student Selected Readings on Models of Systems)
    White Paper on Model Proposal

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area
             
             
  10       Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling       Adventures in Modeling.

Rieber and Matzko. "Serious Design for Serious Play."
    Model Sketch and Areas for Exploration

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area

Presentations on Models
             
             
  11       Simulation Design - Adventures in Modeling       Instructional Design Methodologies and Techniques.

Learning Theory in Practice - Learner Centered Design

Evaluation Methods and Procedures for studying learner's use of media
    Final Model and Analysis of Model (In Class Presentations)
             
             
  12       Educational Research - How do people learn from simulations?       Gall et. al. Educational Research - An Introduction.      
             
             
  13       Exploring Alternative Simulation Platforms       Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education.     Comparison and Contrast of Technologies for Learning
             
             
  14       Final Project Presentations             Final Project - Design and conduct an experiment on how people learn from one of the simulations that you have created.
             
 

Readings

Adventures in Modeling

The Art of Contested Spaces (PDF)

Becoming-state: The bio-cultural imperialism of Sid Meier's Civilization

  • Chapter 4: New Hope for Learner-Centered Training and Education
  • Chapter 6: Why and How it Works

Colella. "Participatory Simulations."

Cuban. Oversold and Underused - Computers in the Classroom.

Decentralized Modeling and Decentralized Thinking in Feurzeig and Roberts

Digital Game Based Learning

Evaluation Methods and Procedures for studying learner's use of me

Further Reflections on Barbie to Mortal Kombat

Gall et. al. Educational Research - An Introduction.

Growing Artificial Societies

Holland, Squire and Jenkins. "Theory by Design." (PDF)

Instructional Design Methodologies and Techniques

Introduction to Board Game Design (Link to SDSU EDTEC 670)

Klopfer, Squire and Jenkins. "Environmental Detectives - PDAs as a Window into a Virtual World."

Learning Theory in Practice - Learner Centered Design

Modeling and Simulation in Science and Mathematics Education

Pianos not Stereos

Rieber and Matzko. "Serious Design for Serious Play."

Rieber. "Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games."

Schelling. Micromotives and Macrobehaviors.

The Seductions of Sim

SimCity 2000 – Power, Politics and Planning

Squire. "Reframing the Cultural Space of Computer and Video Games."

A Taxonomy of Simulation Software

Assignments

Listed below are all of the assignments due for this class. Some assignments ask students to collaborate on a discussion web site.

     
  WEEK #       ASSIGNMENTS
     
     
  3       Paper - Designing Curricula for Games (PDF)
     
     
  5       Documentation and Presentation of an Educational Board Game (PDF)
     
     
  7       Designing Evaluation Criteria for Academic Simulations (PDF)

See this Site for Rubric Info: Site
     
     
  8       Presentations on First Sets of Models

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area
     
     
  9       White Paper on Model Proposal (PDF)

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area
     
     
  10       Model Sketch and Areas for Exploration (PDF)

Post Challenges to Design Discussion Area

Presentations on Models
     
     
  11       Final Model and Analysis of Model (PDF)
     
     
  13       Comparison and Contrast of Technologies for Learning
     
     
  14       Final Project - Design and conduct an experiment on how people learn from one of the simulations that you have created (PDF)
 
 

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