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21H.411  西方思想史:500至1300年(2004秋季)

21H.411  History of Western Thought, 500-1300, Fall 2004

 

譯者:林奕秀

編輯:劉夏泱、馬景文

 

Manuscript: Four Gospels In Bohairic Coptic and Arabic Copied by Georgis.

公元1205年,Georgis手抄《四福音》手稿,有波海利語、科普特語和阿拉伯語。(圖片承蒙美國國會圖書館提供)

 

課程特點

本課程有公元500年~1300年對西方智識傳統有重要意義的閱讀材料清單。

 

課程描述

這門課檢視西方智識傳統的發展,從西羅馬帝國的衰亡(約公元476年)至中古世紀盛期(約公元1000~1300年)。基本前提為:基督宗教在西歐的勝利,並非是事後孔明所以為是必然的結果。因此,課程不僅注意基督宗教思想和實踐,也注意對其挑戰的力量。課程主題包含:近古時期統一基督正教崛起;修道院制度的發展及隨之而來的智識傳統;還有基督宗教信仰的地域傳播。閱讀材料討論與此潮流抗衡的另外勢力,特別是探討北方外教勢力持續;伊斯蘭教崛起;拜占庭東正教鞏固;本土異教的運動;以及猶太人在全體歐洲社會的模糊地位。

 

課程描述

 

課程主要集中於一系列中世紀歷史和思想的核心閱讀材料。學生每星期到課前必須好好準備深度討論閱讀材料。閱讀材料份量不少,建議學生可先做閱讀筆記,有助統整資料。課堂討論是期末成績的重要部份,逃避討論後果自負!此外,每位學生要和另一位合作帶領一堂課程討論。請負責同學準備一頁清單,內容是討論主題或問題,在上課時分發同學,並帶領班上討論。這不是正式研討會,而是小試身手的機會,帶領流暢對話。這任務要成功,重要的是領導討論的學生要記住一些閱讀材料的段落,直接關連討論的各個論點。其實,不管是否引導討論;各位都會覺得在文本上標出重要段落,對上課頗有助益;段落可能是關於作者或是作者提出的問題;或是作者留下懸而未解的問題。

 

成績

學生成績依據以下活動項目[百分比]評分:

期末論文(參考書目佔5%。第一次簡報佔10%)   [55%]

每周課堂參與,精通指定閱讀材料[30%]

領導課堂討論的才能[15%]

 

剽竊

這門課不容許任何形式的剽竊。一旦發現學生在寫作作業使用剽竊資料,作業成績自動評分為F,並處予適當懲戒。如你不確定什麼構成剽竊,可以問我或洽詢麻省理工學院圖書館以澄清疑慮。

 

 

教學時程,重要日期,相關閱讀資料

 

(一)導論 (可能是狂言妄語): 中世紀所不是的 Introduction (or possibly a rant): what the Middle Ages are not      

這堂課沒有特定閱讀資料。不過,各位腦海中要帶來最喜愛的中古世界的虛構景象,靈感可能來自電影、奇幻文學、「歷史」浪漫小說 、戲劇、《紐約客》漫畫…等等。

 

(二)羅馬帝國的分裂 Disintegration of the Roman Empire

聖奧古斯丁《上帝之城:駁異教徒》全集,吳飛譯,三聯書店(上海) (尤其是第一、二、四部份)

Augustine. The City of God. New York, NY: Modern Library, 2000. ISBN: 0679783199. (Especially Parts One, Three, and Five) (英譯本

 

(三)修道院生活戒律的形成 Regularization of Monastic Life

《聖本篤會規》台北市:台灣淡水聖本篤修女會:1997年(繁體中譯本)第 1-7章,第19-33、 39-40、和48-51頁。(網上另有下載簡體中譯本)英譯版本可查詢美國堪薩斯州Atchison聖本篤修道院。

Rule of St. Benedict. Chapters 1-7, pp. 19-33, 39-40, and 48-51. A version of The Holy Rule of St. Benedict is available through St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas. (網上英譯本

 

《天主教教宗Gregory一世對話錄》Dialogues of Gregory I.(網上英語版本

 

(四)法蘭克人改信基督宗教 Conversion of the Franks

格雷戈里著《法兰克人史》寿纪瑜,戚国淦译,商务印书馆,1981年,ISBN: 7100011604

Gregory of Tours The History of the Franks, Lewis Thorpe英譯. Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1974年. ISBN: 0140442952.

 

(五)英格蘭和北方地區改信基督宗教 Conversion of England and the North

比德《英吉利教会史》陈维振、周清民译,商务印书馆,1997年

Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. New York, NY: Penguin, 1990年. ISBN: 014044565X.

 

《聖卜尼法斯的書信集》Correspondence of St. Boniface. (網上英譯本

 

(六)北歐外教持續存在 Persistence of Nordic Paganism

《贝奥武甫》冯象译,三联书店,1992年

Beowulf. Verse Translation by Seamus Heaney. New York, NY: Norton, 2002. ISBN: 0393975800. (網上英譯本)(中文選譯

 

(七)卡洛林王朝 The Carolingian Court

《查理曼的廷臣:Einhard全本》Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard , Paul Edward Dutton英譯 Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press, 1998年. ISBN: 1551111349. (特別讀〈查理曼的生活〉"The Life of Charlemagne";〈特許狀〉"The Charters";及〈翻譯與奇蹟〉"The Translation and the Miracles.")

 

(八)和拜占庭的爭端 Conflict with Byzantium   

Liuprandus of Cremora《出使君士坦丁堡》Embassy to Constantinople, F.A. Wright英譯,Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co. , 1993年. ISBN: 0460872354.(網上英譯本

 

(九)十字軍東征:或是造聖 Crusading: or the Making of a Saint

Joinville《法國國王聖路易傳記》The Life of St. Louis , New York, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1955年(網上英語文本

 

(十)聖女: 音樂和天啟異象Female Saints: Music and the Visionary

Hildegarde of Bingen《上帝的祕密》Secrets of God,Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1996年. ISBN: 1570621640.

 

(十一)愛,邏輯,智識生活的角力 Love, Logic, and the Politics of the Intellectual life

《阿伯拉與哀綠綺思的情書》梁實秋譯,九歌出版社,1987年

Clanchy, M.T. ed. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. London, UK; New York, NY: Penguin, 2003. ISBN: 0140448993.

 

(十二)廣義的中古世界 The Wider Medieval World

Dunn. Ross《Ibn Battuta的冒險》The Adventures of Ibn Battuta Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005年. ISBN: 0520243854.

 

(十三)最後一課;學生簡報論文的機會     

 

作業

各學生自選主題,完成一份內容充實的研究論文。形式有兩種:基於閱讀第一手材料原文,或是結構良好的史料報告,深度評論某特定主題的文獻。選擇任一方式做作業,報告約15~20頁,絕對不要超過25頁。初步書目的繳交期限是第7堂課。而5頁特定主題的文獻評論繳交期限是第10堂課。期末論文草稿的期限是第13堂課後3天。草稿要包含為四月份作業所寫的正文。學生可以提早7~10天繳交報告草稿。我很樂意對草稿提意見。

 

學生作業範例

以下範例蒙署名學生授權使用。

 

學生:Virginia Corless (2003)

作業:文獻評論 (英PDF) 初步書目 (英PDF) 最後書目 (英PDF)

 

學生:匿名 (2004)

作業:文獻評論 (英PDF) 初步書目 (英PDF) 最後書目 (英PDF)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

21H.411 History of Western Thought, 500-1300

Fall 2004

Manuscript: Four Gospels In Bohairic Coptic and Arabic Copied by Georgis.

Four Gospels manuscript in Bohairic Coptic and Arabic, copied by Georgis in 1205. (Image courtesy of Library of Congress.)

Course Highlights

This course features a reading list of significant texts relating to the western intellectual tradition from the period 500-1300 A.D.

Course Description

This course examines the development of the western intellectual tradition from the fall of the Roman Empire through the High Middle Ages. Our basic premise will be that the triumph of Christianity in the west was not the inevitable outcome it might appear from hindsight. Our attention will therefore be focused not only on the development of Christian thought and practice, but on its challengers as well. The core themes of the course include the emergence of a uniform Christian orthodoxy in late antiquity; the development of monastic practice and its attendant intellectual traditions; and the geographical spread of Christian beliefs. Working in opposition to those trends were other forces, which we will also address in our readings. In particular, we will consider the persistence of northern paganism; the rise of Islam; the solidification of a separate Byzantine orthodoxy; indigenous heretical movements; and the ambiguous position of Jews in all of European society.



Syllabus

Description

This course examines the development of the western intellectual tradition from the fall of the Roman Empire through the High Middle Ages. Our basic premise will be that the triumph of Christianity in the west was not the inevitable outcome it might appear from hindsight. Our attention will therefore be focused not only on the development of Christian thought and practice, but on its challengers as well. The core themes of the course include the emergence of a uniform Christian orthodoxy in late antiquity; the development of monastic practice and its attendant intellectual traditions; and the geographical spread of Christian beliefs. Working in opposition to those trends were other forces, which we will also address in our readings. In particular, we will consider the persistence of northern paganism; the rise of Islam; the solidification of a separate Byzantine orthodoxy; indigenous heretical movements; and the ambiguous position of Jews in all of European society.

This course is centrally focused around a set of core readings in medieval history and thought. It is essential for all students to come to class prepared each week to discuss the reading in depth. You may find it very helpful to make notes on the reading in advance so that you have a way of organizing the large amount of material we will cover. Participation in class discussion is a major component of your final grade and can only be avoided at your peril! In addition, each student, in conjunction with another student, will be expected to lead the discussion for one class session. This will involve preparing and distributing a one page list of discussion topics or questions at the beginning of class and responsibility for getting the discussion started. This is not intended as a forum for a formal presentation, but rather a chance to try your hand at directing the ebb and flow of a conversation. It is especially important for the success of this exercise for the students who are leading discussion to have in mind some specific passages from the reading which speak directly to the various points they wish to cover in discussion. Indeed, all students, whether leading discussion or not, will find it most helpful to come to class with passages marked from the text which are noteworthy either because of what they illuminate about the author or for the questions they raise, or the problems they leave unresolved.



Grading

Students grades are based on the following criteria:


Grading criteria. ACTIVITIES PERCENTAGES
Final Paper (5% reflects bibliography and 10% reflects first presentation) 55%
Participation in Weekly Discussion, Demonstrating Mastery of the Assigned Reading 30%
Leadership of Class Discussion 15%


 

Plagiarism

Plagiarism of any kind will not be tolerated. Students caught using plagiarized material in their written work for this course will receive an automatic grade of F for the assignment and will be subject to appropriate disciplinary action. If you are at all unsure of what constitutes plagiarism please consult either myself, or the MIT Libraries which will be happy to help you clarify any ambiguities.





Calendar

Calendar SES # TOPICS KEY DATES
1 Introduction (or possibly a rant): What the Middle Ages are not  
2 Disintegration of the Roman Empire  
3 Regularization of Monastic life  
4 Conversion of the Franks  
5 Conversion of England and the North  
6 Persistence of Nordic Paganism  
7 The Carolingian Court Preliminary bibliographies due for final project
8 Conflict with Byzantium  
9 Crusading: or the Making of a Saint  
10 Female Saints: Music and the Visionary Literature review due (5 pages)
11 Love, Logic, and the Politics of the Intellectual Life  
12 The Wider Medieval World  
13 Last Class

Opportunity for Presentation of Student Papers
Final paper drafts due 3 days after session 13




Readings

Amazon logo Help support MIT OpenCourseWare by shopping at Amazon.com! MIT OpenCourseWare offers direct links to Amazon.com to purchase the books cited in this course. Click on the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book from Amazon.com, and MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of all purchases you make. Your support will enable MIT to continue offering open access to MIT courses.

Readings SES # TOPICS READINGS
1 Introduction (or possibly a rant): what the Middle Ages are not There is no specific reading for this class session. However, everyone should come with a favorite fictional medieval moment well in mind. Possible sources for such things are the movies, fantasy literature, "historical" romance novels, the theater, New Yorker cartoons, etc.
2 Disintegration of the Roman Empire Amazon logo Augustine. The City of God. New York, NY: Modern Library, 2000. ISBN: 9780679783190. (Especially Parts One, Three, and Five)
3 Regularization of Monastic Life Rule of St. Benedict. Chapters 1-7, pp. 19-33, 39-40, and 48-51. A version of The Holy Rule of St. Benedict is available through St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas.

Dialogues of Gregory I. (In reader)
4 Conversion of the Franks Amazon logo Gregory of Tours. The History of the Franks. Translated by Lewis Thorpe. Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1976. ISBN: 9780140442953.
5 Conversion of England and the North Amazon logo Bede. Ecclesiastical History of the English People. New York, NY: Penguin, 1991. ISBN: 9780140445657.

Correspondence of St. Boniface. (In reader)
6 Persistence of Nordic Paganism Amazon logo Beowulf. Verse Translation by Seamus Heaney. New York, NY: Norton, 2001. ISBN: 9780393975802.
7 The Carolingian Court Amazon logo Charlemagne's Courtier: The Complete Einhard. Translated by Paul Edward Dutton. Orchard Park, NY: Broadview Press, 1998. ISBN: 9781551111346. (Read in particular "The Life of Charlemagne", "The Charters", and "The Translation and the Miracles.")
8 Conflict with Byzantium Amazon logo "Liuprandus of Cremora." In Embassy to Constantinople. Translated by F. A. Wright. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co. , 1993. ISBN: 9780460872355.
9 Crusading: or the Making of a Saint "Joinville." In The Life of St. Louis. New York, NY: Sheed and Ward, 1955.
10 Female Saints: Music and the Visionary Amazon logo "Hildegarde of Bingen." In Secrets of God. Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1996. ISBN: 9781570621642.
11 Love, Logic, and the Politics of the Intellectual life Amazon logo Clanchy, M.T. ed. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. New York, NY: Penguin, 2004. ISBN: 9780140448993.
12 The Wider Medieval World Amazon logo Dunn. Ross. The Adventures of Ibn Battuta. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN: 9780520243859.
13 Last Class  




Assignments

Each student will also be expected to complete one substantial research paper on a topic of their choosing. These papers may take one of two forms. They can either be based on an original reading of primary materials, or they may be a well-developed historiographical essay which reviews the literature on a particular topic in depth. In either case, these papers should be on the order of 15-20 pages - and absolutely no longer than 25. Preliminary bibliographies will be due by session 7, and a five page presentation of the major issues in the literature is due on session 10. The final draft of the paper is due 3 days after session 13 and this draft may incorporate wholly the text written for the April assignment. Students may choose to submit a draft of their papers at least a week and a half in advance and I will be happy to comment on them.

Sample Student Work

Sample work appears courtesy of the student indicated below. Used with permission.

Assignments Table STUDENT ASSIGNMENTS
Virginia Corless (2003) Literature Review (PDF)

Preliminary Bibliography (PDF)

Final Bibliography (PDF)
Anonymous Student (2004) Literature Review (PDF)

Preliminary Bibliography (PDF)

Final Bibliography (PDF)



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