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STS.049J  美國歷史中的科技與性別(2004年春季)

STS.049J Technology and Gender in American History, Spring 2004


譯者:甘進

編輯:杜英華、陳盈、馬景文

 

Photo of female trainees working on a practice bomb shell, 1942.

圖為美國國家青少年管理局實習生Evelyn 和Lillian Buxkeurple 在德州科珀斯克里斯蒂市海軍航空基地實習。她們正在模擬彈殼練習,1942年。(圖片由美國國家檔案管理局提供。)

 

課程描述

本課程關注美國歷史中男女與科技不斷變化的關係。主題涵括:性別理論,生產科技與消費,公眾場所與私人空間的性別化,男性和女性在科學與科技的角色,工業化對性別分工的影響以及家庭、工作中的性別與身份。

 

教學大綱

概述

本課程著重兩個問題。第一,在現代美國文化的歷史進程中,性別發揮怎樣的作用;第二,20世紀科技在重塑性別身份時發揮怎樣的作用。第一個問題更廣泛涉及婦女在工業化和科技所扮演的角色;也涉及教育模式、職業選擇、人口數量和經濟契機;還談到以往某些科技體制如何明顯吸納或排斥男女人選,但有些體制不是如此。第二問題談及男女如何看待對方,以及如何看待自身作為現代社會的參與者。在不同的環境中(鄉村與都市、市區與郊區、南部與北部或西部),女性怎樣與大科技(比如全域的電力)和小科技(比如個人節育)建立不同關係。在通過回顧19世紀末20世紀初至今的發展,課程嘗試回答這兩並行的問題。主要目標是考察某些特定的歷史條件和事件是怎樣構建背景環境,使事物朝某個方向而不是別的方向發展,或使人們以某種方式而不是其他方式行事。正如一位歷史學家所說,如果「過去是另一個國度」,那麼我們的任務就是長期停留在那國度,嘗試去瞭解它的特點以及與我們自身生活的真實聯繫。

 

課程要求

學生應參加每一堂課,在課前完成所有閱讀文獻並積極參與課堂討論。

 

每位學生每學期至少主持一次課堂討論。首先,學生給出討論當天閱讀文獻的簡要大綱,闡明作者的主要論點和論據。然後給出三個問題啟發對閱讀文獻的討論。學生給出的三個問題可以指出閱讀文獻中令人困惑不解的矛盾或晦澀難懂之處,可質疑作者著作中的數據、資料和結論,也可探討這與其他閱讀文獻及之前課堂提到的問題的聯繫,或者探究作者論述中的言外之意。

 

此外,學生還需撰寫兩篇簡短論文(5頁)和一篇較長論文(10頁)。這三篇論文都與期末專題相關。

 

在第一篇論文(第五課交),學生選定與期末論文相關的某一科技產品(例如個人電腦、火箭發射器、電動剃鬚刀、摩托車、食品加工器等等)。從特定歷史時期的通俗雜誌和行業雜誌中收集有關此項科技的廣告,然後分析廣告中或明或暗地把性別作為廣告宣傳主題的手段。

 

第二篇論文(第十三課後一天交),學生選取一篇與專題相關的二手資料(不是課程的閱讀材料),並撰寫評論。

 

第三篇論文(第廿一課後一天交初稿,第廿五課後一天交完稿),學生利用一手資料(如,歷史專著、教科書、圖片、檔案資料的信函和備忘錄、訪談錄、通俗文學作品、電影等)去探討此項科技與當時所處歷史、文化背景的關係。學生在期末簡報作品。

 

教學時程,相關閱讀資料,作業

 

性別與科技的閱讀資料可參考Mohun, Arwen《性別與科技:文選》Gender and Technology: A Reader, Johns Hopkins大學出版社,2003,ISBN: 0801872596.

 

第一課:序論Introduction

 

第二課:性別與歷史Gender and History

 

McGaw, Judith.〈不是被動的受害者,不要分隔的領域:女性主義者對科技史的觀點〉"No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology's History." 於Stephen Cutcliffe和Robert Post編《脈絡:歷史與科技史》In Context: History and the History of Technology. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 1989, pp. 172-191. ISBN: 0934223033.

第三至四課:科技怎樣被性別化 How Technologies are Gendered

 

McGaw, Judith.〈女性科技緣何重要〉"Why Feminine Technologies Matter."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology pp. 13-36.


Oldenziel, Ruth.〈男性科技緣何重要〉Why Masculine Technologies Matter.".《性別與科技》Gender and Technology, pp. 37-71

 

Herzig, Rebecca.〈情景科技:意義〉"Situated Technology: Meanings."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology, pp. 72-97.

Maines, Rachel.〈情景科技:偽裝〉"Situated Technology: Camoflage."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology, pp. 98-119.

 

交期末論文提案

第五課:廣告性別Advertising Gender

 

Ewen, Stuart.《意識統帥:廣告和消費文化的社會根源》Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 1976. ISBN: 0070198462.

第六至七課:以科技重新定義性別:工作場所Redefining Gender by Way of Technology: Workplaces

 

Lerman, Nina. 〈產業性別:劃分界限〉"Industrial Genders: Constructing Boundaries."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology, pp. 123-152.

Mohun, Arwen.〈產業性別:家庭/工廠〉"Industrial Genders: Home/Factory."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology, pp. 153-176.

 

Lipartito, Ken. 〈女性扮演電話交換機的時代:電話業中的科技、職業和性別,1890-1920〉"When Women Were Switches: Technology, Work and Gender in the Telephone Industry, 1890-1920." 《美國歷史評論》American Historical Review 99 (Oct. 1994): 1074-1111.

Edwards, Paul.〈產業性別:陰/陽〉 "Industrial Genders: Soft/Hard."《性別與科技》 Gender and Technology, pp. 177-203.

 

交第一篇論文

第八至十課:家用科技Technology in the Home

 

Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. 《媽媽要做更多事:從開灶到微波,家事科技的諷刺》More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1983. ISBN: 0465047327.

第十一課:科技中的女性:醫學業Women in Technology: Medicine

 

Saetnan, Ann Rudinow, Nelly Oudshoorn, and Marta Kirejczyk編輯〈科技的主體:女性在生殖醫學的參與〉Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement in Reproductive Medicine. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2000. ISBN: 0814250505.

第十二課:期中測試

 

第十三課:麻省理工學院的女性與工程學Women and Engineering at MIT

 

Gibson, Lorna, et. al. 〈工程學院報告〉"Report of the School of Engineering." Cambridge, MA: MIT, March 2002. (英PDF)

第十四至十五課:工程學與男性 Engineering and Masculinity

 

Oldenziel, Ruth. 《科技男性化:美國男女與現代機器,1870-1945年》 Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women, and Modern Machines in America, 1870-1945. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999, first half. ISBN: 9053563814.

 

第十四課後兩天交第二篇論文

第十六課:科技中的女性:計算機Women in Technology: Computers

 

Light, Jennifer.〈程序設計〉"Programming."《性別與科技》Gender and Technology. pp. 295-326.


Turkle, Sherry.《屏幕上的人生:互聯網時代的身份》 Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1997, selections. ISBN: 0684833484.

第十七課:性別與航空工業Gender and Aviation

 

第十八至十九課:身份與消費文化Identity and Consumer Culture

 

Peiss, Kathy. 《瓶中願:美國美容文化的形成》Hope in a Jar: The Making of America's Beauty Culture. New York, NY: Henry Holt, 1998, first half. ISBN: 0805055517.

第二十至廿一課:汽車,自由與約束Automobility, Freedom, and Constraint

 

Scharff, Virginia. 《掌握方向盤:婦女與汽車時代的到來》Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age. New York, NY: Free Press, 1991, first half. ISBN: 0826313957.

第廿一課交論文三初稿

 

第廿二至廿三課:現代美國社會中的生產與消費Production and Consumption in Modern America

 

Horowitz, Roger, and Arwen Mohun編輯《他的與她的:性別,消費及科技》 His and Hers: Gender, Consumption, and Technology. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1998, first half. ISBN: 0813918022.

第廿四至廿五課:簡報

 

第廿五課交第三篇論文

 

 

作業

 

論文作業

學生撰寫兩篇簡短論文(5頁)和一篇較長論文(10至12頁)。所有論文以不同研究方法的觀點探討一個特定主題,最終形成科技史期末論文的性別框架。作業目的是為了督促學生為研究主題選取某一消費品,任何通過廣告促銷的性別體制(例如,軍事體制)都可以接受。

 

論文(一)

學生在流行報刊雜誌和行業期刊找出宣傳該科技的廣告。從各式各樣、種類繁多的廣告中篩選至少五份,不多於十份廣告。學生利用到目前為止的課堂閱讀和討論,分析這些廣告如何使用性別形象、期望和設想去吸引某類消費者。學生須思考以下問題:

除商品外,廣告還試圖“出售”何物?

廣告針對哪類消費群體?

廣告提出“真”男人和“真”女人是怎樣的?

廣告背後的美國文化設想是什麼?

注意:這篇論文不是討論科技史,而是探索分析科技在社會歷史的定位。


論文(二) 

這篇作業是書評。到了本學期這階段,學生應已完成期末論文所需書目的搜索。與教授商榷後,學生就該主題的一部歷史著作撰寫書評。不熟悉書評寫作可參閱期刊《科技與文化》Technology and Culture,《美國歷史期刊》Journal of American History或《符號》Signs(譯註:《符號:文化與社會中之女性》)瞭解書評的寫作格式及技巧。

 

書評先講解作者貫穿全書探討的主題和論點,讓讀者對著作有大致認識和瞭解。這主要是描述。接下來學生必須利用以下的一個或多個問題簡要評價著作,:

 

作者有何主要論題?你能否推測是什麼突發奇想促使作者撰寫這本著作?作者批判誰或什麼?

作者的論點和論題是否具說服力?

作者引用的文獻資料(標於腳註)是否支持論題?或者就你所知,是否有其他文獻能更好充當論據?

你認為這本著作最成功或最失敗的部份有哪些?為什麼?

這本著作怎樣才更具說服力?

 

論文(三)

第三篇論文是標準的歷史研究論文。學生主要利用一手資料(如,報紙,雜誌,行業期刊,檔案材料,報告等),撰寫關於某項科技發展或消亡的敘述性報告,或是較為理論性分析:在科技歷史中,性別和科技的使用和理解的不斷變化。學生利用先兩篇論文學到的見識,應能探討第一手資料,以展開在美國歷史中性別和科技是如何緊密聯繫的論題。

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

STS.049J Technology and Gender in American History

Spring 2004

Photo of female trainees working on a practice bomb shell, 1942.

National Youth Administration trainees at the Corpus Christi, TX Naval Air Base, Evelyn and Lillian Buxkeurple are shown working on a practice bomb shell, 1942. (Image courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration.)

Course Highlights

This course features a bibliography of all readings.

Course Description

This course centers on the changing relationships between men, women, and technology in American history. Topics include theories of gender, technologies of production and consumption, the gendering of public and private space, men's and women's roles in science and technology, the effects of industrialization on sexual divisions of labor, gender and identity at home and at work.



Syllabus

Overview

This class is centered upon two questions: first, how has gender mattered in the historical development of modern American culture, and second, how has technology mattered in the reshaping of gender identities in the 20th century. The first question raises issues about the role of women in industrialization and technology more generally; patterns of education, professional choices, demographics, and economic opportunities; the ways in which historical arrangements to include and exclude women and men have been played out in the dominance of certain technological systems rather than others. The second question raises issues about how men and women view each other, and themselves, as players in modernity. How have women in different contexts - rural vs. urban, inner city vs. suburb, South vs. North or West - created different relationships with technologies large (e.g., systemic, such as electricity) and small (personal, such as birth control)? In this class we will attempt to understand how these twin questions might be answered by moving into the late- 19th and early- 20th century and working our way up to the present. Our central goal is to see how particular historical circumstances and concerns created contexts for things to go one way rather than another, and for people to act in some ways but not in others. If "the past is another country," as one historian put it, then our task is to visit that country for an extended stay, trying to both understand its peculiarity as well as its very real connections with our own lives.

Requirements

Students are expected to attend all classes, to complete all reading before class, and to actively participate in class discussions.

Each student leads class discussion at least once during the term. This involves first providing a brief outline of the day's readings, describing both the author's main point and the content of the argument. Secondly, the student offers three questions intended to open up a discussion of the reading. The questions might identify a puzzling contradiction or obscurity in the reading, challenge the author's data or conclusions, suggest a connection with other readings and issues brought up in previous classes, or explore the larger implications of the author's argument.

Students also write two short (5 page) papers and one longer (10 page) paper. All three papers are connected to the final project.

In paper 1, due on session 5, students identify a particular technology (e.g., personal computers, rocket launchers, electric razors, motorcycles, food processors, etc) that is relevant to their final paper. Using both popular and trade magazines from a particular historical period, students collect advertising for this technology and analyze the ways in which the ads implicitly and explicitly use gender as a promotional framework.

In paper 2, due one day after session 13, students select a secondary source relevant to their project (but not a book we are reading in class), and write a critical review of it.

In paper 3, first draft due one day after session 21, final draft due one day after session 25, students use primary materials (e.g., historical monographs, textbooks, photographs, letters and memoranda from archival sources, interviews, popular literature, film, etc) to explore the relation between a particular technology and its historical and cultural context. Students present their work at the end of the semester.





Calendar

Table for calendar sEs # TOPICS KEY DATES
1 Introduction  
2 Gender and History  
3 How Technologies are Gendered I  
4 How Technologies are Gendered II Proposal for final paper due today
5 Advertising Gender  
6 Redefining Gender by Way of Technology: Workplaces  
7 Redefining Gender by Way of Technology: Workplaces (cont.) Paper 1 due today
8-9 Technology in the Home  
10 Technology in the Home (cont.)  
11 Women in Technology: Medicine  
12 Midterm Exam  
13 Women and Engineering at MIT  
14 Engineering and Masculinity Paper 2 due, two days after session 14
15 Engineering and Masculinity II  
16 Women in Technology: Computers  
17 Gender and Aviation  
18 Identity and Consumer Culture I  
19 Identity and Consumer Culture II  
20 Automobility, Freedom, and Constraint I  
21 Automobility, Freedom, and Constraint II Draft of paper 3 due today
22 Production and Consumption in Modern America  
23 Production and Consumption in Modern America  
24-25 Presentations Paper 3 due on session 25




Readings

Amazon logo When you click the Amazon logo to the left of any citation and purchase the book (or other media) from Amazon.com, MIT OpenCourseWare will receive up to 10% of this purchase and any other purchases you make during that visit. This will not increase the cost of your purchase. Links provided are to the US Amazon site, but you can also support OCW through Amazon sites in other regions. Learn more.

Amazon logo Readings from Gender and Technology may be found in: Mohun, Arwen, ed. Gender and Technology: A Reader. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. ISBN: 9780801872594.

ses #  TOPICS Readings
1 Introduction  
2 Gender and History Amazon logo McGaw, Judith. "No Passive Victims, No Separate Spheres: A Feminist Perspective on Technology's History." In In Context: History and the History of Technology. Edited by Stephen Cutcliffe and Robert Post. Bethlehem: Lehigh University Press, 1989, pp. 172-191. ISBN: 9780934223034.
3 How Technologies are Gendered I McGaw, Judith. "Why Feminine Technologies Matter." In Gender and Technology, pp. 13-36.

Oldenziel, Ruth. "Why Masculine Technologies Matter." In Gender and Technology, pp. 37-71.
4 How Technologies are Gendered II Herzig, Rebecca. "Situated Technology: Meanings." In Gender and Technology, pp. 72-97.

Maines, Rachel. "Situated Technology: Camoflage." In Gender and Technology, pp. 98-119.
5 Advertising Gender Amazon logo Ewen, Stuart. Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of Consumer Culture. New York, NY: McGraw Hill, 1977. ISBN: 9780070198463.
6 Redefining Gender by Way of Technology: Workplaces Lerman, Nina. "Industrial Genders: Constructing Boundaries." In Gender and Technology, pp. 123-152.

Mohun, Arwen. "Industrial Genders: Home/Factory." In Gender and Technology, pp. 153-176.
7 Redefining Gender by Way of Technology: Workplaces (cont.) Lipartito, Ken. "When Women Were Switches: Technology, Work and Gender in the Telephone Industry, 1890-1920." American Historical Review 99 (Oct. 1994): 1074-1111.

Edwards, Paul. "Industrial Genders: Soft/Hard." In Gender and Technology, pp. 177-203.
8-9 Technology in the Home Amazon logo Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1985. ISBN: 9780465047321.
10 Technology in the Home (cont.) Finish More Work for Mother.
11 Women in Technology: Medicine Amazon logo Saetnan, Ann Rudinow, Nelly Oudshoorn, and Marta Kirejczyk, eds. Bodies of Technology: Women's Involvement in Reproductive Medicine. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2000. ISBN: 9780814250501.
12 Midterm Exam  
13 Women and Engineering at MIT Gibson, Lorna, et. al. "Report of the School of Engineering." Cambridge, MA: MIT, March 2002. (PDF)
14 Engineering and Masculinity I Amazon logo Oldenziel, Ruth. Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women, and Modern Machines in America, 1870-1945. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2004, first half. ISBN: 9789053563816.
15 Engineering and Masculinity II Finish Making Technology Masculine.
16 Women in Technology: Computers Light, Jennifer. "Programming." In Gender and Technology. pp. 295-326.

Amazon logo Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, 1997, selections. ISBN: 9780684833484.
17 Gender and Aviation  
18 Identity and Consumer Culture I Amazon logo Peiss, Kathy. Hope in a Jar: The Making of America's Beauty Culture. New York, NY: Henry Holt, 1999, first half. ISBN: 9780805055511.
19 Identity and Consumer Culture II Finish Hope in a Jar.
20 Automobility, Freedom, and Constraint I Amazon logo Scharff, Virginia. Taking the Wheel: Women and the Coming of the Motor Age. New York, NY: Free Press, 1992, first half. ISBN: 9780826313959.
21 Automobility, Freedom, and Constraint II Finish Taking the Wheel.
22 Production and Consumption in Modern America Amazon logo Horowitz, Roger, and Arwen Mohun, eds. His and Hers: Gender, Consumption, and Technology. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1998, first half. ISBN: 9780813918020.
23 Production and Consumption in Modern America Finish His and Hers.
24-25 Presentations  

 





Assignments

Paper Assignments

Students will write two short (5 page) papers and one longer (10-12 page) paper. All the papers will explore a single topic from different methodological points of view, culminating in a final research paper on the history of the technology in a gendered framework. For the purposes of this assignment students are urged to select a consumer item for their topic, although any gendered systems (e.g. the military) that is promoted and sold through advertising would work.

Paper 1

Students should locate advertisements promoting the technology in the popular and trade press. A good set of materials would include at least five ads and no more than ten, ideally drawn from a variety of sources. Using our class readings and discussions so far, students should analyze the ads for the ways in which they use gendered images, expectations, and assumptions to appeal to certain consumers. Some questions students might consider include:

What, besides the product, is being "sold" in this ad? To whom is the ad directed? What does the ad suggest about what "real" men and "real" women are like? What are the assumptions about American culture behind the ad?

Note that this paper is not a history of the technology in question, but rather an exploratory analysis of the way in which this technology is situated in social history.

Paper 2

This assignment is a book review. By this time in the term, students should have conducted a bibliographic search for their final paper. In consultation with the professor, students should select one of the historical treatments of the topic and write a review of the book. Students new to book reviewing should consult the journals Technology and Culture, Journal of American History, or Signs to see models of book review format and technique.

In the review, students should briefly walk the reader through the book by explaining what topics and arguments the author explores from the beginning to the end. This is primarily descriptive. Following this, students should briefly evaluate the book, asking one or more of the following questions:

What is the author's main argument? Can you detect what the "bee in her bonnet" is that led her to write this book? Who or what is the author writing against? Is the author's main point or argument persuasive? Does the author's source material (in the footnotes) support the argument, or would some other sort of material have been better as evidence? What did you think was the most successful, and the least successful, parts of the book? Why? How could the book have been stronger?

Paper 3

This is a standard historical research paper. Using mostly primary source materials (e.g., newspapers, magazines, trade journals, archival materials, reports, etc.), students should either provide a narrative story of the development or demise of a technology, or should provide a more theoretical analysis of changing uses and understandings of both gender and technology in the technology's history. With the insights into the topic gleaned from papers one and two, students should be able to explore the primary materials very closely to develop an argument about how gender and technology have been intertwined in American history.




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