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15.311  組織發展(2003秋季)

15.311  Organizational Processes, Fall 2003

 

譯者:李晨晨

編輯:劉慕華,馬景文

 

Organizational chart.

某公司組織結構圖表的一部分,顯示不同職員和部門。(圖片由美國能源部、美國商務部和美國人口局Matthew Palmer提供。)

 

課程重點

〈組織發展〉以及相關課程15.328和15.280是〈工商管理碩士〉第一年課程的主要部分。這個體驗課程要用到很多不同的學習工具,從課堂活動到案例分析和相關閱讀資料。請參見整個課程每一個環節的日程表。

 

課程描述  

組織發展課程通過提供在未來的組織分析、管理和領導需要使用的分析工具,提高學生在複雜的組織環境採取有效行動的能力。本課程的重點:影響個人作風和技能效率的組織背景的重要作用。這個主題集中在三個關於組織的補充視角,或者說是“鏡頭”,即組織的政治、文化和策略設計。註冊本課程的學生同時亦註冊課程15.328〈小組專題〉目的是完成組織變革創新的實地研究。組織發展也和課程15.280〈管理人傳訊〉聯合進行。這兩門課程會有一些共同作業和聯合授課。

 

 

教學大綱

 

課程描述

曾幾何時,人們認為學者清楚知道關於如何設計和運作最佳組織的所有知識。官僚機構是最佳組織。似乎只剩下一些瑣事需要思考:工資和獎金的最佳組合;每位管理人員需要多少下屬;工作場所燈光的強度應是多強,等等。

 

這種自鳴得意被三十年前的一系列研究徹底打碎。那些研究表明,事實上不存在一個最佳的組織方法。不同的環境對組織有不同要求。例如,在設計在穩定,易於理解的環境中發展良好的組織,在不確定和快速變化的環境中就無法表現得好。因此需要組織行為的相對論,權變理論隨即出現。學者開始研究環境的因素,這些因素決定哪種組織合適在特定環境下生存發展。

 

隨後二十年,他們發現不是只有兩或三個權變因素,而是有兩三千個。人們越來越清楚意識到,在每特定環境最好的組織模式受很多因素影響:策略,產業,市場,歷史,文化,人,科技等,而不存在組織行為的宏大統一理論。現在我們清楚知道建設和維持優秀的組織通常都需要分析技能,判斷力,直覺,尤其是人事領導者和管理者的創新。

 

本課程是為了培養你這些技能,建立你對組織如何運轉和變革的理解,增強你在組織的行為能力。史隆導讀已經介紹一些與此課程緊密相關的材料(雖然簡短),特別強調人際關係和小組發展。傳訊課程(15.2580)很多材料在這門課程的學習也很有用。但是本課程是強調較宏觀的分析:組織結構和設計,權力和政治,文化和變革。

課程摘要

想在組織中表現出技能和創造性,首先要培養對組織的多重視角。毫無疑問,你很清楚人類慣常有一些思維定勢,對世界有固有的思維模型,不經意的過濾我們注意的,我們忽略的。這些習慣節省我們很多精力,如果沒有這些習慣,諸如從人群裡找出一張熟悉的臉,一邊聽收音機一邊開車這樣簡單的任務都是不可能的。但是,這些習慣也讓我們付出代價。我們把自己局限在單一的有缺陷世界觀,這個世界觀必然是不完善,如果不改變的話一定會落伍。創造包括把簡約的思想轉換成創新的思想。這就需要有系統從多角度解讀在組織內聽到和看到的事情。

 

作為開始,課程從三個不同視角來分析組織:策略設計,政治和文化,各自從不同角度來分析組織概念,也提供不同的應用工具。

 

相應的,我們也探究一些社會和心理學過程,這些過程使經理人員落入思維和行為的定勢。然後,我們更深入分析組織的策略設計,政治和文化視角。領導和管理他人意味要面對挑戰,本課程的目的就是用這三個視角來構建對這些挑戰比較完整的認識。從而使組織的成員能夠最好應對這些挑戰。為了使材料更直觀,我們要求學生走出去,將一個實際的組織當作活生生的案例來學習。因此,課程要求小組專題研究一個試圖進行變革創新的組織(以下有詳細介紹)。

 

正如教學大綱所示,課程將概念和實踐聯繫起來,包括練習,案例分析,講座,視頻教學和小組工作。

課程作業和評分

 

準備

對你的要求相當簡單:準時到課,課前準備,積極參與。課程教材從以下幾方面對你有幫助: 

簡短介紹:每節課都提供一些背景資料。你應當首先閱讀這些材料。 

研習問題:幫助你關注案例材料的重要問題。 

閱讀資料:大多數課都有閱讀資料,希望你能夠完成。15.311課程的所有課堂作業和閱讀資料包可以在學校的複印中心找到。

 

課堂參與(30%)

課程的特點是要求課程參與者積極交流。我們鼓勵,並組織多種方式的交流。你的出勤情況也會影響本門課程的成績。如果你不得不請假,請先告知導師。為了嘉獎那些提出對我們大家都有益處的言論和問題的學生,課堂貢獻也是評分的依據。評分過程中,發言的質量和數量我們都看重。雖然我們希望可以在課堂討論中大家有持續的貢獻,但幾個有創意的觀點也很不錯。強調參與的目的,在於和別人分享理解和觀點對學習很重要,對理解在組織中你又可能遇到的不同觀點的闡述和辯論也很重要。你會發現自己闡述和試驗只是雛形的觀點,也幫助他人形成他們的想法。你要做好冒險的準備,也要做好幫助他人的準備。

 

小組專題(50%)

小組一起完成課程15.311的一些作業和練習。最重要的一項作業就是在這學期要求每小組完成一項小組專題。這個專題要求學員走進現實的組織環境,研究一個組織變革創新。

 

要更多瞭解小組專題,請參見〈專題〉。

 

個人案例寫作(20%)

學生要寫一份三到五頁的簡短案例分析。這是個人作業,要求從策略設計、政治和文化角度對組織變革的力量進行分析,同時對走錯路的努力提出簡要的整合行動計劃。這案例將在第十節課(10/30)佈置,請在第十二節課(11/06)交上來。

 

評分

活動

比率

重要日期

參與

30%

 

小組報告

50%

12/09 在課程15.280的第12課交

案例寫作

20%

第10課10/30佈置,第12課12/06交

 

特別課程

我們特別設計這課程和15.280傳訊課程聯合授課(參照課程安排)。因此,這兩門課有一些共同的作業。我們還有一些課是和職業發展處合辦(1第十一和十五節課)。此外,Roberto Fernandez教授和職業發展處在09/12還有一節〈雇用〉的選修課。

師資

課程是由組織研究小組的教員教授。課堂教師有:Paul Carlile教授(E組),Roberto Fernandez教授(A, C, F,組)Van Maanen教授(B, D組)。此外,John Carroll教授將參與指導小組專題(每小組的指導教員名單將在9/26公佈)

 

教學時程,相關閱讀資料,作業

以下表格列出15.311課程所有講座,解釋包含的主題和案例。同時也列出了一門〈工商管理碩士〉的第一年課程〈15.280經理人員傳訊〉,因為這兩門課程有一些共同課程。組織發展也和職業發展處有一些共同講座。

請查看課程表中關於這些講座的日程安排。

 

課,日期

課程單元

15.280 第1課

9月2日

Dashman案例:傳訊策略和結構

15.311 第1-2課

9月4、5號

組織發展概論(雙課時,3小時課程)
A,B,E組在8:30-11:40上課(第一節課:8:30-10:00;第二節課:10:10-11:40)
C,D組在1:00-4:00上課(第一節課:1:00-2:30,第二節課:2:30-4:00)
F組在1:00-4:00上課(第一節課:1:00-2:30,第二節課:2:30-4:00)

案例:Cole-livemore 有限公司,歐洲工商管理學院
閱讀:Carroll, John.《組織分析導論:三個視鏡》Introduction to Organizational Analysis: The Three Lenses. MIT Sloan School of Management, August 2001.

研習問題:
1.貝克在案例結尾的時候面臨著什麼樣的問題?
2.這些問題是如何演化發展到這個地步的?
3.如果是你,在案例結尾的時候會採取什麼行動?為什麼?
第一節課結束時要求你運用閱讀材料和堂上提到的三重視角來分析 Cole-Livemore案例。有額外資訊來幫助你。每個小組都要注意某一視角的重要變量,同時注意影響組織運作的管理工具。

15.280 第2課

9月9日

口頭陳述:結構,發表

15.311 第3課

9月11日

小組專題簡報開始
這堂課主要目的之一是培養學生觀察,診斷和領導組織變革的技能。培養這些技能的有效方法就是讓學生走出課堂,在真實的組織環境中研究變革的動力。這節課介紹本課的主要構成部分,〈組織發展〉的小組專題。

組織採用不同方法是為了實現他們的策略或戰術商務目標。你的任務就是分析最近一次方案,或是正在進行的方案。每小組要找出一個方案,然後多視角分析,並將其與組織正在進行別的事情聯繫起來。任務的目的是要提高你診斷和修正組織方案的能力。

注意:小組專題的書面報告在9月9日提交(15.280第12課)

閱讀:〈實施小組專題〉Conducting Team Projects於Ancona, Deborah,等人《未來管理:組織行為和發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes第二版,1999

15.311職業發展處(選修)

9月12日

選修課:聘用:理論和實踐
Roberto Fernandez教授的特別課程,與職業發展處合辦

15.280 第3課

9月16日

口頭陳述:視覺教具;問與答

15.311 第4課

9月18日

決策和找到感覺

這節課討論人類在決策時的複雜心理現象,評論與決策和認知心理學方面決策偏見大量與管理有關的材料。 

決策練習的反饋。

閱讀:Hammond, Keeney和Raiffa. The Hidden Traps in Decisionmaking〈決策的隱形陷阱〉,《哈佛商業評論》Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct 1998.

15.311 第5課

9月23日

理解道德衝突,或是為何聰明人做蠢事?

近來的商業雜誌充斥著不道德和違法交易。這堂課試圖深入瞭解為什麼看起來聰明的人會有這麼明顯的失誤?

案例:Vandivier〈為何良心讓我不安?〉"Why Should My Conscience Bother Me?"

案例:Vandivier, Kermit.〈為何良心讓我不安?〉Why Should My Conscience Bother Me? 於R. Heibroner編輯《以利潤之名》In the Name of Profit. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1972, pp. 3-31.

閱讀
Cialdini, Robert B〈忠誠和一致:思想裡的怪物〉Commitment and Consistency: Hobgoblins of Minds《影響力:科學和實踐》Influence: Science and Practice. Chapter 3. Allyn & Bacon, Inc., 2000, pp. 52-97
Wartzman, Rick〈與已知動力學原則相悖的具體情況〉Details of Suit Against General Dynamics Given《華爾街日報》The Wall Street Journal,1991年3月18日,A4版

廣播新聞報道:Horsley, Scott, Bob Edward,〈素描:會計醜聞出現,投資者質疑公司利潤〉Profile: Investors Question Corporate Earnings Amid Several Accounting Scandals,美國國家公共電臺, 2002年7月16日《早間版》

15.311 第6課

9月25日

策略設計視角一:組織結構和發展
組織的正式結構在描述組織內部工作有重要作用。有一些通則從演變中產生,管理者在設計組織時有所遵從。儘管不存在放之四海皆可的最佳組織方法,但視乎情況總有較好或較差的方法把組織單元連結和調整。Appex案例是很好的情境,可以觀察在設計正式組織結構時的取捨。


案例:Nohria, Nitin及Julie Gladstone《Appex 公司》Appex Corp. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1992. Case No. 9-491-082.

 

閱讀:〈作為策略設計的組織〉The Organization As Strategic Design於Ancona, Deborah等,《未來管理:組織行為和發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 12-26 in Module 2. 

研習問題:
1.Ghosh 在加入Appex時遇到哪些挑戰?
2.考慮他實施的結構變革,每一新結構是針對什麼問題?而又帶來什麼問題?
3.如果你是Ghosh,你會怎麼做?你將如何解決Appex在案例結尾時面對的問題?

15.311和15.280

9月26日

小組活動日
(注意:時間和地點稍後公告。)

這節特別課用一天時間研究小組在組織的角色。目標是回顧關於組織中小組表現優劣的現有知識,同時檢查學員小組專題的進度。

閱讀:〈小組手冊〉Team Handbook於Ancona, Deborah等《未來管理:組織行為和發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999.

15.280 第4課

9月30日

寫作:說服和文件設計

15.311 第7課

10月2日

策略設計視角二:激勵和調整
這可能是管理學文獻最著名(或聲名狼藉)的激勵結構案例。案例提出一些激進的方法來設計薪津制度和激勵員工。這些方法的確存在爭議,但我們不應看輕這些方法。我們會看到Lincoln和其他一些公司長期使用這些薪津制度,而且取得很有趣的效果。準備好在薪津制度發表你的立場。

案例:Bjokman,I. 〈Lincoln電氣在中國〉Lincoln Electric in China歐洲工商管理學院,1999年。案例號碼:499-021-1

閱讀:
Pfeffer, Jeffrey《關於工資的六個危險謎思》Six Dangerous Myths About Pay Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, May 1998
Kohn, Alfie. 〈為什麼激勵計劃沒有效果〉Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work. 哈佛商業評論Harvard Business Review, September 1993.

研習問題
1. 你如何理解Lincoln電氣的成功?尤其他們的運作環境,策略和工作性質方面。分析薪津結構如何補充上述各方面。

2. Lincoln模式應否用於中國?為什麼應該?為什麼不應該?

15.280 第5課

10月3日

15.280/職業發展處 自薦信/簡歷(必修)

15.280 第6課

10月7日

15.280/職業發展處聯合課程(必修)

15.311 第8課

10月9日

政治視角一:理解權力和權威
組織的政治視角,中心主題是理解權力的性質,怎樣得到和使用權力對高效管理者至關重要。為了激發我們關於權力和權威的討論,先看短片,這是關於遵從權威的一系列經典實驗。

案例:Milgram的〈遵從權威〉Obedience to Authority University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1969.(視頻)

閱讀:〈政治視鏡〉The Political Lens於Ancona, Deborah等《管理未來:組織行為和發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 40-49 in Module 2.

15.280 第7課

10月14日

多文化溝通

15.311 第9課

10月16日

政治視角二: 網絡和權力
在組織中,權力對於完成任務至關重要。這節課關注組織行動者在組織他人完成任務的過程中,網絡扮演的角色。

案例:〈管理施樂的跨國發展中心〉Managing Xerox’s Multinational Development Center哈佛商學院1993. Case No. 9-490-029.


閱讀:
Cross, Rob, Nitin Nohria and Andrew Parker. 〈關於非正式網絡的六個謎思〉Six Myths About Informal Networks. 《麻省理工學院史隆管理評論》MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2002, pp. 67-75.
Pfeffer, J. 〈決策和執行〉Decisions and Implementation. Chapter 1 in 《使用權力管理:組織中的政治和影響》Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations. Harvard Business School Press, 1992, pp. 3-32.

Burt, Ronald S. 〈掌握管理:漏洞如何可以支撐結構〉Mastering Management: How Holes Help Support Structure. 《金融時報》Financial Times, May 10, 1996.

研習問題

請在閱讀案例的同時考慮以下問題:
1.Clendenin如何克服他人反對MDC計劃?
2.注意Clendenin在施樂和他的主管、下屬和平級之間的關係。Clendenin如何構建和管理和這三個群體的關係?他管理這些關係的方法,哪些是你喜歡?哪些是你不喜歡?

3. 你認為施樂的正式結構是促進還是妨礙Clendenin建立 MDC?

15.280 第8課

10月28日

寫作:寫作過程和編輯;數據陳述;互動陳述

15.311 第10課

10月30日

文化視角一:以文化來控制

個人案例分析作業, 11月6日上交。

今天討論文化,考慮組織的強或弱文化有什麼意義,引入一個有用的組織文化模型來幫助更好理解迪士尼組織,還討論強文化的對於雇員和股東的優劣,如同本節課播放的視頻內容。

案例:Van Maanen, J.〈微笑工廠:在迪士尼工作〉The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland.《再造組織文化》Reframing Organizational Culture Chapter 4 by Frost, et al. 2nd ed. 1997.

閱讀:〈文化視鏡〉The Cultural Lens於Ancona, Deborah等《管理未來:組織行為和發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 64-75 in Module 2.

Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. 〈宗教式文化〉 Cult-like Cultures. Chapter 6 in Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies《基業常青:有遠見的公司的良好習慣》. HarperBusiness, 1998, pp. 115-139.

研習問題
1.迪士尼的文化是什麼?

2. 這文化在迪士尼的成功(和失敗)有什麼作用?
3. 反思你身處上一個組織的文化,是否像Collins和Porras描述的「宗教式文化」?這屬性是好還是壞?並請回想,身處在這樣的文化,對你的行為有什麼影響?

15.311 第11課

10月31日

職業選擇
B,C和E組在8:30-10:00上課

A,D和F組在10:20-11:50上課

這節和職業發展處共同授課的特別課把注意力移向職業的研究。組織變革很頻繁,職業的性質和對職業的期待也是如此。我們討論在本門課程研究的公司其結構變動各方面的影響,同時考慮在現代組織中職業規劃的多種策略。

案例:Loveman, G. 〈兼職合夥人的案例〉The Case of the Part Time Partner. 《哈佛商業評論》Harvard Business Review, 1990. 

閱讀
Hochschild, Arlie Russell. 〈當工作場所變成家和當家成為工作場〉When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. 《加州管理評論》 California Management Review, Summer 1997, pp. 79-97.
Nocera, J. 〈遠離抱怨,回來工作〉Oh, Quit Whining and Get Back to Work! 《財富》Fortune, 1997.
Jordan, M. and K. Sullivan. 〈沒有父親的日子:日本版〉Life Without Father -- Japanese Version. 《國際先驅論壇報》 International Herald Tribune, 1999.

研習問題
閱讀這案例時,請在課前分析〈兼職夥伴〉中夥伴決策的爭論,並準備在堂上為你的觀點辯論。
1.你會否投票贊成Julie成為合夥人?為什麼?

 2.你會否投票贊成Tim成為合夥人?為什麼?

15.280 第9課

11月4日

積極的和思索的傾聽;小組陳述

15.311 第12課

11月6日

文化視角二:文化和變革
個人作業上交日(10月30日佈置)
分發談判作業的指導(僅限個人閱讀)(上交時間:11月13日)


人們有近乎相同的共識,就是管理變革是最困難也是最重要的管理任務。文化問題經常被看作變革力量的阻力。這節課探究為什麼理解組織文化是變革引領者一項重要的技能。案例及相關閱讀材料強調在引領組織變革時的權衡和折中。

Case: Hamermesh, Richard G., and Nasswan Dossabhoy. 〈柯利夫蘭市螺旋鑽公司A〉 Cleveland Twist Drill (A). Boston, MA: 哈佛商學院Harvard Business School Publishing, 1988. Case No. 9-384-083.

閱讀:Beer, Michael, Russell A. Eisenstat和Bert A. Spector〈為什麼變革項目無法產生變革〉Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change. Boston, MA: 《哈佛商業評論》Harvard Business Review, 1990.

Tushman, Michael L., William H. Newman和Elaine Romanelli.〈集中和劇變:管理組織進化不穩定的節奏〉Convergence and Upheaval: Managing the Unsteady Pace of Organizational Evolution.《加州管理評論》California Management Review, Fall 1986, pp. 29-44

 

研習問題:

1. 公司面臨哪些問題?
2.公司的歷史、文化和結構如何?

3.你對Bartlett處理現狀的方法如何看待?

4.對他的做法,組織裡其他成員的反應如何?

15.311 第13課

11月13日

整合視角一: 組織變革
上交談判作業
繼續關注管理組織變革,探究在複雜的變革過程中整合這三種視角的力量。

案例:Ancona, Deborah, et al. 〈無法走遠的策略〉The Strategy that Wouldn't Travel於Ancona, Deborah等《管理未來:組織行為與發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 23-27 of Module 1.

閱讀:Ancona, Deborah等《管理未來:組織行為與發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. Pp. 11-30 of Module 8, pp. 23-27 of Module 1


研習問題:課前準備以下問題
1.Karen和她的小組作了什麼使得變革在Whichita工廠發生?
2.工廠和其環境的驅動因素是什麼?

3.在Lubbock工廠為什麼變革這麼困難?

4.要想取得好的變革效果,請問Karen要採取什麼樣的措施?

5.Karen 可以採取什麼措施以提高整個變革的效果?

15.280 第10課

11月18日

傳訊:選擇媒體

15.311 第14課

11月20日

整合視角二:領導變革
領導能力通常是以組織高層的角度來觀察。這節課研習對這三種視角的洞悉如何幫助組織中任何階層引領變革。

案例:〈Dynacorp〉Ancona, Deborah等《管理未來:組織行為與發展》Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 97-102 in Module 2.

閱讀:溫習策略設計,政治和文化視角的材料

15.311 第15課

11月21日

談判和議價簡介
Jared Curhan教授的特別課,與職業發展處合作。

談判理論的特別課程,涉及談判薪津的具體應用

15.280第11課

12月2日

15.280簡報

15.311 第16課

12月4日

課程綜述:管理作為專業

案例:〈為何良心使我不安?〉Why Should My Conscience Bother Me.


閱讀:Etzioni Amitai. 〈商業領導者的教育〉The Education of Business Leaders.《反應社區》The Responsive Community, Fall 2002.

15.280 第12課

12月9日

15.280 課程綜述

 

作業

 

個人案例寫作(詳情見上)

小組專題

在迎新周時,每位學員分配到一小組。小組目標是幫助每個人比各自獨立學習更有效。每小組要共同完成15.311課程一些作業和練習。最重要的是每小組要在本學期內完成一項小組專題。為了便於管理,學員將同時修讀15.311〈組織發展〉和15.328〈小組專題〉課程,兩門課程的成績是相同(也就是說,學生的15.311成績和15.328成績是一樣)。

 

小組專題的主要要求如下:

小組專題報告的寫作(交給口頭陳述教員)

在15.280傳訊課程簡報小組專題

 

專題包括學員實地研究組織變革方案。9月11日第3節課開始小組專題時將介紹更多細節。

小組專題佔15.311成績50%。

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

15.311 Organizational Processes

Fall 2003

Organizational chart.

A portion of a company's organizational chart, showing different people and departments. (Images courtesy of Matthew Palmer, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Commerce, and U.S. Census Bureau.)

Course Highlights

Organizational Processes, together with related classes 15.328 and 15.280, forms a major part of the first-year MBA experience. This experiential class employs a wide variety of learning tools, from in-class activities to discussion of written cases and readings. Read a description of each session in the thorough calendar.

Course Description

Organizational Processes enhances students' ability to take effective action in complex organizational settings by providing the analytic tools needed to analyze, manage, and lead the organizations of the future. Emphasis is placed on the importance of the organizational context in influencing which individual styles and skills are effective. The subject centers on three complementary perspectives, or "lenses", on an organization: political, cultural, and strategic design. Students enrolled in this class are also jointly enrolled in 15.328, Team Project, in order to complete a field study of an organizational change initiative. Organizational Processes also operates in conjunction with 15.280, Communication for Managers, by sharing certain assignments and holding some joint classes.


*Some translations represent previous versions of courses.





Syllabus

Course Description

There was a time when it was thought that scholars were close to knowing everything we needed to know about how to design and run the optimal organization. Bureaucracy was best. It seemed that only the details remained to be worked out: what was the ideal mix of salary and commission; how many employees should there be for each manager; how bright should the lights be in the workplace, and so on.

This smug complacency was shattered thirty years ago by a series of studies showing that there is, in fact, no one best way to organize. Different environments place differing requirements on organizations. An organization designed to thrive in a stable, well-understood environment, for example, cannot be expected to do as well in conditions of uncertainty and rapid change. A theory of relativity for organizational behavior was needed, and contingency theory was born. Scholars began to search for the two or three key elements of the environment that determined which type of organization was most appropriate in a given setting.

In the next two decades, they found not two or three but two or three thousand such contingencies. It has become increasingly clear that the best way to organize in a particular situation depends on so many factors – elements of strategy, industry, market, history, culture, people, technology – that we will never find a recipe for the ideal organization and there will never be a grand unified theory of organizational behavior. It is now clear that building and sustaining quality organizations will always require the analytical skills, judgment, intuition, and especially the creativity of human leaders and managers.

This course is designed to help you develop these skills, build your understanding of how organizations behave and change, and enhance your capacity to act in organizations. Some materials closely linked to this course have been introduced (albeit swiftly) in the Sloan Orientation and have emphasized interpersonal relations and team processes. Much of the material in Communications class (15.280) will also be quite relevant to what we study in this course. This class, however, will focus on larger scale levels of analysis: organizational structure and design, power and politics, culture and change.


Course Summary

The ability to act with skill and creativity in organizations begins with the development of multiple perspectives on organizations. As you are no doubt aware, humans habitually settle into fixed perspectives, unchallenged mental models of how the world works, unconscious filters of what we pay attention to and what we ignore. These habits offer powerful economies of thought: without them, the simplest task of picking a face out in a crowd or listening to the radio while driving would be impossible. But they impose costs as well. They lock us into a single view of the world that may not be best, that is surely incomplete, that will become outdated, and that is resistant to change. Creativity involves trading off economy of thought for innovation of thought. It requires the discipline of interpreting what we see and hear in organizations from multiple standpoints.

As a starting point, this course is organized around three different perspectives on organizations: the strategic design perspective, the political perspective, and the cultural perspective. Each of them offers a different angle on what an organization is, and each offers different tools for action.

Accordingly, we will probe some of the social and psychological processes that make it likely that managers will fall into unchallenged patterns of action and thought. We will then turn to a more in-depth treatment of the strategic design, and political and cultural perspectives on organization. While leading and managing others always presents challenges, our goal in this course is to use the three perspectives to develop a more complete understanding of these challenges, so as to enable organizational participants to best address these challenges. In order to make the material tangible, we require that students go out into the world and study a real organization as a "live" case study. Thus, a major requirement for this course is a team project study of an organization that is attempting a change initiative (more on this later).

As this syllabus displays, the course combines conceptual and experiential approaches. It involves exercises, case studies, lectures, videos, and group work.


Coursework and Grading

Preparation

The expectations of you are relatively simple: arrive punctually to class, be well prepared, and participate actively. There are several ways in which the materials in this course help you to do this:

Short Introductions: These have been provided for each session in the course outline to give you some background on the materials to be covered. You should read these first.
Study Questions: These are there to guide you through the case material, helping you to focus on what's important.
Readings: Most sessions have accompanying readings, which you are expected to complete. All class assignments and readings are in the 15.311 course packet available at the campus copy center.

Participation (30%)

The character of the course naturally lends itself to active exchange among participants. Participation is encouraged and recognized in several ways. Your grade for participation in the course will be affected by absences. If you must miss a class, please let your instructor know beforehand. To recognize those whose comments and questions benefit us all, a part of the participation grade is based on contributions made in class. Both quantity and quality are relevant and although consistent contribution is ideal, a few points of genuine insight may go a long way. The point of participation is that sharing perceptions and ideas with others is crucial for learning and for understanding how the diverse opinions that you are likely to encounter in an organization are articulated and debated. You will find yourself presenting and testing new ideas that are not wholly formulated and assisting others to shape their ideas as well. You should be prepared to take some risks and be supportive of the efforts of others.

Team Project (50%)

Your team will work together on several assignments and exercises in 15.311. The most significant of these is that each team is required to produce a team project for the semester. This project will involve students going into the field and studying an organizational change initiative.

For details about the team project, see the projects page.

Individual Case Write-Up (20%)

Students will be required to write a 3-5 page analysis of a short case study. This will be an individual task and will require the strategic design, political and cultural analysis of an organizational change effort as well as a brief integrative action plan to remedy efforts that may have gone astray. The case will be distributed in Session 10 (October 30), and is due in Session 12 (November 6).

Grading Summary

ACTIVITY PERCENT KEY DATES
Participation 30%  
Team Paper 50% Due in 15.280 Session 12 (December 9)
Case Write-Up 20% Given out Session 10 (October 30), Due Session 12 (December 6)


Special Sessions

We have designed this course to work in conjunction with 15.280 Communications (see the schedule). Thus, the classes will share certain assignments. Some of our required sessions will be offered jointly with the Career Development Office (in particular, Sessions 11 and 15 on Oct. 31 and Nov. 21). In addition, Prof. Roberto Fernandez and the Career Development Office will be offering an optional session on Hiring on Sept. 12.


Faculty

This class is being taught jointly by four faculty from the Organizational Studies Group. Classroom teachers will be Prof. Paul Carlile (Cohort E), Prof. Roberto Fernandez (Cohorts A, C and F), and Prof. John Van Maanen (Cohorts B and D). In addition, Prof. John Carroll will help guide many of the team projects. (Precise assignments of teams to faculty members will be announced on Team Day, Sept. 26).





Calendar

The table below describes each of the 15.311 lectures, explaining the topics and cases covered. Topics for classes in another first-year MBA course, 15.280 Communication for Managers, are also listed because the two classes work in conjunction with one another. Organizational Processes also offers several sessions jointly with the Career Development Office.

For a summary view of this lecture schedule, see the calendar overview.


SES # DATES TOPICS
 15.280 class 1 Sept. 2 Dashman Case; Communication Strategy and Structure
15.311 classes 1-2 Sept. 4 & 5 Introduction to Organizational Processes
(Double session, 3 hour class)

September 4:
Cohorts A, B, and E meet 8:30-11:40
(Session 1: 8:30-10:00; Session 2: 10:10-11:40)

Cohorts C and D meet 1:00-4:00
(Session 1: 1:00-2:30; Session 2: 2:30-4:00)

September 5:
Cohort F meets 1:00-4:00
(Session 1: 1:00-2:30; Session 2: 2:30-4:00)

Case: Cole-Livermore Ltd. INSEAD.
15.280 class 2  Sept. 9 Oral Presentations: Structure, Delivery
15.311 class 3  Sept. 11 Kickoff of OP Team Project

One of the main goals of this class is to give students the skills to observe, diagnose, and guide organizational change. One of the most valuable ways of achieving this end is by having student teams go out and study change initiatives in real organizational settings. In this session, we will introduce a major component of the class, the Organizational Processes Team Project.

Organizations undertake initiatives in order to further their strategic or tactical business goals. Your task is to analyze an initiative that was recently adopted, or is in the process of being adopted in an organization. Each team will identify an initiative, conduct a multi-perspective analysis, and relate it to what else is happening in the organization. The purpose of the assignment is to improve your ability to diagnose and tailor initiatives in ways that work.

NOTE: Written Report of Team Project Due December 9 (15.280 class 12)
15.311/Career Development Office (optional) Sept. 12 Optional Session: Hiring: Theory and Practice

Special Session by Prof. Roberto Fernandez, in cooperation with the Career Development Office. 
15.280 class 3 Sept. 16 Oral Presentations: Visual Aids; Q&A
15.311 class 4 Sept. 18 Decision-making and Sense-making

In this class, we will discuss the complex psychological issues that arise when humans make decisions. We will review the large body of managerially-relevant material on decision-making and decision biases from cognitive psychology.

Feedback on decision making exercise.
15.311 class 5 Sept. 23 Understanding Ethical Violations, OR, Why Do Smart People Do Dumb Things?

Of late, the business press has been replete with stories of unethical and illegal business dealings. In this session, we seek to gain insight into how it is that seemingly smart people can display such glaring lapses.

Case: Vandivier. "Why Should My Conscience Bother Me?"
15.311 class 6 Sept. 25 Strategic Design Perspective I: Organizational Structure and Processes

The formal structure of the organization plays a critical role in shaping the work that gets done in organizations. There have evolved some general principles that managers tend to follow when designing organizations. While there is no universal "best way" to organize, depending on the purpose, there are better and worse ways to group, link and align organizational units. This Appex case provides an excellent setting in which to examine the tradeoffs one makes when designing formal organizational structures.

Case: Appex Corporation. Harvard Business School, 1992.
15.311 & 15.280 Sept. 26 Team Day

(NOTE: Special times and locations will be announced for this session.)

In this special session, we will spend a day working on the role of teams in organizations. The goals are to review the state of knowledge on the performance advantages and disadvantages of teams, and to check-in on the progress of student teams' projects.
15.280 class 4 Sept. 30 Writing: Persuasion and Document Design
15.311 class 7 Oct. 2 Strategic Design Perspective II: Incentives and Alignment

This is perhaps the most famous (or infamous) case of incentive structures in the management literature. It makes a sharp argument in favor of some controversial ways of designing compensations systems and motivating employees. The fact that these methods are controversial, however, should not make us dismissive. As we shall see, Lincoln and others have long used such reward systems with some interesting results. Be prepared to take a position on the reward system.

Case: Bjorkman, I. Lincoln Electric in China. INSEAD, 1999.
15.280 class 5 Oct. 3 15.280/Career Development Office Cover Letter/Resume (Required)
15.280 class 6 Oct. 7 15.280/Career Development Office Joint Class (Required)
15.311 class 8 Oct. 9 Political Perspective I: Understanding Power and Authority

A central theme in the political perspective on organizations is that understanding the nature of power, how to get it and how to use it, are essential for any manager to be effective. In order to motivate our discussion of power and authority, we will watch a short film reporting a series of classic experiments on obedience to authority.

Case: Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments.
15.280 class 7 Oct. 14 Intercultural Communication
15.311 class 9 Oct. 16 Political Perspective II:  Networks and Power

Power is critical to getting things done in organizations. In this session, we will focus on the role that networks play for organizational actors in "getting things done."

Case: Managing Xerox’s Multinational Development Center. HBS, 1993.
15.280 class 8 Oct. 28 Writing: Writing Process and Editing; Presenting Data; Interactive Presentation
 15.311 class 10 Oct. 30 Cultural Perspective I: Culture as Control

Individual Case Analysis Assignment Handed Out -- DUE November 6

Today we will begin our discussion of culture and consider what it means for an organizational culture to be strong or weak. We will consider one useful model of organizational culture and see how it helps us better understand the Disney organization. And we will talk about the advantages and disadvantages of strong cultures -- such as the one shown on the video for the session -- for employees, shareholders and customers.

Case: Van Maanen, J. "The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland."
15.311 class 11 Oct. 31 Career Choices

Cohorts B, C and E meet 8:30-10:00
Cohorts A, D, and F meet 10:20-11:50

In this special session, run jointly with the Career Development Office, we will turn our attention to the examination of careers. As organizations are changing rapidly, so too are the nature of and expectations for our careers. We will discuss the individual impacts of the structural shifts in the kinds of firms we have been studying during the course of the term and consider various strategies for managing your career in today's organizations.

Case: Loveman, G. The Case of the Part Time Partner. Harvard Business Review, 1990.
15.280 class 9 Nov. 4 Active and Reflective Listening; Group Presentations
15.311 class 12 Nov. 6 Cultural Perspective II:  Culture and Change

Individual Assignment Due (Assigned on October 30)

Hand out Confidential Instructions for Negotiation Assignment (DUE: Nov. 13)

There is near universal agreement that managing change is one of the most difficult, but profoundly important, of management tasks. Cultural issues are often cited as a hindrance to change efforts. In this session, we will explore how understanding organizational culture is a crucial skill for changemakers. The case and the associated readings for this session highlight the tradeoffs that need to be considered when guiding organizational transformations.

Case: Cleveland Twist Drill (A). HBS, 1988.
15.311 class 13 Nov. 13 Integrating the Perspectives I: Organizational Change

Hand In Negotiation Assignment

We continue with our focus on managing organizational change. In this class, we will explore the power of bringing the three perspectives to bear in a case involving complex change processes.

Case: Ancona, Deborah, et al. "The Strategy that Wouldn’t Travel."
15.280 class 10 Nov. 18 Communication: Media Choice
15.311 class 14 Nov. 20 Integrating the Perspectives II: Leading Change

Leadership is often viewed from the perspective of those at the top of the organization. In this class, we will consider ways in which insights from the three perspectives can help people at any level of the organization produce change.

Case: Ancona, Deborah, et al. "Dynacorp."
15.311 class 15 Nov. 21 Introduction to Negotiation and Bargaining

Special Session by Prof. Jared Curhan, in cooperation with the Career Development Office

Special session on negotiation theory, with special application to negotiating compensation packages
15.280 class 11 Dec. 2 15.280 Presentations
15.311 class 16 Dec. 4 Wrap Up: Management as a Profession
15.280 class 12 Dec. 9 15.280 Course Wrap-Up




Readings

Organizational Processes shares some readings with 15.280, Communication for Managers. A full list of readings from that class is available on the 15.280 readings page.


SES # DATES TOPICS READINGS
15.280 class 1 Sept. 2 Dashman Case; Communication Strategy and Structure  
15.311 classes 1-2 Sept. 4 & 5 Introduction to Organizational Processes
(Double session, 3 hour class)
Case: Cole-Livermore Ltd. INSEAD.

Readings: Carroll, John. Introduction to Organizational Analysis: The Three Lenses. MIT Sloan School of Management, August 2001.

Study Questions:
1. What are the problems facing Baker at the end of the case?

2. How did they evolve?

3. What actions would you take at the end of the case? Why?

You will be asked at the end of Session 1 to utilize one of the three perspectives presented in the readings (and in class) to analyze the Cole-Livermore Case. To this end, you will be given additional information about the organization. Each team will be asked to note the important variables for a given perspective and note the managerial levers available to influence the functioning of the organization.
15.280 class 2 Sept. 9 Oral Presentations: Structure, Delivery  
15.311 class 3 Sept. 11 Kickoff of OP Team Project Readings: Conducting Team Projects. Module 2a from Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed., 1999.
15.311/Career Development Office (optional) Sept. 12 Optional Session: Hiring: Theory and Practice  
15.280 class 3 Sept. 16 Oral Presentations: Visual Aids; Q&A  
15.311 class 4 Sept. 18 Decision-making and Sense-making Readings: Hammond, Keeney, and Raiffa. The Hidden Traps in Decisionmaking. Harvard Business Review, Sept-Oct 1998.
15.311 class 5 Sept. 23 Understanding Ethical Violations, OR, Why Do Smart People Do Dumb Things? Case: Vandivier, Kermit. Why Should My Conscience Bother Me? In In the Name of Profit. Edited by R. Heilbroner. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1972, pp. 3-31.

Readings:
Cialdini, Robert B. Commitment and Consistency: Hobgoblins of Minds. Chapter 3 in Influence: Science and Practice. Allyn & Bacon, Inc., 2000, pp. 52-97.

Wartzman, Rick. Details of Suit Against General Dynamics Given. The Wall Street Journal, March 18, 1991, pp. A4.

Radio news report: Horsley, Scott, and Bob Edwards. Profile: Investors Question Corporate Earnings Amid Several Accounting Scandals. From Morning Edition, National Public Radio, July 16, 2002.
15.311 class 6 Sept. 25 Strategic Design Perspective I: Organizational Structure and Processes Case: Nohria, Nitin, and Julie Gladstone. Appex Corp. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1992. Case No. 9-491-082.

Readings: The Organization As Strategic Design. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 12-26 in Module 2.

Study Questions:
1. What were the challenges that Ghosh faced when he joined Appex?

2. Evaluate the structural changes he implemented. What problems did each new structure address? What problems, in turn, did it create?

3. What would you have done in Ghosh's place? How would you address the challenges that Appex is facing at the end of the case?
15.311 & 15.280 Sept. 26 Team Day Readings: Team Handbook. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999.
15.280 class 4 Sept. 30 Writing: Persuasion and Document Design  
15.311 class 7 Oct. 2 Strategic Design Perspective II: Incentives and Alignment Case: Björkman I., and C. Galunic. Lincoln Electric in China. INSEAD, 1999. European Case Clearing House Case No. 499-021-1.

Readings:
Pfeffer, Jeffrey. Six Dangerous Myths About Pay. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, May 1998.

Kohn, Alfie. Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, September 1993.

Study Questions:
1. How do you explain Lincoln Electric's success? In particular, think about their operating environment, their strategy, and the nature of their work. Consider how the reward structure complements each of these.

2. Should the "Lincoln Way" be implemented in China? Why or why not?
15.280 class 5 Oct. 3 15.280/Career Development Office Joint Class: Cover Letter/Resume (Required)  
15.280 class 6 Oct. 7 15.280/Career Development Office Joint Class: Marketing Yourself Effectively (Required)  
15.311 class 8 Oct. 9 Political Perspective I: Understanding Power and Authority Case: Milgram's obedience to authority experiments. Milgram, Stanley. Obedience to Authority. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1969. (video)

Readings: The Political Lens. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 40-49 in Module 2.
15.280 class 7 Oct. 14 Intercultural Communication  
15.311 class 9 Oct. 16 Political Perspective II  Case: Eisenstat, Russell A. Managing Xerox’s Multinational Development Center. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1993. Case No. 9-490-029.

Readings:
Cross, Rob, Nitin Nohria and Andrew Parker. Six Myths About Informal Networks. MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2002, pp. 67-75.

Pfeffer, J. Decisions and Implementation. Chapter 1 in Managing with Power: Politics and Influence in Organizations. Harvard Business School Press, 1992, pp. 3-32.

Burt, Ronald S. Mastering Management: How Holes Help Support Structure. Financial Times, May 10, 1996.

Study Questions:
Consider the following questions when reading the case:

1. How does Clendenin overcome opposition to his plans for the MDC?

2. Note Clendenin's relations with his superiors, subordinates, and peers at Xerox. How does Clendenin build and manage his relations with each of these groups? What do you like and what do you not like about the way Clendenin manages his relations with these groups?

3. Do you think Xerox's formal structure helped or hindered Clendenin's ability to build up the MDC?
15.280 class 8 Oct. 28 Writing: Writing Process and Editing; Presenting Data; Interactive Presentation  
15.311 class 10 Oct. 30 Cultural Perspective I: Culture as Control Case: Van Maanen, J. The Smile Factory: Work at Disneyland. Chapter 4 in Reframing Organizational Culture, by Frost, et al. 2nd ed. 1997.

Readings:
The Cultural Lens. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 64-75 in Module 2.

Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. Cult-like Cultures. Chapter 6 in Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies. HarperBusiness, 1998, pp. 115-139.

Study Questions:
1. What is Disney's culture?

2. What role does this culture play in Disney's success (and in their failures)?

3. Reflect on the culture of your last organization. Was it "cult-like" in the way described by Collins and Porras? Is this a good or bad attribute? Looking back, what was the impact on your behavior of being a part of that culture?
15.311 class 11 Oct. 31 Career Choices Case:  Loveman, G. The Case of the Part Time Partner. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, 1990.

Readings:

Hochschild, Arlie Russell. When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. California Management Review, Summer 1997, pp. 79-97.

Nocera, J. Oh, Quit Whining and Get Back to Work! Fortune, 1997.

Jordan, M. and K. Sullivan. Life Without Father -- Japanese Version. International Herald Tribune, 1999.

Study Questions:
As you read the case…

Analyze the arguments about the partnership decisions to be made in the case of the Part Time Partner and come to class prepared to defend your votes.

1. Would you vote to make Julie partner? Why or why not?

2. Would you vote to make Tim partner? Why or why not?
15.280 class 9 Nov. 4 Active and Reflective Listening; Group Presentations  
15.311 class 12 Nov. 6 Cultural Perspective II: Culture and Change Case: Hamermesh, Richard G., and Nasswan Dossabhoy. Cleveland Twist Drill (A). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing, 1988. Case No. 9-384-083.

Readings:

Beer, Michael, Russell A. Eisenstat, and Bert A. Spector. Why Change Programs Don't Produce Change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review, 1990.

Tushman, Michael L., William H. Newman, and Elaine Romanelli. Convergence and Upheaval: Managing the Unsteady Pace of Organizational Evolution. California Management Review, Fall 1986, pp. 29-44.

Study Questions:
1. What were the problems facing the company?

2. What was its history, culture, and structure?

3. What do you like and not like about Bartlett's approach to the situation?

4. What was the reaction of others in the organization to his actions?
15.311 class 13 Nov. 13 Integrating the Perspectives I: Organizational Change Case: The Strategy that Wouldn't Travel. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999,  pp. 23-27 of Module 1.

Readings: Pp. 11-30 of  Module 8 from Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 23-27 of Module 1.

Study Questions:
Come to class prepared to discuss the following questions:

1. What did Karen and her team do that made the changes at the Wichita plant happen?

2. What were the enabling factors in the plant and its context?

3. Why was change so difficult at the Lubbock plant?

4. What action steps could Karen take in Lubbock now that would improve the prospects for change?

5. What action steps could Karen take to improve her overall change initiative in the company?
15.280 class 10 Nov. 18 Communication: Media Choice  
15.311 class 14 Nov. 20 Integrating the Perspectives II: Leading Change Case: Dynacorp. From Ancona, Deborah, et al. Managing for the Future: Organizational Behavior and Processes. 2nd ed. South-Western College Pub, 1999, pp. 97-102 in Module 2.

Readings:
Review Material on the Strategic Design, Political, and Cultural Lenses.
15.311 class 15 Nov. 21 Introduction to Negotiation and Bargaining  
15.280 class 11 Dec. 2 15.280 Presentations of Team Project  
15.311 class 16 Dec. 4 Wrap Up: Management As a Profession Case: Why Should My Conscience Bother Me. Redux.

Readings: Etzioni, Amitai. The Education of Business Leaders. The Responsive Community, Fall 2002.
15.280 class 12 Dec. 9 15.280 Course Wrap-Up  




Assignments

Individual Case Write-Up

Students will be required to write a 3-5 page analysis of a short case study. This will be an individual task and will require the strategic design, political and cultural analysis of an organizational change effort as well as a brief integrative action plan to remedy efforts that may have gone astray. The case will be distributed on October 30 (15.311 class 10), and is due on November 6 (15.311 class 12).

The case write-up is worth 20% of your grade for 15.311.


Team Project

Due dates for team project presentations and written reports are shown in the table below. For more information about this task, see the projects page.


SES # DATES TOPICS ASSIGNMENTS
15.280 class 1 Sept. 2 Dashman Case; Communication Strategy and Structure  
15.311 classes 1-2 Sept. 4 & 5 Introduction to Organizational Processes
(Double session, 3 hour class)
 
15.280 class 2 Sept. 9 Oral Presentations: Structure, Delivery  
15.311 class 3 Sept. 11 Kickoff of OP Team Project  
15.311/Career Development Office (optional) Sept. 12 Optional Session: Hiring: Theory and Practice  
15.280 class 3 Sept. 16 Oral Presentations: Visual Aids; Q&A  
15.311 class 4 Sept. 18 Decision-making and Sense-making  
15.311 class 5 Sept. 23 Understanding Ethical Violations, OR, Why Do Smart People Do Dumb Things?  
15.311 class 6 Sept. 25 Strategic Design Perspective I: Organizational Structure and Processes  
15.311 & 15.280 Sept. 26 Team Day  
15.280 class 4 Sept. 30 Writing: Persuasion and Document Design  
15.311 class 7 Oct. 2 Strategic Design Perspective II: Incentives and Alignment  
15.280 class 5 Oct. 3 15.280/Career Development Office Joint Class: Cover Letter/Resume (Required)  
15.280 class 6 Oct. 7 15.280/Career Development Office Joint Class: Marketing Yourself Effectively (Required)  
15.311 class 8 Oct. 9 Political Perspective I: Understanding Power and Authority  
15.280 class 7 Oct. 14 Intercultural Communication  
15.311 class 9 Oct. 16 Political Perspective II  
15.280 class 8 Oct. 28 Writing: Writing Process and Editing; Presenting Data; Interactive Presentation  
15.311 class 10 Oct. 30 Cultural Perspective I: Culture as Control Individual Case Analysis Assignment Handed Out - Due November 6 (15.311 class 12)
15.311 class 11 Oct. 31 Career Choices  
15.280 class 9 Nov. 4 Active and Reflective Listening; Group Presentations  
15.311 class 12 Nov. 6 Cultural Perspective II: Culture and Change Individual Case Analysis Assignment Due

Hand out Confidential Instructions for Negotiation Assignment - Due November 13 (15.311 class 13)
15.311 class 13 Nov. 13 Integrating the Perspectives I: Organizational Change Hand In Negotiation Assignment
15.280 class 10 Nov. 18 Communication: Media Choice  
15.311 class 14 Nov. 20 Integrating the Perspectives II: Leading Change  
15.311 class 15 Nov. 21 Introduction to Negotiation and Bargaining  
15.280 class 11 Dec. 2 15.280 Presentations of Team Project 15.280 Presentations of Team Project
15.311 class 16 Dec. 4 Wrap Up: Management as a Profession  
15.280 class 12 Dec. 9 15.280 Course Wrap-Up Written Report of Team Project Due

 





Projects

Team Project

During Orientation, each student was assigned to a team. The goal of these teams is to help everyone learn more effectively than they could as independent individuals. Each team will work together on several assignments and exercises in 15.311. The most significant of these is that each team is required to produce a team project for the semester. For reasons of administrivia, students will be enrolled jointly in 15.311 (Organizational Processes) and the 15.328 (Team Project class), with the grades locked across the two classes (i.e., each student will receive the same grade in 15.311 as 15.328).

The major requirements of the team project are

the writing of a team project report (delivered to the OP faculty);

the presentation of the team project in the 15.280 Communications class.

This project will involve students going into the field and studying an organizational change initiative. More details on the team project will be covered when we kick off the team project in Session 3 on September 11.

The team project is worth 50% of your grade for 15.311.

For more information about the team project, see the projects page for 15.328, Team Project class.




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