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課程來源:MIT
     

3.53材料的電化處理(2001年春季)

3.53 Electrochemical Processing of Materials, Spring 2001

譯者:楊耀東

編輯:劉慕華、洪曉慧

The world's largest superconducting magnet.

μ介子g-2試驗中使用交變磁場梯度同步加速器(AGS)將常規μ介子束傳送到世界上最大的超導磁體:「μ介子儲存環」(上圖)(本圖片經美國能源部Brookhaven國家實驗室允許使用。)

 

課程重點

本課程有附解答的習題集和測驗樣版。

 

課程描述

本課程涵蓋有關超導磁體的眾多課題,包括水相和非溶水相液體中電解質的熱力學和傳輸特性,電極/電解質介面,以及電極過程動力學。還介紹與直流電技術(控制電位、控制電流)和交流電技術(伏安法和阻抗頻譜)相關的電化學特性。也會討論下列應用:電解冶金,電解精煉,電鍍,電合成以及電化學能源(電池和燃料電池)

教學大綱

授課:每週2節,每節1.5小時

學分:3-0-6, G(2)

必備先修課: 3.185(只適用於學士生)

評分

2次測驗(每次1.5小時)70%(每次35%

作業(30%

沒有期終考。

 

教材

Bard, A. J.L. R. Faulkner.《電化學方法》Electrochemical Methods. 2nd ed.New YorkWiley 2001年出版。ISBN: 0471043729.

 

353的課程目標

教授從電化學基礎引伸電化學處理的元素。

以相關的動力學和熱力學解釋當代工業實踐。

教學時程,作業

課程單元

重 要日 期  

第一單元:電化學平衡或溶液中的離子” Equilibrium Electrochemistry or "Ions in Solution"

 

1

電解質的熱力學過程和傳輸原理:水相和熔融態

Thermodynamic and transport properties of electrolytes -- aqueous and molten      

習題1指派

2

溶解模型:徳拜-休克爾模型(水相),Temkin模型(熔鹽)Solution models: Debye-Hückel (aqueous), Temkin (molten salts)         

 

 

3

電極電位(物理理論基礎,即是:電極的電子過剩或電子缺乏)      

Electrode potentials (the underlying physics, i.e., electron excess or electron deficiency on the electrode)       

習題1繳交

4

電動勢序(水相及熔鹽)     

Emf series (aqueous and molten salts)

習題2指派

5

參考電極(熱力學[建立電壓值],動力學 [其電流電位特性] 

Reference electrodes (thermodynamics [establishing the voltage value] and kinetics [their iE characteristic])

 

6

(續)(cont.)

習題2繳交

第二單元:電化學動力學或電化學過程的速率 Electrochemical Kinetics or Rate of Processs in Electrochemistry

7

電極和電解質介面, 雙電層的本質Electrode-electrolyte interface, nature of the double layer

習題3指派

8

電極過程動力學,介面過程和品質傳輸過程的競爭,比如電極/電解介面的電荷轉移。

Kinetics of electrode processes, competition between processes involving mass transport and interfacial processes such as charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface

 

9

(續) (cont.)

習題3繳交

10

測定速率和機制的實驗技術:控制電壓法,控制電流法,交流法,即伏安法和化學阻抗頻譜,包括電子工程基礎:構建等效電路      Laboratory techniques to determine rate and mechanism: controlled E, controlled i, a.c. methods, i.e., a.c. voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, including underlying electrical engineering -- construction of the equivalent circuit

習題4指派

11

(續)(cont.)

 

12

複雜平的相圖和阻抗頻譜:過程優化、線上控制的資料解析    

Phasors and impedance plots in the complex plane -- data interpretation for process optimization, on-line control

習題4繳交

13

靜態電極和旋轉電極     

Stationary and rotating electrodes Stationary and rotating electrodes

習題5指派

14

測驗1Test 1

 

第三單元:電化學加工Electrochemical Processing

15

提煉,精煉,電鍍,合成       

Winning, refining, plating, synthesis Winning, refining, plating, synthesis

習題5繳交

16

電流效率,電壓效率,功率, 能量平衡           

Current efficiency, voltage efficiency, power efficiency, energy balances

習題6指派

17

材料問題和環境問題   

Materials issues and environmental issues

 

18

個案研究:Hall電池電解法以製備鋁和採用DowI. G. Farben兩種過程電解製備鎂    Case studies on Hall cell electrolysis to produce aluminum and electrolytic production of magnesium by both the Dow process and the I.G. Farben process

習題6繳交

19

當前工業實踐,包括環境問題的考慮Contemporary industrial practice -- includes consideration of environmental issues

習題7指派

補充單元節Omissions

20

電池及燃料電池Batteries & fuel cells.

 

21

(續)(cont.)

習題7繳交

22

測驗2Test 2

 

作業

作業

解答

習題1(PDF)

解答(PDF)

習題2

標準答案(PDF)

習題3

標準答案(PDF)

習題4

標準答案(PDF)

習題5

標準答案(PDF)

習題6

標準答案(PDF)

習題7

標準答案(PDF)

測驗

測驗

解答

測驗1 (PDF)

測驗1解答(PDF)

 

測驗 2 (PDF)

 

(中譯網頁完)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

3.53 Electrochemical Processing of Materials

Spring 2001

The world's largest superconducting magnet.

The Muon g-2 Experiment uses the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) to deliver a custom muon beam into the world's largest superconducting magnet -- the "muon storage ring" -- pictured above. (Image courtesy of the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory.)

Course Highlights

This course features problem sets with solutions and sample exams.

» Watch a video introduction featuring the course instructor.
(RM - 56K) (RM - 80K) (RM - 220K)



Course Description

This course covers a variety of topics concerning superconducting magnets, including thermodynamic and transport properties of aqueous and nonaqueous electrolytes, the electrode/electrolyte interface, and the kinetics of electrode processes. It also covers electrochemical characterization with regards to d.c. techniques (controlled potential, controlled current) and a.c. techniques (voltametry and impedance spectroscopy). Applications of the following will also be discussed: electrowinning, electrorefining, electroplating, and electrosynthesis, as well as electrochemical power sources (batteries and fuel cells).

Special Features

Faculty introduction video

Technical Requirements

RealOne™ Player software is required to run the .rm files found on this course site.





Syllabus

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

Lectures

Two sessions / week
1.5 hours / session

Credits

3-0-6

G(2)

Prerequisites

3.185 (applies only to undergraduates)

Grading

ACTIVITIES PERCENTAGES
2 Quizzes (1.5 hours each) 70% (35% each)
Homework 30%

There is no final exam.

Text

Amazon logo Bard, A. J., and L. R. Faulkner. Electrochemical Methods. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 2000. ISBN: 9780471043720.

What is the purpose of 3.53?

To teach the elements of electrochemical processing as they derive from electrochemical fundamentals.

To interpret contemporary industrial practice in term of the relevant thermodynamics and kinetics.

Outline

Unit 1: Equilibrium Electrochemistry or "Ions in Solution"

Thermodynamic and transport properties of electrolytes -- aqueous and molten; solution models: Debye-Hückel (aqueous), Temkin (molten salts); electrode potentials (the underlying physics, i.e., electron excess or electron deficiency on the electrode); emf series (aqueous and molten salts); reference electrodes (thermodynamics [establishing the voltage value] and kinetics [their iE characteristic]). For this part of the course I draw on notes of my own that I have prepared from various sources.

Unit 2: Electrochemical Kinetics or Rate Processes in Electrochemistry

Electrode-electrolyte interface, nature of the double layer; kinetics of electrode processes, competition between processes involving mass transport and interfacial processes such as charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface; laboratory techniques to determine rate and mechanism: controlled E, controlled i, a.c. methods, i.e., a.c. voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, including the underlying electrical engineering -- namely construction of the equivalent circuit. We get into phasors and impedance plots in the complex plane, but in a manner that has some practical value -- data interpretation for process optimization, maybe even on-line control; stationary and rotating electrodes. This entire unit pretty much follows the text. We cover reasonably thoroughly almost everything in Chapters 3 through 9.

Unit 3: Electrochemical Processing

Winning, refining, plating, synthesis; current efficiency, voltage efficiency, power efficiency; energy balances; materials issues and environmental issues; case studies on Hall cell electrolysis to produce aluminum and electrolytic production of magnesium by both the Dow process and the I.G. Farben process. In studying aluminum and electrolytic magnesium technologies we try to rationalize contemporary industrial practice in the light of what we have learned earlier in the semester. Includes consideration of the environmental issues as, for example, in the case of the quest for the carbon-free anode for the Hall process.

Omissions

I do not have time to do everything. In the past, these topics were not covered directly, although much of what I teach supports the study of these as well: corrosion; solid electrolytes. This year, depending upon the particular interests of the students in the class, I'm hoping to say something about batteries and fuel cells.





Calendar

LEC # TOPICS KEY DATES
Unit 1: Equilibrium Electrochemistry or "Ions in Solution"
1 Thermodynamic and transport properties of electrolytes -- aqueous and molten Problem Set 1 out
2 Solution models: Debye-Hückel (aqueous), Temkin (molten salts)  
3 Electrode potentials (the underlying physics, i.e., electron excess or electron deficiency on the electrode) Problem Set 1 due
4 Emf series (aqueous and molten salts) Problem Set 2 out
5 Reference electrodes (thermodynamics [establishing the voltage value] and kinetics [their iE characteristic])  
6 (cont.) Problem Set 2 due
Unit 2: Electrochemical Kinetics or Rate of Processs in Electrochemistry
7 Electrode-electrolyte interface, nature of the double layer Problem Set 3 out
8 Kinetics of electrode processes, competition between processes involving mass transport and interfacial processes such as charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface  
9 (cont.) Problem Set 3 due
10 Laboratory techniques to determine rate and mechanism: controlled E, controlled i, a.c. methods, i.e., a.c. voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, including underlying electrical engineering -- construction of the equivalent circuit Problem Set 4 out
11 (cont.)  
12 Phasors and impedance plots in the complex plane -- data interpretation for process optimization, on-line control Problem Set 4 due
13 Stationary and rotating electrodes Problem Set 5 out
14 Test 1  
Unit 3: Electrochemical Processing
15 Winning, refining, plating, synthesis Problem Set 5 due
16 Current efficiency, voltage efficiency, power efficiency, energy balances
Problem Set 6 out
17 Materials issues and environmental issues  
18 Case studies on Hall cell electrolysis to produce aluminum and electrolytic production of magnesium by both the Dow process and the I.G. Farben process Problem Set 6 due
19 Contemporary industrial practice -- includes consideration of environmental issues Problem Set 7 out
Omissions
20 Batteries & fuel cells.  
21 (cont.) Problem Set 7 due
22 Test 2  




Assignments

Problem Set 1 (PDF)
Problem Set 1 Solution (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 2 (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 3 (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 4 (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 5 (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 6 (PDF)

Model Solutions for Problem Set 7 (PDF)




Exams

EXAMS SOLUTIONS
Test 1  (PDF) Test 1 Solution (PDF)
Test 2 (PDF)  

 

 

 




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