MyOOPS開放式課程
請加入會員以使用更多個人化功能
來自全球頂尖大學的開放式課程,現在由世界各國的數千名義工志工為您翻譯成中文。請免費享用!
課程來源:MIT
     

9.18 / 9.181J / 7.69J發育神經生物學(2005春季)

9.18 / 9.181J / 7.69J Developmental Neurobiology, Spring 2005

 

譯者:胡若谷

編輯:劉慕華、洪曉慧

 

顯示發育過程中皮層可塑性基因表現的大腦冠狀切片。(圖片由Corey C. Harwell提供。)

 

課程重點

本課程包括一份廣泛的閱讀清單和關於指定閱讀資料的學生報告範例。

.

課程描述

本課程考慮了在分子層級上的神經特化、神經連接的形成、神經系統的建成以及塑造大腦結構功能的經驗貢獻。主題包括:神經誘導和模式形成,細胞譜系和細胞命運決定,神經遷移,軸突誘導,突觸形成和穩定,活動依賴性發育和關鍵期,行為發展。

 

教學大綱

必備先修課程

9.01, 7.012 / 7.013 / 7.014

 

課程形式

50分鐘講座

10分鐘休息

20分鐘有關研究論文(主題1)的學生報告

10分鐘討論

20分鐘有關研究論文(主題2)的學生報告

10分鐘討論

 

整個學期中,要求每個學生做關於兩個主題的報告。第一節課之前,所有學生必須藉由電子郵件的形式將所選的四個主題按照喜好程度依序排好並告知教員。這是主題指派前的參考因素。

要求所有學生預先閱讀背景評論文章。要求至少在做報告的一周前與教員討論你的主題。

 

評分

大學部學生期末考包括除了附加閱讀清單之外的閱讀資料的內容。研究生期末考則包含所有閱讀內容。

整個學期中,要求每個學生做關於兩個主題的報告。

每個報告占總評成績的25%(兩個共50%)。要求研究生在報告討論中包含附加閱讀清單中的內容。

 

推薦教材

Cowan, W. Maxwell, Thomas M. Jessell和S. Lawrence Zipursky編輯《神經發育的分子和細胞機制研究》Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Neural Development,New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN: 0195111664.

Sanes, Dan H., Thomas A. Reh和William A. Harris編輯《神經系統發育》Development of the Nervous System.,,Burlington, MA::Academic Press, 2000. ISBN: 012300330X.

Susan K. McConnell, James L. Roberts, Nicholas C. Spitzer和Michael J. Zigmond.《基礎神經科學》Fundamental Neuroscience.,第二版2nd ed,由Larry S. Squire和Floyd E. Bloom編輯,Burlington, MA:,:Academic Press, 2002. ISBN: 0126603030.

 

教學時程,相關閱讀資料,作業

在上課前,要求所有學生事先閱讀背景評論文章。主題1和2的論文將指派給學生作為復習和報告的內容。

 

 

Readings

課程單元

閱讀資料、作業

1

緒論 Introduction

 

2

神經誘導

Neural Induction

評論

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A.和D. Melton.〈脊椎動物胚胎細胞會變成神經細胞除非有其他誘導因素〉"Vertebrate Embryonic Cells will Become Nerve Cells Unless Told Otherwise.《細胞》Cell 第88卷 (1997): 13-17頁。

Streit, A.和C. D. Stern.〈一隻鳥視野中的神經誘導〉Neural induction, a bird’s eye view.《遺傳學進展》Trends in Genetics第15卷 (1999): 20-24頁。

 

主題1

Wilson, P. A.和A. Hemmati-Brivanlou.〈Bmp-4介導的表皮誘導和神經細胞命運抑制〉Induction of epidermis and Inhibition of Neural Fate by Bmp- 4."《自然》Nature 第376卷 (1995): 331-333頁。

 

主題2

Zimmerman, L. B., J. M. De Jesus-Escobar和R. M. Harland. 〈Spemann組織者信號蛋白Noggin結合並抑制骨形態生成蛋白4〉The Spemann Organizer Signal Noggin Binds and Inactivates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4."《細胞》Cell第86卷 (1996): 599-606頁。

 

附加閱讀資料

Streit, A., A. J. Berliner, C. Papanayotou, A. Sirulnik和C. D. Stern.〈原腸胚形成前的神經誘導由FGF信號轉導啟動〉《自然》 第406卷 (2000): 74-78頁。

Wilson, S. I., A. Rydstrom, T. Trimborn, K. Willert, R. Nusse, T. M. Jessell和T. Edlund.〈雞胚種Wnt信號轉導的狀態調節神經和表皮命運〉《自然》 第411卷 (2001): 325-330頁。

3

中樞神經系統前後軸的建立

Establishing the CNS Anterior/Posterior Axis

評論

Meinhardt, H.〈作為自我組織過程的組織者的形成與軸的形成〉Organizer and Axes Formation as a Self - Organizing Process."《國際發育生物學期刊》Int J Dev Biol第45卷 (2001): 177-188頁。

 

主題1

Piccolo, S., E. Agius, L. Leyns, S. Bhattacharyya, H. Grunz, T. Bouwmeester和E. M. De Robertis.〈頭部誘導物Cerberus是一個Nodal, BMP和Wnt信號的多功能拮抗劑〉The Head Inducer Cerberus is a Multifunctional Antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals."《自然》Nature,第397卷 (1999): 707-710頁。

 

主題2

Agathon, A., C. Thisse和B. Thisse.〈斑馬魚尾部組織者的分子本質〉The Molecular Nature of the Zebrafish Tail Organizer."《自然》Nature第424卷 (2003): 448-452頁。

附加閱讀資料

Ninomiya, H., R. P. Elinson和R. Winklbauer. 〈前後組織極性將中胚層彙聚式延伸與中軸模式形成相聯繫〉Antero-Posterior Tissue Polarity Links Mesoderm Convergent Extension to Axial Patterning."《自然》Nature第430卷 (2004): 364-367頁。

Dubrulle, J.和O. Pourquie.〈fgf8基因的mRNA衰退確立了一個再脊椎動物胚胎終將中軸延長與模式形成相偶聯的梯度〉fgf8 mRNA Decay Establishes a Gradient That Couples Axial Elongation to Patterning in the Vertebrate Embryo."《自然》Nature第427卷 (2004): 419-422頁。

4

菱腦和脊髓的同源盒基因與分節組織

Hox Genes and Segmental Organization of the Hindbrain and Spinal Cord

評論

Vasiliauskas, D.和C. D. Stern.〈胚胎軸的模式制定:FGF信號轉導以及脊椎動物胚胎如何測定時間〉Patterning the Embryonic Axis: FGF Signaling and How Vertebrate Embryos Measure Time."《細胞》Cell第106卷 (2001): 133-36頁。

Tabin, C. J.和R. L. Johnson.〈時間與Hox同源基因〉Clocks and Hox."《自然》Nature第412卷 (2001): 780-781頁。

Kmita, M., 和D. Duboule.〈在時空中組織軸:25年的共線性鑄補〉Organizing Axes in Time and Space; 25 Years of Colinear Tinkering."《科學》Science第301卷 (2003): 331-333頁。

 

主題1

Bell, E., R. J. T. Wingate和A. Lumsden.〈Hoxb1基因的局部錯誤表現之後後腦原節特性的同型轉化〉"Homeotic Transformation of Rhombomere Identity After Localized Hoxb1 Misexpression."《自然》Nature第284卷 (1999): 2168-2171頁。

 

主題2

Dubrulle, J., M. J. McGrew和O. Pourquie.〈FGF信號轉導控制體節分界的位置並調節分節時鐘對Hox同源基因在特定時間和空間啟動的控制作用〉FGF Signaling Controls Somite Boundary Position and Regulates Segmentation Clock Control of Spatiotemporal Hox Gene Activation."《細胞》Cell第106卷 (2001): 219-232頁。

 

附加閱讀資料 Additional Readings

Dale, J. K., M. Maroto, M. L. Dequeant, P. Malapert, M. McGrew和O. Pourquie.〈信號轉導分子Lunatic Fringe對週期性Notch蛋白的抑制成為雞發育中體節時鐘的基礎〉Periodic Notch Inhibition by Lunatic Fringe Underlies the Chick Segmentation Clock.《自然》Nature第421頁 (2003): 275-278頁。

5

脊髓背/腹軸

The Spinal Cord Dorsal/Ventral Axis

評論

Dodd, J., T. M. Jessell和M. Placzek.〈基底板誘導的時間與地點〉"The When and Where of Floor Plate Induction."《科學》Science第282卷 (1998): 1654-57頁。

Chizhikov, V. V.和K. J. Millen.〈脊椎動物中樞神經系統中頂蓋板形成的機制〉"Mechanisms of Roof Plate Formation in the Vertebrate CNS."《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience 第5卷 (2004): 808-812頁。

Harris, W. A.〈確定運動神經元:上下與前後〉Specifying Motor Neurons: Up and Down and Back to Front."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 第6卷 (2003): 1247-1249頁。

 

主題1

Simon, H., A. Hornbruch和A. Lumsden.〈發育中雞後腦內前後和背腹位置的獨立分配〉Independent Assignment of Antero - Posterior and Dorso - Ventral Positional Values in the Developing Chick Hindbrain."《當代生物學》Current Biology 第5卷 (1995): 205-214頁。

 

主題2

Roelink, H., J. A. Porter, C. Chiang, Y. Tanabe, D. T. Chang, P. A. Beachy和T. M. Jessell.〈Sonic Hedgehog基因自溶產生的不同濃度的氨端切割產物對基底板和運動神經元的誘導作用〉Floor Plate and Motor Neuron Induction by Different Concentrations of the Amino- Terminal Cleavage Product of Sonic Hedgehog Autoproteolysis."《細胞》Cell 第81卷 (1995): 445-455頁。

附加閱讀資料

Dasen, J. S., J. Liu和T. M. Jessell.〈Hox- c基因活動的一系列時相對運動神經元柱的命運有強烈影響〉"Motor Neuron Columnar Fate Imposed by Sequential Phases of Hox- c Activity."《自然》Nature第425卷 (2003): 926-933頁。

6

胚胎中腦和前腦的區域化

Regionalization of the Embryonic Midbrain and Forebrain

評論

Finnerty, J. R.〈頭腦啟動〉Head Start. 《自然》" Nature, 第408卷 (2000): 778-781頁。

Rubenstein, J. L. R.和P. A. Beachy.〈胚胎前腦的制定模式〉"Patterning of the Embryonic Forebrain."《神經生物學新觀點》Curr Opin Neurobiol第8卷 (1998): 18-26頁。

Wurst, W.和L. Bally-Cuif.〈神經板模式制定:峽部組織者的上游與下游〉"Neural Plate Patterning: Upstream and Downstream of The Isthmic Organizer."《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience第2卷 (2001): 99-101頁。

 

主題1

Houart, C., L. Caneparo, C. Heisenberg, K. A. Barth, M. Take-Uchi和S. W. Wilson.〈原腸胚形成時期藉由Wnt信號轉導的局部拮抗作用確立端腦的形成〉"Establishment of The Telencephalon During Gastrulation by Local Antagonism of Wnt Signaling."《神經元》Neuron第35卷 (2002): 255-265頁。

 

主題2

Agarwala, S., T. A. Sanders和C. W. Ragsdale.〈中腦模式形成中Sonic Hedgehog基因對大小和形狀的控制〉"Sonic Hedgehog Control of Size and Shape in Midbrain Pattern Formation."《科學》Science第291卷(2001): 2147-50頁。

附加閱讀資料 Additional Readings

Figdor, M. C., 和C. D. Stern. <間腦的分節組織>"Segmental Organization of Embryonic Diencephalon."《自然》Nature 第363卷 (1993): 630-634頁.

Ye, W., M. Bouchard, D. Stone, X. Liu, F. Vella, J. Lee, H. Nakamura, S. Ang, M. Busslinger和A. Rosenthal.〈不同的調控因子控制了中後腦組織者信號fgf8的表現〉"Distinct Regulators Control The Expression of The Mid- Hindbrain Organizer Signal fgf8."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience第4卷 (2001): 1175-1181頁。

7

譜系研究

Lineage Studies

評論

Cepko, C. L., E. Ryder, C. Austin, J. Golden, Fields-Berry和J. Lin.〈使用反轉錄病毒載體進行譜系分析〉"Lineage Analysis Using Retroviral Vectors."《方法》Methods第14卷 (1998): 393- 406頁。

Dymecki, S. M., C. I. Rodriguez和R. B. Awatramani. 〈使用位點特異性重組開啟譜系示蹤物〉"Switching on Lineage Tracers Using Site- Specific Recombination."《分子生物學方法》Methods Mol Biol第185卷 (2002): 309-334頁。

 

主題1

Walsh, C.和C. L. Cepko.〈神經元選殖在小腦皮層的功能區域上的廣泛分佈〉Widespread Dispersion of Neuronal Clones Across Functional Regions of The Cerebral Cortex."《科學》Science第255卷 (1992): 434-440頁。

 

主題2

Rodriquez C. I.和S. M. Dymecki.〈前小腦系統的起源〉"Origin of the Precerebellar System."《神經元》Neuro第27卷 (2000): 475-86頁。

附加閱讀資料 Additional Readings

Lin J. C.和C. L. Cepko.〈發育中雞小腦內包含浦肯野細胞和神經膠質的選殖的二相分散〉"Biphasic Dispersion of Clones Containing Purkinje Cells and Glia in The Developing Chick Cerebellum."《發育生物學》Dev Biol第211卷 (1999): 177-197頁。

8

神經脊

Neural Crest

評論

Zigmond, M.《基礎神經科學》Fundamental Neuroscience.第二版,391-402頁。

Knecht, A. K.和M. Bronner-Fraser.〈神經脊誘導:一個多基因的過程〉Induction of the Neural Crest: A Multigene Process."《自然評論-遺傳學》Nature Reviews Genetics第3卷 (2002): 453-461頁。

Trainor, P.和R. Krumlauf.〈駕馭Wnt信號轉導波的脊〉"Riding The Crest of The Wnt Signaling Wave."《科學》Science,第297卷 (2002): 781-783頁。

Mosher, J. T.和S. J. Morrison.〈跨過感覺神經發生的界線〉"Crossing the Boundaries of Sensory Neurogenesis."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience第7卷 (2004): 900-902頁。

 

主題1

Kulesa, P., M. Bronner - Fraser和S. Fraser.〈在卵內的延時分析顯示背部神經管切除後雞後腦神經脊對路徑的重新選擇〉"In Ovo Time- Lapse Analysis After Dorsal Neural Tube Ablation Shows Rerouting of Chick Hindbrain Neural Crest."《發育》Development第127卷 (2002): 2843-2852頁。

作業:學生報告Diandra Lucia (英PDF)

 

主題2

Garcia-Castro, M. I., C. Marcelle和M. Bronner-Fraser.〈外胚層Wnt作為一種神經脊誘導物發揮功能〉"Ectodermal Wnt Function as a Neural Crest Inducer."《科學》Science第297卷 (2002): 848-851頁。

 

附加閱讀資料 Additional Readings

Maro, G. S., M. Vermeren, O. Voiculescu, L. Melton, J. Cohen, P. Charnay和P. Topilko.〈神經脊邊界蓋細胞構成了一個周圍神經系統中神經元和神經膠質細胞的來源〉"Neural Crest Boundary Cap Cells Constitute a Source of Neuronal and Glial Cells of The PNS."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience第7卷 (2004): 930-938頁。

9

從外到內的細胞命運信號序列

Progression from Extrinsic to Intrinsic Signals of Cell Fate

評論

Livesey, F. J.和C. L. Cepko.〈脊椎動物神經細胞命運決定:從視網膜中得到的啟示〉"Vertebrate Neural Cell- Fate Determination: Lessons From the Retina.,《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience第2卷 (2001): 109-118頁。

Kay, J. N.和H. Baier.〈外表層命運:視網膜中分子開關創造了神經元多樣性〉"Out - Foxing Fate: Molecular Switches Create Neuronal Diversity in The Retina."《神經元》Neuron,第43卷 (2004): 759-764頁。

Anderson, S.〈Tlx基因做了一個令人興奮的選擇〉"Tlx Genes Make an Exciting Choice."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience第7卷 (2004): 421-422頁。

 

主題1

Belliveau, M. J.和C. L. Cepko.〈外源和內源因素控制了老鼠視網膜中無長突細胞和錐細胞的生成〉"Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Control the Genesis of Amacrine and Cone Cells in the Rat Retina."《發育》Development,第126卷 (1999): 555-566頁。

作業:學生報告Lena Khibnik (英PDF)
作業:學生報告Bo Morgan (英PDF)

 

主題2

Cheng, L., A. Arata, R. Mizuguchi, Y. Qian, A. Karunaratne, P. A. Gray, S. Arata, S. Shirasawa, M. Bouchard, P. Luo, C. Chen, M. Busslinger, M. Goulding, H. Onimaru和Q. Ma. 〈Tlx3和Tlx1基因是決定細胞具有分化為谷氨酸能而非γ氨基丁酸能的細胞命運的後有絲分裂選擇子基因〉"Tlx3 and Tlx1 are Post - mitotic Selector Genes Determining Glutamatergic Over GABAergic Cell Fates"《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 510-517.

作業:學生報告Lena Khibnik (英PDF)
作業:學生報告Bo Morgan (英PDF)

 

附加閱讀資料

Li, S., Z. Mo, X. Yang, S. M. Price, M. M. Shen, 和M. Xiang. 〈Foxn4基因藉由視網膜始祖細胞控制無長突細胞和水準細胞的生成〉"Foxn4 Controls the Genesis of Amacrine and Horizontal Cells by Retinal Progenitors".《神經元》Neuron 43 (2004): 795-807.

Hanashima, C., S. C. Li, L. Shen, E. Lai和G. Fishell.〈Foxg1基因壓制早期皮層細胞的命運〉"Foxg1 Suppresses Early Cortical Cell Fate".《科學》 Science 303 (2004): 56-59.

10

神經元遷移1:輻射狀VS切線狀遷移

Neuronal Migration 1: Radial vs Tangential Movement
Carlos Lois教授,麻省理工學院

評論

Rakic, P.〈皮層輻射狀膠質細胞的發育和進化適應〉"Developmental and Evolutionary Adaptations of Cortical Radial Glia."《小腦皮層》Cerebral Cortex 13 (2003): 541-549.。

Kriegstein, A. R.和S. C. Noctor.〈胚胎皮層中神經遷移的模式〉"Patterns of Neuronal Migration in The Embryonic Cortex".,《神經科學進展》Trends in Neurosciences 27 (2004): 392-399.。

 

主題1

Tan, S., M. Kalloniatis, K. Sturm, P. P. L. Tam, B. E. Reese 和B. Faulkner -Jones.〈小腦新皮層發育期間輻射狀和切線狀細胞分散的不同始祖細胞〉"Separate Progenitors for Radial and Tangential Cell Dispersion During Development of The Cerebral Neocortex".《神經元》Neuron 21 (1998): 295-304.。

 

主題2

Gupta, A., K. Sanada, D. T. Miyamoto, S. Rovelstad, B. Nadarajah, A. L. Pearlman, J. Brunstrom和L. Tsai.〈p35基因缺陷中的分層缺陷與輻射狀遷移中不恰當的神經元-神經膠質細胞相互作用有關聯〉"Layering Defect in p35 Deficiency is Linked to Improper Neuronal - Glial Interaction In Radial Migration".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1284-1291.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Bai, J., R. L. Ramos, J. B. Ackman, A. M. Thomas, R. V. Lee和J. J. Lo Turco.〈RNA干涉揭示老鼠新皮層中微管相關蛋白Doublecortin對於輻射狀遷移是必需的〉"RNAi Reveals Doublecortin is Required for Radial Migration in Rat Neocortex".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1277-1283.。

Nadarajah, B., P. Alifragis, R. L. L. Wong和J. G. Parnavelas. 〈發育中小腦皮層內由腦室指導的遷移〉"Ventricle- Directed Migration in The Developing Cerebral Cortex".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 218-224.。

11

細胞不對稱分裂

Asymmetric Cell Divisions

評論

Cayouette, M. M.和Raff.〈Numb基因產物的不對稱隔離:從果蠅到哺乳類中神經特化的一種機制〉"Asymmetric Segregation of Numb: A Mechanism for Neural Specification from Drosophila to Mammals".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 1265-1269.。

Zhong, W.〈神經細胞藉由產生的順序和不對稱分裂實現多元化〉"Diversifying Neural Cells Through Order of Birth and Asymmetry of Division"《神經元》Neuron 37 (2003): 11-14.。

 

主題1

Noctor, S. C., V. Martinez - Cerdeno, L. Ivic和A. R. Kriegstein.〈皮層神經元在對稱與非對稱分裂區域出現並在特定的時期遷移〉"Cortical Neurons Arise in Symmetric and Asymmetric Division Zones and Migrate Through Specific Phases".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 136-144。

 

主題2

Shen, Q., W. Zhong, Y. N. Jan和S. Temple.〈Numb基因產物的不對稱分佈對老鼠小腦皮層幹細胞和成神經細胞的不對稱分裂有關鍵作用〉"Asymmetric Numb Distribution is Critical for Asymmetric Cell Division of Mouse Cerebral Cortical Stem Cells and Neuroblasts".《發育》Development 129 (2002): 4843-4853。

作業:學生報告Tony Walters (英PDF)

 

附加閱讀資料

Petersen, P. H., K. Zou, S. Krauss和W. Zhong.〈老鼠皮層神經發生時期Numb和Numbl基因在維持始祖細胞中的持續性角色〉"Continuing Role for Mouse Numb and Numbl in Maintaining Progenitor Cells During Cortical Neurogenesis"《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 803-811.。

Lambert, J. D.和L. M. Nagy.〈卵裂中定位於中心體的局部mRNAs的不對稱遺傳〉"Asymmetric Inheritance of Centrosomally Localized mRNAs During Embryonic Cleavages".《自然》Nature 12 (2002): 682-686.。

12

幹細胞

Stem Cells

評論

Anderson, D. J.〈神經系統中的幹細胞和模式形成:可能性與實際情況〉"Stem Cells and Pattern Formation in The Nervous System: The Possible Versus The Actual".《神經元》Neuron 30 (2001): 19-35.。

Doetsch, F.〈神經幹細胞具有分化為神經膠質細胞的潛能〉“The Glial Identity of Neural Stem Cells".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1127-1134.。

 

主題1

Lim, D. A., A. D. Tramontin, J. M. Trevejo, D. G. Herreara, J. M. Garcia- Verdugo和A. Alvarez - Buylla.〈Noggin蛋白藉由拮抗BMP信號轉導途徑從成年神經發生中產生一個合適位點〉"A. Noggin Antagonizes BMP Signaling to Create a Niche From Adult Neurogenesis".《神經元》Neuron 28 (2000): 713-726.。

 

主題2

Wu, P., Y. I. Tarasenko, Y. Gu, L. Y. Huang, R. E. Coggeshall和Y. Yu.〈移植于成年老鼠內的人類胚胎神經幹細胞的區域特異性膽鹼能神經元發生〉"Region- Specific Generation of Cholinergic Neurons from Fetal Human Neural Stem Cells Grafted in Adult Rat".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 1271-1278.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Shen, Q., S. K. Goderie, L. Jin, N. Karanth, Y. Sun, N. Abramova, P. Vincent, K. Pumiglia和S. Temple.〈內皮細胞刺激神經幹細胞的自我更新並擴展其神經發生〉"Endothelial Cells Stimulate Self -Renewal and Expand Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells".《科學》Science 304 (2004): 1338-1340。

Ramalho-Santos, M., S. Yoon, Y. Matsuzaki, R. C. Mulligan 和D. A. Melton.〈 幹細胞之“幹”:胚胎和成年幹細胞轉錄特性剖析〉"'Stemness': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells".《科學》Science 298 (2002): 597-600。

13

軸突誘導1:指令,受體和下游信號轉導

Axon Guidance 1: Cues, Receptors and Downstream Signalling
Paul Garrity教授,麻省理工學院

Prof. Paul Garrity, MIT

評論

Dickson, B. J.〈軸突誘導的分子機制〉"Molecular Mechanisms of Axon Guidance"..《科學》Science 298 (2002): 1959-1964。

 

主題1

Kantor, D. B., O. Chivatakarn, K. L. Peer, S. F. Oster, M. Inatani, M. J. Hansen, J. G. Flanagan, Y. Yamaguchi, D. W. Sretavan, R. J. Giger和A. L. Kolodkin.〈軸突誘導因子Semaphorin 5A是一個由硫酸乙醯肝素蛋白聚糖和硫酸軟骨素蛋白聚糖調節並且具有雙重功能的軸突誘導信號〉"Semaphorin 5A is a Bifunctional Axon Guidance Cue Regulated by Heparan and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans".《神經元》Neuron 44 (2004): 961-975.。

 

主題2

Piper, M., S. Salih, C. Weinl, C. E. Holt和W. A. Harris.〈內吞作用-依賴性脫敏與蛋白質合成-視網膜生長錐適應的依賴性複敏〉"Endocytosis - Dependent Desensitization and Protein Synthesis - Dependent Resensitization in Retinal Growth Cone Adaptation".《自然神經科學》網上發表:2005年1月9日Nature Neuroscience.

作業:學生報告Tom Davidson (英PDF)

 

附加閱讀資料

Stein, E.和M. Tessier - Lavigne.〈誘導受體的分級組織:Slit藉由Robo/DCC受體複合物來沉默軸突誘導因子Netrin的吸引作用〉"Hierarchical Organization of Guidance Receptors: Silencing of Netrin Attraction by Slit Through a Robo/DCC Receptor Complex".《科學Science 291 (2001): 1928-38.。

14

軸突誘導2:指令,受體和下游信號轉導

Axon Guidance 2: Cues, Receptors and Downstream Signalling
Paul Garrity教授,麻省理工學院

主題1

Wojtowicz, W. M., J. J. Flanagan, S. S. Milard, S. L. Zipursky和. C. Clemens.〈果蠅唐氏綜合征細胞黏著分子基因的替代剪接產生異構體特異性同源結合的軸突誘導受體〉"Alternative Splicing of Drosophila Dscam Generates Axon Guidance Receptors That Exhibit Isoform- Specific Homophilic Binding".《細胞》Cell 118 (2004): 619-633.。

 

主題2

Grueber, W. B., B. Ye, A. W. Moore, L. Y. Jan和Y. N. Jan.〈不同果蠅感覺神經神經元上的樹突顯示不同的同型排斥能力〉"Dendrites of Distinct Classes of Drosophila Sensory Neurons Show Different Capacities for Homotypic Repulsion". 《當代生物學》Current Biology 13 (2003): 618-626.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Bagri, A., H. Cheng, A. Yaron, S. J. Pleasure和M. Tessier-Lavigne.〈Semaphorin蛋白家族的退縮誘導物引發對長海馬軸突分支的固定修剪〉"Stereotyped Pruning of Long Hippocampal Axon Brances Triggered By Retraction Inducers of The Semaphorin Family".《細胞》Cell 113 (2003): 285-299.。

15

細胞死亡

Cell Death

評論

Jacobson, M. D., M. Weil等,〈動物發育中的細胞程式化死亡〉"Programmed Cell Death in Animal development".《細胞》Cell 88, no. 3 (1997): 347-54。

de la Rosa, E. J.和F. de Pablo.〈早期神經發育的細胞死亡:在神經營養因子理論之外〉"Cell Death in Early Neural Development: Beyond the Neurotrophic Theory. ".《神經科學進展》第23卷, no. 10 (2000): 454-8頁Trends Neurosci 23, no. 10 (2000): 454-8。

Kuan, C. Y., K. A. Roth等〈發育中的大腦內細胞程式化死亡的機制〉"Mechanisms of Programmed Cell Death in The Developing Brain. ".《神經科學進展》第23卷,no. 7 (2000): 291-7頁Trends Neurosci 23, no. 7 (2000): 291-7。

 

主題1

Blaschke, A. J., K. Staley等,〈胎兒小腦皮層的增殖和有絲分裂後區域中存在廣泛的細胞程式化死亡〉"Widespread Programmed Cell Death in Proliferative and Postmitotic Regions of the Fetal Cerebral Cortex".《發育》Development 122, no. 4 (1996): 1165-74.。

作業:學生報告Lauren LeBon (英PDF)

作業:學生報告Jonathan Reinharth (英PDF)

 

主題2

Putz, U., C. Harwell等,〈早期發育階段所表現的可溶性CPG15可拯救皮層前體細胞使之免於細胞凋亡〉"Soluble CPG15 Expressed During Early Development Rescues Cortical Progenitors from Apoptosis".《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 8, no. 3 (2005): 322-31。

作業:學生報告Lauren LeBon (英PDF)

作業:學生報告Jonathan Reinharth (英PDF)

 

附加閱讀資料

Kuida, K., T. F. Haydar等,〈缺少天冬氨酸特異性半胱氨酸蛋白酶Caspase 9的老鼠中細胞凋亡和由細胞色素c介導的Caspase家族蛋白的啟動均減少〉"Reduced Apoptosis and Cytochrome c- Mediated Caspase Activation in Mice Lacking Caspase 9".《細胞》Cell 94, no. 3 (1998): 325-37.。

16

生長因數

Growth Factors

評論

Huang, E. J.和L. F. Reichardt.〈神經營養因子:在神經元發育中的角色及其功能〉"Neurotrophins: Roles in Neuronal Development and Function".《神經科學年度評論》Ann Rev Neurosci 24 (2001): 677-736。

 

主題1

Kuruvilla, R., L. S. Zweifel等〈一個神經營養因子級聯信號轉導系統藉由對TrkA的開放信號和逆向信號的差別控制協調交感神經發育〉"A Neurotrophin Signaling Cascade Coordinates Sympathetic Neuron Development Through Differential Control of TrkA Trafficking and Retrograde Sigaling".《細胞》Cell 118, no. 2 (2004): 243-55.。

 

主題2

Ma, L., T. Harada, C. Harada, M. Romero, J. M. Hebert, S. K. McConnell和L. F. Parada.〈丘腦皮質連接的正確形成需要神經營養因子-3》"Neurotrophin - 3 is Required For Appropriate Establishment of Thalamocortical Connections"《神經元》Neuron 36 (2003): 623-634.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Kang, H.和E. M. Schuman.〈成年海馬中突觸傳遞的增強由持久性神經營養因子誘導〉"Long- Lasting Neurotrophin - Induced Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in the Adult Hippocampus"《科學》Science 267 (1995): 1658-62。

Horch, H. W.和L. C. Katz.〈單細胞的BDNF釋放引起局部神經元樹突生長〉"BDNF Release from Single Cells Elicits Local Dendritic Growth in Nearby Neurons".《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 5, no. 11 (2002): 1177-84。

Levi-Motalcini, R.〈神經生長因子:一條未知路徑〉"NGF: An Uncharted Route."《神經科學:發現的歷程》由Frederic Worden, Judith P. Swazey和George Adelman編輯The Neurosciences: Paths of Discovery. Edited by Frederic Worden, Judith P. Swazey and George Adelman. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975. ISBN: 0262730421.

17

圖的形成1:視網膜頂蓋系統-化學和分子梯度

Map Formation 1: The Retinotectal System
- Chemical and Molecular Gradients

評論

Wilkinson, D. G.〈神經發育中EPH受體和信號因子Ephrins的多重角色〉"Multiple Roles of EPH Receptors and Ephrins in Neural Development"《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 155-164.。

Pittman, A. J.和C. Chien.〈理解背腹軸的拓撲學:向後與向前〉"Understanding Dorsovent Ral Topography: Backwards and Forwards. "《神經元》Neuron 35 (2002): 409-411.。

Godement, P.和C. Mason.〈盡在檢測中:一個視網膜解剖繪圖的新模型〉"It's All in the Assay: A New Model for Retinotectal Topographic Mapping"《神經元》Neuron 42 (2004): 697-699.。

 

主題1

Nakamoto, M., H. Cheng, G. C. Friedman, T. McLaughlin, M. J. Hansen, C. H. Yoon, D. D. M. O'Leary和J. G. Flanagan.〈ELF-1對活體視網膜軸突引導和軸突製圖中解剖學上的特定效果〉"Topographically Specific Effects of ELF-1 on Retinal Axon Guidance in Vitro and Retinal Axon Mapping in Vivo".《細胞》Cell 86 (1996): 755-766.。

 

主題2

Hansen, M. J., G. E. Dallal和J. G. Flanagan.〈視網膜對Ephrin- As的軸突反應顯示出一個分級的、濃度依賴性的從生長促進到生長抑制的變化〉"Retinal Axon Response to Ephrin - As Shows a Graded, Concentration - Dependent Transition from Growth Promotion to Inhibition"《神經元》Neuron 42 (2004): 717-730.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Hindges, R., T. McLaughlin, N. Genoud, M. Henkemeyer, a和D. D. M. O'Leary.〈EphB的前向信號控制神經元分支延伸的方向和背腹視網膜腦圖繪製所需的樹突狀結構》"EphB Forward Signaling Controls Directional Branch Extension and Arborizaiton Required for Dorsal - Ventral Retinotopic Mapping. ”《神經元》Neuron 35 (2002): 475-487。

18

神經元遷移2:長距離遷移

Neuronal Migration 2: Long Distance Travel
Carlos Lois教授,麻省理工學院

評論 

Maricich, S. M., E. C. Gilmore和K. Herrup.〈切線式遷移在哺乳類皮層形成中的角色〉"The Role of Tangential Migration in The Establishment of Mammalian Cortex".《神經元》Neuron 31: 175-78.。

Marin, O.和J. L. R. Rubenstein.〈前腦中的細胞遷移〉"Cell Migration in The Forebrain".《神經科學年度評論》Annu Rev Neurosci 26 (2003): 441-483.。

主題1

Lois, C. , J. M. Garcia - Verdugo, A. Alvarez - Buyalla.〈神經元前體的鏈式遷移〉"Chain Migration of Neuronal Precursors".《科學》Science 271 (1996): 978-81.。

 

主題2

Anderson, S. A., D. D. Eisenstat, L. Shi和J. L. R. Rubenstein.〈中間神經元從基底前腦遷移至新皮層:對Dlx基因的依賴性〉"Interneuron Migration from Basal Forebrain to Neocortex: Dependence on Dlx Genes”.《科學》Science 278 (1997): 474-76。

 

附加閱讀資料

Wu, W., K. Wong, J.-H. Chen, Z.-H. Jiang, S. Dupuis, J. Y. Wu和Y. Rao.〈嗅覺系統內神經元的遷移藉由蛋白質裂隙實現方向引導〉"Directional Guidance of Neuronal Migration in the Olfactory System by the Protein Slit".《自然》Nature 400 (1999): 331-336.。

19

圖的形成2:嗅覺系統-在大腦中表達味道

Map Formation 2: The Olfactory System
- Representing Smells in the Brain

評論

Mombaerts, P.〈脊椎動物氣味感受器的分子生物學〉"Molecular Biology of Odorant Receptors in Vertebrates".,《神經科學年度評論》Annu Rev Neurosci 22 (1999): 487-509.。

Ranganathan, R.和L. B. Buck.〈嗅覺軸突的路徑搜索:誰是魔笛手?〉"Olfactory Axon Pathfinding: Who is the Pied Piper?"《神經元》Neuron 35 (2002): 599-600.

 

主題1

Uchida, N., Y. K. Takahashi, M. Tanifuji和K. Mori.〈哺乳動物嗅球中的氣味地圖:區域組織和香味分子結構特點〉"Odor Maps in The Mammalian Olfactory Bulb: Domain Organization and Odorant Structural Features."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 1035-1043.

 

主題2

Belluscio, L., C. Lodovichi, P. Feinstein, P. Mombaerts和L. C. Katz.〈香味感受器指導老鼠嗅球中的功能環路〉"Odorant Receptors Instruct Functional Circuitry in The Mouse Olfactory Bulb."《自然》Nature 419 (2002): 296-300.

 

附加閱讀資料

Zou, Z., L. F. Horowitz, J. Montmayeur, S. Snapper和L. B. Buck.〈遺傳示蹤法顯示嗅覺皮層中有一個具有固定模式的感覺地圖〉"Genetic Tracing Reveals a sterotyped Sensorymap in the Olfactory Cortex."《自然》Nature 414 (2001): 173-179。

20

活動依賴性發育1:視覺系統

Activity Dependent Development 1: The Visual System

評論

Wiesel, T. N.〈視皮層的產後發育以及環境的影響〉"Postnatal Development of The Visual Cortex and The Influence of Environment."《自然》Nature 299 (1982): 583-591.

Knudsen, E. I.〈穀倉貓頭鷹聽覺定位通路中的引導學習〉"Instructed learning in The Auditory Localization Pathway of The Barn Owl."《自然》Nature 417 (2002): 322-328.。

Hua, J. Y.和S. J. Smith.〈 中樞神經系統發育的神經活動和動力學〉"Neural activity and the Dynamics of Central Nervous System Development."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7, no. 4 (2004): 327-32.

 

趣味閱讀 Read this one for fun

Hubel, D. H.和T. N. Wiesel.〈對視皮層的早期探索〉"Early Exploration of The Visual Cortex."《神經元》Neuron 3 (1998): 401-12。

 

主題1

Hata, Y., T. Tsumoto等,〈貓視皮層藉由藥學處理阻斷後對更具活性的主動信號輸入發生選擇性修剪〉"Selective Pruning of More Active Afferents When Cat Visual Cortex is Pharmacologically Inhibited."《神經元》Neuron 22, no. 2 (1999): 375-81.

 

主題2

Brainard, M. S.和E. I. Knudsen.〈穀倉貓頭鷹視覺頂蓋中對聽覺空間圖的視覺校正之敏感時期〉“Sensitive Periods for Visual Calibration of The Auditory Space Map in The Barn Owl Optic Tectum."《神經科學期刊》J Neurosci 18 (1998): 3929-42.

 

附加閱讀資料

Zoghbi, H. Y.〈產後神經發育紊亂:集中在突觸?〉"Postnatal Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Meeting at The Synapse?"《科學》Science 302, no. 5646 (2003): 826-30.。

21

皮層區域化:功能區域的特化

Cortical Regionalization: Specification of Functional Domains
Maria Donohgue, 耶魯大學

評論

Rakic, P.〈小腦皮層區域的特化〉"Specification of Cerebral Cortical Areas."《科學》Science 241 (1998): 170-176.

Sur, M.和C. A. Leamey.〈皮層區域和網路的發育和可塑性〉"Development and Plasticity of Cortical Areas and Networks."《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 251-262.。

 

主題1

Hamasaki, T., A. Leingartner, T. Ringstedt和D. D. M. O'Leary.〈新皮層中EMX2藉由直接特化和皮質前體細胞調節初級感覺和運動區域的大小和定位〉"EMX2 Regulates Sizes and Positioning of The Primary Sensory and Motor Areas in Neocortex by Direct Specification of Cortical Progenitors."《神經元》Neuron 43 (2004): 359-372.。

 

主題2

Sharma, J., A. Angelucci和M. Sur.〈聽覺皮層中視覺定位模組的誘導〉"Induction of Visual Orientation Modules in Auditory Cortex."《自然》Nature 404 (2000): 841-847.

 

附加閱讀資料

Fukuchi - Shimogori, T.和E. A. Grove.〈Emx2藉由調節FGF位元點信號控制新皮層的形成模式〉"Emx2 Patterns The Neocortex by Regulating FGF Positional Signaling."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 825-831.。

Von Melchner, L., S. L. Pallas和M. Sur.〈指向聽覺通路的視網膜投射介導視覺行為〉"Visual Behaviour Mediated by Retinal Projections Directed to The Auditory Pathway."《自然》Nature 404 (2000): 871-876.。

22

活動依賴性發育2:可塑性基因

Activity Dependent Development 2: Plasticity Genes

評論

Nedivi, E.〈大腦新皮層發育可塑性的分子水準的分析〉"Molecular Analysis of Development Plasticity in Neocortex.".《神經生物學期刊》J Neurobiol 41 (1999): 135-147。

 

主題1

Gordon, J. A., D. Cioffi, A. J. Silva和M. P. Stryker.〈鈣/鈣調蛋白依賴性II型蛋白質激酶突變體老鼠中初級視皮質的可塑性缺陷〉"Deficient Plasticity in The Primary Visual Cortex of a- Calcium/Calmoudulin - Dependent Protein Kinase II Mutant Mice.".《神經元》Neuron 17 (1996): 491-499。

 

主題2

Cantallops, I., K. Haas和H. T. Cline.〈突觸後的CPG15蛋白促進突觸成熟和突觸前軸突分支的加工〉"Postsynaptic CPG15 Promotes Synaptic Maturation and Presynaptic Axon Arbor Elaboration in Vivo."《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 1004-1011.

 

附加閱讀資料

Tu, J. C., B. Xiao, J. P. Yuan, A. A. Lanahan, K. Leoffert, M. Li, D. J. Linden和P. F. Worley.〈Homer蛋白將IP3受體與一個異常的富含脯氨酸的基序結合並使之連接於1組代謝型谷氨酸鹽受體〉"Homer Binds a Novel Proline - Rich Motif and Links Group 1 Metabot Ropic Glutamate Receptors with IP3 Receptors."《神經元》Neuron 21 (1998): 717.。

23

突觸形成1:NMJ

Synapse Formation 1: NMJ

評論

Sanes, J. R.和J. W. Lichtman.〈突觸後成份的誘導、組裝、成熟和維持〉"Induction, Assembly, Maturation and Maintenance of a Postsynaptic Apparatus."《自然評論-神經科學》Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11 (2001): 791-805.。

 

主題1

Gautam, M., P. G. Noakes, L. Moscoso, F. Rupp, R. H. Scheller, J. P. Merlie和J. R. Sanes.〈缺乏蛋白聚糖Agrin的突變小鼠的神經肌細胞突觸形成受損〉"Defective Neuromuscular Synaptogenesis in Agrindeficient Mutant Mice."《細胞》Cell 85 (1996): 525-535.。

 

主題2

Keller-Peck, C. R., M. K. Walsh, W. B. Gan, G. Feng, J. R. Sanes和J. W. Lichtman.〈新生運動單元中非同步突觸的去除:對綠色螢光蛋白轉基因小鼠的研究〉"Asynchronous Synapse Elimination in Neonatal Motor Units: Studies Using GFP Transgenic Mice."《神經元Supp》Neuron Supp 31(2001): 381-94.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Kasthuri, N.和J. W. Lichtman.〈神經元地位在突觸競爭中的角色〉"The Role of Neuronal Identity in Synaptic Competition.",《自然》Nature 424 (2003): 426-430.。

Buffelli, M., R. W. Burgess, G. Feng, C. G. Lobe, J. W. Lichtman和J. R. Sanes.〈相對突觸效能影響突觸競爭結果的遺傳學證據〉"Genetic Evidence That Relative Synaptic Efficacy Biases The Outcome of Synaptic Competition."《自然》Nature 424 (2003): 430-434.。

24

突觸形成2:中樞突觸

Synapse Formation 2: Central Synapses

評論

Goda, Y.和G. W. Davis.〈突觸組裝與去組裝的機制〉"Mechanisms of Synapse Assembly and Disassembly."《神經元》 第40卷 (2003): 243-264頁Neuron 40 (2003): 243-264..

Morgan, J.和R. Wong.〈單樹突確保穩定的關係〉"Single Dendrite Seeks Stable Relationship."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 205-206.。

 

主題1

Niell, C. M., M. P. Meyer和S. J. Smith.〈生長中的樹突分支上突觸形成的活體成像〉"In Vivo Imaging of Synapse Formation on A Growing Dendritic Arbor."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 254-260.。

 

主題2

Umemori, H., M. W. Linhoff, D. M. Ornitz和J. R. Sanes.〈FGF22及其相關蛋白是哺乳類大腦中的前突觸組織分子〉"FGF22 and Its Close Relatives are Presynaptic Organizing Molecules in The Mammalian Brain."《細胞》Cell 118 (2004): 257-270.。

 

附加閱讀資料

Sabo, S. L.和A. K. McAllister.〈突觸蛋白的移動性和迴圈-限制軸突生長錐絲狀偽足中的軸突小泡〉"Mobility and Cycling of Synaptic Protein- Containing Vesicles in Axonal Growth Cone Filopodia."《自然神經科學》Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1264-1269.。

 

研習資料

期中考試題範例(英PDF)

 

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

9.18 / 9.181J / 7.69J Developmental Neurobiology

Spring 2005

Coronal sections of brain depicting cortical plasticity gene expression.

Coronal sections of brain depicting cortical plasticity gene expression during development. (Image courtesy of Corey C. Harwell)

Course Highlights

This course features an extensive reading list and examples of student presentations on assigned readings.

Course Description

This course considers molecular control of neural specification, formation of neuronal connections, construction of neural systems, and the contributions of experience to shaping brain structure and function. Topics include: neural induction and pattern formation, cell lineage and fate determination, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation and stabilization, activity-dependent development and critical periods, development of behavior.



Syllabus

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.



Prerequisites

9.01, 7.012 / 7.013 / 7.014



Course Format

50 minute lecture

10 minute break

20 minute presentation of research article (Topic 1) by student

10 minute discussion

20 minute presentation of research article (Topic 2) by student

10 minute discussion

Each student will be expected to present 2 topics during the semester. All students should e- mail their top four topic choices by order of preference before lecture 1 to the instructor. These will be taken into consideration before topics are assigned.

All students are expected to read in advance at least the background reviews. You are required to discuss your topic with the instructor at least a week prior to presentation.



Grading

Final exam for undergraduates will include material from all reading lists, except additional reading list. Final exam for graduate students will include material from all reading lists.

Each student will be expected to present 2 topics during the semester.

Each presentation will constitute 25% of final grade (50% total). Graduate students are expected to contribute to discussion with material from additional reading list.



Recommended Textbooks

Amazon logo Cowan, W. Maxwell, Thomas M. Jessell, and S. Lawrence Zipursky, eds. Molecular and Cellular Approaches to Neural Development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1997. ISBN: 9780195111668.

Amazon logo Sanes, Dan H., Thomas A. Reh, and William A. Harris, eds. Development of The Nervous System. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780123003300.

Amazon logo Susan K. McConnell, James L. Roberts, Nicholas C. Spitzer, and Michael J. Zigmond. Fundamental Neuroscience. 2nd ed. Edited by Larry S. Squire, and Floyd E. Bloom. Burlington, MA: Academic Press, 2002. ISBN: 9780126603033.





Calendar

Calendar Table LEC # TOPICS
 
1 Introduction
2 Neural Induction
3 Establishing the CNS Anterior/Posterior Axis
4 Hox Genes and Segmental Organization of the Hindbrain and Spinal Cord
5 The Spinal Cord Dorsal/Ventral Axis
6 Regionalization of the Embryonic Midbrain and Forebrain
7 Lineage Studies
8 Neural Crest
9 Progression from Extrinsic to Intrinsic Signals of Cell Fate
10 Neuronal Migration 1: Radial vs Tangential Movement
Prof. Carlos Lois, MIT
11 Asymmetric Cell Divisions
12 Stem Cells
13 Axon Guidance 1: Cues, Receptors and Downstream Signalling
Prof. Paul Garrity, MIT
14 Axon Guidance 2: Cues, Receptors and Downstream Signalling
Prof. Paul Garrity, MIT
15 Cell Death
16 Growth Factors
17 Map Formation 1: The Retinotectal System
- Chemical and Molecular Gradients
18 Neuronal Migration 2: Long Distance Travel
Prof. Carlos Lois, MIT
19 Map Formation 2: The Olfactory System
- Representing Smells in the Brain
20 Activity Dependent Development 1: The Visual System
21 Cortical Regionalization: Specification of Functional Domains
Maria Donohgue, Yale University
22 Activity Dependent Development 2: Plasticity Genes
23 Synapse Formation 1: NMJ
24 Synapse Formation 2: Central Synapses
25 Review




Readings

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

All students are expected to read at least the assigned background reviews before class. The Topic 1 and Topic 2 papers will be assigned to students for review and presentation.


Readings LEC # TOPICS Readings
 
1 Introduction  
2 Neural Induction Reviews

Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., and D. Melton. "Vertebrate Embryonic Cells will Become Nerve Cells Unless Told Otherwise." Cell 88 (1997): 13-17.

Streit, A., and C. D. Stern. "Neural induction, a bird’s eye view." Trends in Genetics 15 (1999): 20-24.

Topic 1

Wilson, P. A., and A. Hemmati-Brivanlou. "Induction of epidermis and Inhibition of Neural Fate by Bmp- 4." Nature 376 (1995): 331-333.

Topic 2

Zimmerman, L. B., J. M. De Jesus-Escobar, and R. M. Harland. "The Spemann Organizer Signal Noggin Binds and Inactivates Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4." Cell 86 (1996): 599-606.

Additional Readings

Streit, A., A. J. Berliner, C. Papanayotou, A. Sirulnik, and C. D. Stern. "Initiation of Neural Induction by FGF Signalling Before Gastrulation." Nature 406 (2000): 74-78.

Wilson, S. I., A. Rydstrom, T. Trimborn, K. Willert, R. Nusse, T. M. Jessell, and T. Edlund. "The Status of Wnt Signalling Regulates Neural and Epidermal Fates in The Chick Embryo." Nature 411 (2001): 325-330.
Establising the CNS Anterior/Posterior Axis Reviews

Meinhardt, H. "Organizer and Axes Formation as a Self - Organizing Process." Int J Dev Biol 45 (2001): 177-188.

Topic 1

Piccolo, S., E. Agius, L. Leyns, S. Bhattacharyya, H. Grunz, T. Bouwmeester, and E. M. De Robertis. "The Head Inducer Cerberus is a Multifunctional Antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals." Nature 397 (1999): 707-710.

Topic 2

Agathon, A., C. Thisse, and B. Thisse. "The Molecular Nature of the Zebrafish Tail Organizer." Nature 424 (2003): 448-452.

Additional Readings

Ninomiya, H., R. P. Elinson, and R. Winklbauer. "Antero-Posterior Tissue Polarity Links Mesoderm Convergent Extension to Axial Patterning." Nature 430 (2004): 364-367.

Dubrulle, J., and O. Pourquie. "fgf8 mRNA Decay Establishes a Gradient That Couples Axial Elongation to Patterning in the Vertebrate Embryo." Nature 427 (2004): 419-422.
4 Hox Genes and Segmental Organization of the Hindbrain and Spinal Cord Reviews

Vasiliauskas, D., and C. D. Stern. "Patterning the Embryonic Axis: FGF Signaling and How Vertebrate Embryos Measure Time." Cell 106 (2001): 133-36.

Tabin, C. J., and R. L. Johnson. "Clocks and Hox." Nature 412 (2001): 780-781.

Kmita, M., and D. Duboule. "Organizing Axes in Time and Space; 25 Years of Colinear Tinkering." Science 301 (2003): 331-333.

Topic 1

Bell, E., R. J. T. Wingate, and A. Lumsden. "Homeotic Transformation of Rhombomere Identity After Localized Hoxb1 Misexpression." Nature 284 (1999): 2168-2171.

Topic 2

Dubrulle, J., M. J. McGrew, and O. Pourquie. "FGF Signaling Controls Somite Boundary Position and Regulates Segmentation Clock Control of Spatiotemporal Hox Gene Activation." Cell 106 (2001): 219-232.

Additional Readings

Dale, J. K., M. Maroto, M. L. Dequeant, P. Malapert, M. McGrew, and O. Pourquie. "Periodic Notch Inhibition by Lunatic Fringe Underlies the Chick Segmentation Clock." Nature 421 (2003): 275-278.
5 The Spinal Cord Dorsal /Ventral Axis Reviews

Dodd, J., T. M. Jessell, and M. Placzek. "The When and Where of Floor Plate Induction." Science 282 (1998): 1654-57.

Chizhikov, V. V., and K. J. Millen. "Mechanisms of Roof Plate Formation in the Vertebrate CNS." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 5 (2004): 808-812.

Harris, W. A. "Specifying Motor Neurons: Up and Down and Back to Front." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1247-1249.

Topic 1

Simon, H., A. Hornbruch, and A. Lumsden. "Independent Assignment of Antero - Posterior and Dorso - Ventral Positional Values in the Developing Chick Hindbrain." Current Biology 5 (1995): 205-214.

Topic 2

Roelink, H., J. A. Porter, C. Chiang, Y. Tanabe, D. T. Chang, P. A. Beachy, and T. M. Jessell. "Floor Plate and Motor Neuron Induction by Different Concentrations of the Amino- Terminal Cleavage Product of Sonic Hedgehog Autoproteolysis." Cell 81 (1995): 445-455.

Additional Readings

Dasen, J. S., J. Liu, and T. M. Jessell. "Motor Neuron Columnar Fate Imposed by Sequential Phases of Hox- c Activity." Nature 425 (2003): 926-933.
Regionalization of the Embryonic Midbrain and Forebrain Reviews

Finnerty, J. R. "Head Start." Nature 408 (2000): 778-781.

Rubenstein, J. L. R., and P. A. Beachy. "Patterning of the Embryonic Forebrain." Curr Opin Neurobiol 8 (1998): 18-26.

Wurst, W., and L. Bally-Cuif. "Neural Plate Patterning: Upstream and Downstream of The Isthmic Organizer." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 99-101.

Topic 1

Houart, C., L. Caneparo, C. Heisenberg, K. A. Barth, M. Take-Uchi, and S. W. Wilson. "Establishment of The Telencephalon During Gastrulation by Local Antagonism of Wnt Signaling." Neuron 35 (2002): 255-265.

Topic 2

Agarwala, S., T. A. Sanders, and C. W. Ragsdale. "Sonic Hedgehog Control of Size and Shape in Midbrain Pattern Formation." Science 291(2001): 2147-50.

Additional Readings

Figdor, M. C., and C. D. Stern. "Segmental Organization of Embryonic Diencephalon." Nature 363 (1993): 630-634.

Ye, W., M. Bouchard, D. Stone, X. Liu, F. Vella, J. Lee, H. Nakamura, S. Ang, M. Busslinger, and A. Rosenthal. "Distinct Regulators Control The Expression of The Mid- Hindbrain Organizer Signal fgf8." Nature Neuroscience 4 (2001): 1175-1181.
Lineage Studies Reviews

Cepko, C. L., E. Ryder, C. Austin, J. Golden, Fields-Berry and J. Lin. "Lineage Analysis Using Retroviral Vectors." Methods 14 (1998): 393- 406.

Dymecki, S. M., C. I. Rodriguez, and R. B. Awatramani. "Switching on Lineage Tracers Using Site- Specific Recombination." Methods Mol Biol 185 (2002): 309-334.

Topic 1

Walsh, C., and C. L. Cepko. "Widespread Dispersion of Neuronal Clones Across Functional Regions of The Cerebral Cortex." Science 255 (1992): 434-440.

Topic 2

Rodriquez C. I., and S. M. Dymecki. "Origin of the Precerebellar System." Neuron 27 (2000): 475-86.

Additional Readings

Lin J. C., and C. L. Cepko. "Biphasic Dispersion of Clones Containing Purkinje Cells and Glia in The Developing Chick Cerebellum." Dev Biol 211 (1999): 177-197.
8 Neural Crest Reviews

Zigmond, M. Fundamental Neuroscience. 2nd ed. pp. 391-402.

Knecht, A. K., and M. Bronner-Fraser. "Induction of the Neural Crest: A Multigene Process." Nature Reviews Genetics 3 (2002): 453-461.

Trainor, P., and R. Krumlauf. "Riding The Crest of The Wnt Signaling Wave." Science 297 (2002): 781-783.

Mosher, J. T., and S. J. Morrison. "Crossing the Boundaries of Sensory Neurogenesis." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 900-902.

Topic 1

Kulesa, P., M. Bronner - Fraser, and S. Fraser. "In Ovo Time- Lapse Analysis After Dorsal Neural Tube Ablation Shows Rerouting of Chick Hindbrain Neural Crest." Development 127 (2002): 2843-2852.

Topic 2

Garcia-Castro, M. I., C. Marcelle, and M. Bronner-Fraser. "Ectodermal Wnt Function as a Neural Crest Inducer." Science 297 (2002): 848-851.

Additional Readings

Maro, G. S., M. Vermeren, O. Voiculescu, L. Melton, J. Cohen, P. Charnay, and P. Topilko. "Neural Crest Boundary Cap Cells Constitute a Source of Neuronal and Glial Cells of The PNS." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 930-938.
9 Progression from Extrinsic to Intrinsic Signals of Cell Fate Reviews

Livesey, F. J., and C. L. Cepko. "Vertebrate Neural Cell- Fate Determination: Lessons From the Retina." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 109-118.

Kay, J. N., and H. Baier. "Out - Foxing Fate: Molecular Switches Create Neuronal Diversity in The Retina." Neuron 43 (2004): 759-764.

Anderson, S. "Tlx Genes Make an Exciting Choice." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 421-422.

Topic 1

Belliveau, M. J., and C. L. Cepko. "Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Control the Genesis of Amacrine and Cone Cells in the Rat Retina." Development 126 (1999): 555-566.

Topic 2

Cheng, L., A. Arata, R. Mizuguchi, Y. Qian, A. Karunaratne, P. A. Gray, S. Arata, S. Shirasawa, M. Bouchard, P. Luo, C. Chen, M. Busslinger, M. Goulding, H. Onimaru, and Q. Ma. "Tlx3 and Tlx1 are Post - mitotic Selector Genes Determining Glutamatergic Over GABAergic Cell Fates." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 510-517.

Additional Readings

Li, S., Z. Mo, X. Yang, S. M. Price, M. M. Shen, and M. Xiang. "Foxn4 Controls the Genesis of Amacrine and Horizontal Cells by Retinal Progenitors." Neuron 43 (2004): 795-807.

Hanashima, C., S. C. Li, L. Shen, E. Lai, and G. Fishell. "Foxg1 Suppresses Early Cortical Cell Fate." Science 303 (2004): 56-59.
10  Neuronal Migration 1: Radial vs. Tangential Movement Reviews

Rakic, P. "Developmental and Evolutionary Adaptations of Cortical Radial Glia." Cerebral Cortex 13 (2003): 541-549.

Kriegstein, A. R., and S. C. Noctor. "Patterns of Neuronal Migration in The Embryonic Cortex." Trends in Neurosciences 27 (2004): 392-399.

Topic 1

Tan, S., M. Kalloniatis, K. Sturm, P. P. L. Tam, B. E. Reese, and B. Faulkner -Jones. "Separate Progenitors for Radial and Tangential Cell Dispersion During Development of The Cerebral Neocortex." Neuron 21 (1998): 295-304.

Topic 2

Gupta, A., K. Sanada, D. T. Miyamoto, S. Rovelstad, B. Nadarajah, A. L. Pearlman, J. Brunstrom, and L. Tsai. "Layering Defect in p35 Deficiency is Linked to Improper Neuronal - Glial Interaction In Radial Migration." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1284-1291.

Additional Readings

Bai, J., R. L. Ramos, J. B. Ackman, A. M. Thomas, R. V. Lee, and J. J. Lo Turco. "RNAi Reveals Doublecortin is Required for Radial Migration in Rat Neocortex." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1277-1283.

Nadarajah, B., P. Alifragis, R. L. L. Wong, and J. G. Parnavelas. "Ventricle- Directed Migration in The Developing Cerebral Cortex." Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 218-224.
11 Asymmetric Cell Division Reviews

Cayouette, M. M., and Raff. "Asymmetric Segregation of Numb: A Mechanism for Neural Specification from Drosophila to Mammals." Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 1265-1269.

Zhong, W. "Diversifying Neural Cells Through Order of Birth and Asymmetry of Division." Neuron 37 (2003): 11-14.

Topic 1

Noctor, S. C., V. Martinez - Cerdeno, L. Ivic, and A. R. Kriegstein. "Cortical Neurons Arise in Symmetric and Asymmetric Division Zones and Migrate Through Specific Phases." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 136-144.

Topic 2

Shen, Q., W. Zhong, Y. N. Jan, and S. Temple. "Asymmetric Numb Distribution is Critical for Asymmetric Cell Division of Mouse Cerebral Cortical Stem Cells and Neuroblasts." Development 129 (2002): 4843-4853.

Additional Readings

Petersen, P. H., K. Zou, S. Krauss, and W. Zhong. "Continuing Role for Mouse Numb and Numbl in Maintaining Progenitor Cells During Cortical Neurogenesis." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 803-811.

Lambert, J. D., and L. M. Nagy. "Asymmetric Inheritance of Centrosomally Localized mRNAs During Embryonic Cleavages." Nature 12 (2002): 682-686.
12 Stem Cells Reviews

Anderson, D. J. "Stem Cells and Pattern Formation in The Nervous System: The Possible Versus The Actual." Neuron 30 (2001): 19-35.

Doetsch, F. "The Glial Identity of Neural Stem Cells." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1127-1134.

Topic 1

Lim, D. A., A. D. Tramontin, J. M. Trevejo, D. G. Herreara, J. M. Garcia- Verdugo, and A. Alvarez - Buylla. "A. Noggin Antagonizes BMP Signaling to Create a Niche From Adult Neurogenesis." Neuron 28 (2000): 713-726.

Topic 2

Wu, P., Y. I. Tarasenko, Y. Gu, L. Y. Huang, R. E. Coggeshall, and Y. Yu. "Region- Specific Generation of Cholinergic Neurons from Fetal Human Neural Stem Cells Grafted in Adult Rat." Nature Neuroscience 5 (2002): 1271-1278.

Additional Readings

Shen, Q., S. K. Goderie, L. Jin, N. Karanth, Y. Sun, N. Abramova, P. Vincent, K. Pumiglia, and S. Temple. "Endothelial Cells Stimulate Self -Renewal and Expand Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells." Science 304 (2004): 1338-1340.

Ramalho-Santos, M., S. Yoon, Y. Matsuzaki, R. C. Mulligan, and D. A. Melton. "'Stemness': Transcriptional Profiling of Embryonic and Adult Stem Cells." Science 298 (2002): 597-600.
13 Axon Guidance 1

Reviews

Dickson, B. J. "Molecular Mechanisms of Axon Guidance." Science 298 (2002): 1959-1964.

Topic 1

Kantor, D. B., O. Chivatakarn, K. L. Peer, S. F. Oster, M. Inatani, M. J. Hansen, J. G. Flanagan, Y. Yamaguchi, D. W. Sretavan, R. J. Giger, and A. L. Kolodkin. "Semaphorin 5A is a Bifunctional Axon Guidance Cue Regulated by Heparan and Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans." Neuron 44 (2004): 961-975.

Topic 2

Piper, M., S. Salih, C. Weinl, C. E. Holt, and W. A. Harris. "Endocytosis - Dependent Desensitization and Protein Synthesis - Dependent Resensitization in Retinal Growth Cone Adaptation." Nature Neuroscience. Published online: January 9, 2005.

Additional Readings

Stein, E., and M. Tessier - Lavigne. "Hierarchical Organization of Guidance Receptors: Silencing of Netrin Attraction by Slit Through a Robo/DCC Receptor Complex." Science 291 (2001): 1928-38.

14 Axon Guidance 2

Topic 1

Wojtowicz, W. M., J. J. Flanagan, S. S. Milard, S. L. Zipursky, and J. C. Clemens. "Alternative Splicing of Drosophila Dscam Generates Axon Guidance Receptors That Exhibit Isoform- Specific Homophilic Binding." Cell 118 (2004): 619-633.

Topic 2

Grueber, W. B., B. Ye, A. W. Moore, L. Y. Jan, and Y. N. Jan. "Dendrites of Distinct Classes of Drosophila Sensory Neurons Show Different Capacities for Homotypic Repulsion." Current Biology 13 (2003): 618-626.

Additional Readings

Bagri, A., H. Cheng, A. Yaron, S. J. Pleasure, and M. Tessier-Lavigne. "Stereotyped Pruning of Long Hippocampal Axon Brances Triggered By Retraction Inducers of The Semaphorin Family." Cell 113 (2003): 285-299.

15 Cell Death Reviews

Jacobson, M. D., M. Weil, et al. "Programmed Cell Death in Animal development." Cell 88, no. 3 (1997): 347-54.

de la Rosa, E. J., and F. de Pablo. "Cell Death in Early Neural Development: Beyond the Neurotrophic Theory." Trends Neurosci 23, no. 10 (2000): 454-8.

Kuan, C. Y., K. A. Roth, et al. "Mechanisms of Programmed Cell Death in The Developing Brain." Trends Neurosci 23, no. 7 (2000): 291-7.

Topic 1

Blaschke, A. J., K. Staley, et al. "Widespread Programmed Cell Death in Proliferative and Postmitotic Regions of the Fetal Cerebral Cortex." Development 122, no. 4 (1996): 1165-74.

Topic 2

Putz, U., C. Harwell, et al. "Soluble CPG15 Expressed During Early Development Rescues Cortical Progenitors from Apoptosis." Nature Neuroscience 8, no. 3 (2005): 322-31.

Additional Readings

Kuida, K., T. F. Haydar, et al. "Reduced Apoptosis and Cytochrome c- Mediated Caspase Activation in Mice Lacking Caspase 9." Cell 94, no. 3 (1998): 325-37.
16 Growth Factors Reviews

Huang, E. J., and L. F. Reichardt. "Neurotrophins: Roles in Neuronal Development and Function." Ann Rev Neurosci 24 (2001): 677-736.

Topic 1

Kuruvilla, R., L. S. Zweifel, et al. "A Neurot rophin Signaling Cascade Coordinates Sympathetic Neuron Development Through Differential Control of TrkA Trafficking and Retrograde Sigaling." Cell 118, no. 2 (2004): 243-55.

Topic 2

Ma, L., T. Harada, C. Harada, M. Romero, J. M. Hebert, S. K. McConnell, and L. F. Parada. "Neurotrophin - 3 is Required For Appropriate Establishment of Thalamocortical Connections." Neuron 36 (2003): 623-634.

Additional Readings

Kang, H., and E. M. Schuman. "Long- Lasting Neurotrophin - Induced Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in the Adult Hippocampus." Science 267 (1995): 1658-62.

Horch, H. W., and L. C. Katz. "BDNF Release from Single Cells Elicits Local Dendritic Growth in Nearby Neurons." Nature Neuroscience 5, no. 11 (2002): 1177-84.

Amazon logo Levi-Motalcini, R. "NGF: An Uncharted Route." In The Neurosciences: Paths of Discovery. Edited by Frederic Worden, Judith P. Swazey and George Adelman. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1975. ISBN: 9780262730426.
17  Map Formation 1: The Retinotectal System-Chemical and Molecular Gradients Reviews

Wilkinson, D. G. "Multiple Roles of EPH Receptors and Ephrins in Neural Development." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 155-164.

Pittman, A. J., and C. Chien. "Understanding Dorsovent Ral Topography: Backwards and Forwards." Neuron 35 (2002): 409-411.

Godement, P., and C. Mason. "It's All in the Assay: A New Model for Retinotectal Topographic Mapping." Neuron 42 (2004): 697-699.

Topic 1

Nakamoto, M., H. Cheng, G. C. Friedman, T. McLaughlin, M. J. Hansen, C. H. Yoon, D. D. M. O'Leary, and J. G. Flanagan. "Topographically Specific Effects of ELF-1 on Retinal Axon Guidance in Vitro and Retinal Axon Mapping in Vivo." Cell 86 (1996): 755-766.

Topic 2

Hansen, M. J., G. E. Dallal, and J. G. Flanagan. "Retinal Axon Response to Ephrin - As Shows a Graded, Concentration - Dependent Transition from Growth Promotion to Inhibition." Neuron 42 (2004): 717-730.

Additional Readings

Hindges, R., T. McLaughlin, N. Genoud, M. Henkemeyer, and D. D. M. O'Leary. "EphB Forward Signaling Controls Directional Branch Extension and Arborizaiton Required for Dorsal - Ventral Retinotopic Mapping." Neuron 35 (2002): 475-487.
18 Neuronal Migration 2: Long Distance Travel Reviews

Maricich, S. M., E. C. Gilmore, and K. Herrup. "The Role of Tangential Migration in The Establishment of Mammalian Cortex." Neuron 31: 175-78.

Marin, O., and J. L. R. Rubenstein. "Cell Migration in The Forebrain." Annu Rev Neurosci 26 (2003): 441-483.

Topic 1

Lois, C. , J. M. Garcia - Verdugo, A. Alvarez - Buyalla. "Chain Migration of Neuronal Precursors." Science 271 (1996): 978-81.

Topic 2

Anderson, S. A., D. D. Eisenstat, L. Shi, and J. L. R. Rubenstein. "Interneuron Migration from Basal Forebrain to Neocortex: Dependence on Dlx Genes." Science 278 (1997): 474-76

Additional Readings

Wu, W., K. Wong, J.-H. Chen, Z.-H. Jiang, S. Dupuis, J. Y. Wu, and Y. Rao."Directional Guidance of Neuronal Migration in the Olfactory System by the Protein Slit." Nature 400 (1999): 331-336.
19 Map Formation 2: The Olfactory System-Representing Smells in the Brain Reviews

Mombaerts, P. "Molecular Biology of Odorant Receptors in Vertebrates." Annu Rev Neurosci 22 (1999): 487-509.

Ranganathan, R., and L. B. Buck. "Olfactory Axon Pathfinding: Who is the Pied Piper?" Neuron 35 (2002): 599-600.

Topic 1

Uchida, N., Y. K. Takahashi, M. Tanifuji, and K. Mori. "Odor Maps in The Mammalian Olfactory Bulb: Domain Organization and Odorant Structural Features." Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 1035-1043.

Topic 2

Belluscio, L., C. Lodovichi, P. Feinstein, P. Mombaerts, and L. C. Katz. "Odorant Receptors Instruct Functional Circuitry in The Mouse Olfactory Bulb." Nature 419 (2002): 296-300.

Additional Readings

Zou, Z., L. F. Horowitz, J. Montmayeur, S. Snapper, and L. B. Buck. "Genetic Tracing Reveals a Terotyped Sensorymap in the Olfactory Cortex." Nature 414 (2001): 173-179.
20 Activity Dependent Development 1: The Visual and Auditory Systems Reviews

Wiesel, T. N. "Postnatal Development of The Visual Cortex and The Influence of Environment." Nature 299 (1982): 583-591.

Knudsen, E. I. "Instructed learning in The Auditory Localization Pathway of The Barn Owl." Nature 417 (2002): 322-328.

Hua, J. Y., and S. J. Smith. "Neural activity and the Dynamics of Central Nervous System Development." Nature Neuroscience 7, no. 4 (2004): 327-32.

Read this one for fun

Hubel, D. H., and T. N. Wiesel. "Early Exploration of The Visual Cortex." Neuron 3 (1998): 401-12.

Topic 1

Hata, Y., T. Tsumoto, et al. "Selective Pruning of More Active Afferents When Cat Visual Cortex is Pharmacologically Inhibited." Neuron 22, no. 2 (1999): 375-81.

Topic 2

Brainard, M. S., and E. I. Knudsen "Sensitive Periods for Visual Calibration of The Auditory Space Map in The Barn Owl Optic Tectum." J Neurosci 18 (1998): 3929-42.

Additional Readings

Zoghbi, H. Y. "Postnatal Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Meeting at The Synapse?" Science 302, no. 5646 (2003): 826-30.
21 Cortical Regionalization: Specification of Cerebral Cortical Areas Reviews

Rakic, P. "Specification of Cerebral Cortical Areas." Science 241 (1998): 170-176.

Sur, M., and C. A. Leamey. "Development and Plasticity of Cortical Areas and Networks." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2 (2001): 251-262.

Topic 1

Hamasaki, T., A. Leingartner, T. Ringstedt, and D. D. M. O'Leary. "EMX2 Regulates Sizes and Positioning of The Primary Sensory and Motor Areas in Neocortex by Direct Specification of Cortical Progenitors." Neuron 43 (2004): 359-372.

Topic 2

Sharma, J., A. Angelucci, and M. Sur. "Induction of Visual Orientation Modules in Auditory Cortex." Nature 404 (2000): 841-847.

Additional Readings

Fukuchi - Shimogori, T., and E. A. Grove. "Emx2 Patterns TheNeocortex by Regulating FGF Positional Signaling." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 825-831.

Von Melchner, L., S. L. Pallas, and M. Sur. "Visual Behaviour Mediated by Retinal Projections Directed to The Auditory Pathway." Nature 404 (2000): 871-876.
22 Activity Dependent Development 2: Plasticity Genes Reviews

Nedivi, E. "Molecular Analysis of Development Plasticity in Neocortex." J Neurobiol 41 (1999): 135-147.

Topic 1

Gordon, J. A., D. Cioffi, A. J. Silva, and M. P. Stryker. "Deficient Plasticity in The Primary Visual Cortex of a- Calcium/Calmoudulin - Dependent Protein Kinase II Mutant Mice." Neuron 17 (1996): 491-499.

Topic 2

Cantallops, I., K. Haas, and H. T. Cline. "Postsynaptic CPG15 Promotes Synaptic Maturation and Presynaptic Axon Arbor Elaboration in Vivo." Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 1004-1011.

Additional Readings

Tu, J. C., B. Xiao, J. P. Yuan, A. A. Lanahan, K. Leoffert, M. Li, D. J. Linden, and P. F. Worley. "Homer Binds a Novel Proline - Rich Motif and Links Group 1 Metabot Ropic Glutamate Receptors with IP3 Receptors." Neuron 21 (1998): 717.
23 Synapse Formation 1: NMJ Reviews

Sanes, J. R., and J. W. Lichtman. "Induction, Assembly, Maturation and Maintenance of a Postsynaptic Apparatus." Nature Reviews Neuroscience 11 (2001): 791-805.

Topic 1

Gautam, M., P. G. Noakes, L. Moscoso, F. Rupp, R. H. Scheller, J. P. Merlie, and J. R. Sanes. "Defective Neuromuscular Synaptogenesis in Agrindeficient Mutant Mice." Cell 85 (1996): 525-535.

Topic 2

Keller-Peck, C. R., M. K. Walsh, W. B. Gan, G. Feng, J. R. Sanes, and J. W. Lichtman. "Asynchronous Synapse Elimination in Neonatal Motor Units: Studies Using GFP Transgenic Mice." Neuron Supp 31(2001): 381-94.

Additional Readings

Kasthuri, N., and J. W. Lichtman. "The Role of Neuronal Identity in Synaptic Competition." Nature 424 (2003): 426-430.

Buffelli, M., R. W. Burgess, G. Feng, C. G. Lobe, J. W. Lichtman, and J. R. Sanes. "Genetic Evidence That Relative Synaptic Efficacy Biases The Outcome of Synaptic Competition." Nature 424 (2003): 430-434.
24 Synapse Formation 2: Central Synapses Review

Goda, Y., and G. W. Davis. "Mechanisms of Synapse Assembly and Disassembly." Neuron 40 (2003): 243-264.

Morgan, J., and R. Wong. "Single Dendrite Seeks Stable Relationship." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 205-206.

Topic 1

Niell, C. M., M. P. Meyer, and S. J. Smith. "In Vivo Imaging of Synapse Formation on A Growing Dendritic Arbor." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 254-260.

Topic 2

Umemori, H., M. W. Linhoff, D. M. Ornitz, and J. R. Sanes. "FGF22 and Its Close Relatives are Presynaptic Organizing Molecules in The Mammalian Brain." Cell 118 (2004): 257-270.

Additional Readings

Sabo, S. L., and A. K. McAllister. "Mobility and Cycling of Synaptic Protein- Containing Vesicles in Axonal Growth Cone Filopodia." Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 1264-1269.




Assignments

All student presentations are courtesy of the students named and used with permission. These presentations are given during the listed sessions in the table below.

Assignments LEC # PAPERS STUDENT PRESENTATIONS
 
8 Kulesa, P., M. Bronner - Fraser, and S. Fraser. "In Ovo Time- Lapse Analysis After Dorsal Neural Tube Ablation Shows Rerouting of Chick Hindbrain Neural Crest." Development 127 (2002): 2843-2852. Diandra Lucia (PDF)
9 Cheng, L., A. Arata, R. Mizuguchi, Y. Qian, A. Karunaratne, P. A. Gray, S. Arata, S. Shirasawa, M. Bouchard, P. Luo, C. Chen, M. Busslinger, M. Goulding, H. Onimaru, and Q. Ma. "Tlx3 and Tlx1 are Post - mitotic Selector Genes Determining Glutamatergic Over GABAergic Cell Fates." Nature Neuroscience 7 (2004): 510-517.

Belliveau, M. J., and C. L. Cepko. "Extrinsic and Intrinsic Factors Control the Genesis of Amacrine and Cone Cells in the Rat Retina." Development 126 (1999): 555-566.

Lena Khibnik (PDF)

Bo Morgan (PDF)

11 Shen, Q., W. Zhong, Y. N. Jan, and S. Temple. "Asymmetric Numb Distribution is Critical for Asymmetric Cell Division of Mouse Cerebral Cortical Stem Cells and Neuroblasts." Development 129 (2002): 4843-4853.

Tony Walters (PDF)

13 Piper, M., S. Salih, C. Weinl, C. E. Holt, and W. A. Harris. "Endocytosis -Dependent Desensitization and Protein Synthesis - Dependent Resensitization in Retinal Growth Cone Adaptation." Nature Neuroscience (January 9, 2005). Tom Davidson (PDF)
15  Putz, U., C. Harwell, et al. "Soluble CPG15 Expressed During Early Development Rescues Cortical Progenitors from Apoptosis." Nature Neuroscience 8, no. 3 (2005): 322-31.

Blaschke, A. J., K. Staley, et al. "Widespread Programmed Cell Death in Proliferative and Postmitotic Regions of the Fetal Cerebral Cortex." Development 122, no. 4 (1996): 1165-74.

Lauren LeBon (PDF)

Jonathan Reinharth (PDF)





Study Materials

Sample Midterm exam questions (PDF)


留下您對本課程的評論
標題:
您目前為非會員,留言名稱將顯示「匿名非會員」
只能進行20字留言

留言內容:

驗證碼請輸入3 + 4 =

標籤

現有標籤:1
新增標籤:


有關本課程的討論

課程討論
1

Anonymous, 2015-05-09 08:25:45
課程討論
1
Anonymous, 2015-05-09 08:25:36
課程討論
1
Anonymous, 2015-03-15 19:30:51
課程討論
1
Anonymous, 2015-03-15 19:30:50
課程討論
1
Anonymous, 2015-03-15 19:30:43
課程討論
超级的好课程 学习中,获益中
marke72, 2011-11-17 22:05:32

Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。
協助推廣單位: