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課程來源:MIT
     

6.685 電機機械,2005年秋季班

6.685 Electric Machines, Fall 2005

譯者:吳永村

編輯:陳盈,馬景文


Axial view of a surface mount motor.

取自講義第七章的表面固定型永磁式電動機軸向面。(圖片由James Kirtley教授提供)


課程重點
本課程包括了完整的課堂講稿,以及作業部分附有解答的習題。

 

課程描述
6.685 利用數個電動機為例子,探索電機機械的原理。本課程教導的是對電機系統原理的理解和分析。課程結束後,學生將具有能力可設計旋轉電機與線性電機中主要類別的電機機械,並了解機械構件中的能量轉換原理。除了設計外,學生將學習如何估算電動機的動態參數,並且瞭解在這些電動機所組成的系統中,上述參數對性能的影響。

教學大綱
在Amazon.com購買,您可以支持麻省理工學院的「開放式課程網頁」!由於和Amazon.com結成夥伴關係,只要在MIT OCW點選本課程的書籍名稱,就可以直接連到Amazon.com購買,而MIT OCW最多可以獲得價錢的10%。您的之支持可以讓麻省理工學院繼續提供課程的自由使用。

 

課程描述
本課程的主題包括:變壓器論述,機電式換能器,旋轉和線性電動機;電機機械內部的集總參數;基本機械類型的考量:直流機、感應機、同步機;設備特性的發展:能量轉換密度、效率、與系統互動特性、調整性、穩定性、控制性、和響應,當前研究中的問題。


這門課的主題實際上是...
利用電動機為例子來介紹電機機械,教導麻省理工學院碩士班程度的學生關於機電系統原理的理解和分析。完成本課程後,學生將具能力可設計旋轉電機與線性電機中主要類別的電機機械,並了解機械構件中的能量轉換原理。為了讓學生瞭解重要的現象,教學採取 “嚴格的古典”方式,只有在這些方法都無效時,才會使用數值方法。教學特別著重於各種現象和交互作用的理解,除了設計外,學生將學習如何估算電動機的動態參數,並且瞭解在這些電動機所組成的系統中,上述參數對性能的影響。

課程中會使用現行的研究題目當作例子。在2005-2006年度的學期中,這些例子將包含下列部分:
1. 具備第二組激磁繞線轉子的新型永磁式電機,作為風力發電機之用者。
2. 感應馬達之改進,包括使用較高導電率(銅)之轉子材料、對於負載雜散損失之進一步了解。

課程內也將包括一些實用的元件,包括我們正在製作的縮小版展示機/動力計

 

教學原理
本課程的聽眾為麻省理工學院碩士班學生。我們假設學生是聰明而且自動自發的,不太需要旁人掛心的督促並且知道什麼時候該尋求協助。每週有三小時的講課,進度相當地快。只會論及幾本參考書,還有講師所寫的講義作為補充。我們相當重視作業,題目將取材於教科書和現行研究中發生的問題。有兩次的測驗,沒有期末考試。

教科書
本課程沒有教科書。課堂講義請參閱網頁中課堂講稿部分,這些講義已經包含大部分的重要內容。我們建議兩本書,有興趣者可以參考。

Fitzgerald, A. E., Charled Kingsley, Jr., 與 Stephen D. Umans. 合撰,《電機機械》(Electric Machinery)第五版,麥格羅‧希爾出版社1990年出版,ISBN: 0070211353.。
(譯註:臺灣有第四版中譯本。)

本書對於電機機械有很好的圖片和解釋,適合於基礎的了解。然而,它的分析性不夠好,我們課堂上將大量應用講義。你也許不需要這本書。

Beaty, Wayne H., 與 James L. Kirtley Jr. 合撰,《電動機手冊》(Electric Motor Handbook),麥格羅‧希爾出版社1998年出版。ISBN: 0070359717.

不全然是一本手冊,但也不算是一本教科書,其中擁有一些我們將用到的分析技巧。它比課堂講稿更完整一點,但除此之外,內含資料並沒有比課堂講義多。

 

教學時程
以下所附的行事曆說明本課程的上課(L)和測驗(Q)時間,上課題目可能因講師和學員的興趣而略做調整。

   

課   課程單元   重要日期   
L1 導論、形態、力場描述

發下問題一

L2 能量轉換原理、力

發下問題二

L3 同步機:圓形轉子 

繳回問題一

L4 機械尺寸、功率密度

繳回問題二

發下問題三

L5 傳統的同步機理論

發下問題四

L6 雙反應理論:凸極機

繳回問題三
  
L7 繞組與繞組形態:電感的推導

發下問題五

L8 感應機:利用等效電路推導

繳回問題四

L9 感應機分析,轉矩-速率曲線

繳回問題五


發下問題六

L10 鼠籠式電動機、驅動器

發下問題七


L11 直流機:法拉第定律

繳回問題六


測驗 1

L12 損失之構成:線性導體損失和非線性鐵損

L13 可變磁阻電機原理

發下問題八

L14 永磁式同步電動機 (無刷式直流)

繳回問題七

L15 電機設計與合成系統

發下問題九

L16 設計案例:表面固定型永磁式電機

繳回問題八

L17 雙反應理論和座標轉換

發下問題十

L18 同步機的動態模型

繳回問題九

電機的暫態模擬

發下問題十一

L20 與驅動器的作用:脈衝寬度調變型變流器

繳回問題十

L21 感應電動機的速率控制、發電機的虛功率控制

發下問題十二

L22 再看同步機暫態:線性感應與同步機

繳回問題十一

L23 單相感應機解析(目前的研究)

繳回問題十二

L24 重點複習與進度追趕

Q2 測驗 2

 


課堂講稿
課堂講義由Prof. James Kirtley編寫,分章節編輯而成。這些講義並不保證完全正確,可能有很多小錯誤,但希望對於學員有所幫助,歡迎提出問題或者指正,以使得它能說明得更清楚。


 
   
課程單元   
1 電磁力
Electromagnetic Forces (PDF)   
2 磁路基本原理
Magnetic Circuit Basics (PDF)   
3 渦電流,表面阻抗和損失之構成
Eddy Currents, Surface Impedances and Loss Mechanisms (PDF)   
4 基本的同步機模型
Elementary Synchronous Machine Models (PDF)   
5 繞組電感量
Winding Inductances (PDF)   
6 直流機(具備整流器)及永磁式電機
DC (Commutator) and Permanent Magnet Machines (PDF)   
7 永磁式(無刷式)直流電動機
Permanent Magnet "Brushless" DC Motors (PDF)   
8 感應電機的分析、設計與估算
Analytic Design Evaluation of Induction Machines ()   
9 同步電機模擬模型
Synchronous Machine Simulation Models (PDF

 

作業
這一部分包含了以#符號標記的檔案,代表無法從螢幕上閱讀的軟體。
本課程十分重視作業,學員應先熟讀講義,將觀念弄清楚了,然後才做作業。

 
作業 解答

 
問題集 1 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 2 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 3 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 4 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 5 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 6 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集 7 (PDF) (PDF)
問題集8 (PDF)# (PDF)
問題集 9 (PDF)# (PDF)
問題集 10 (PDF)# (PDF)
問題集 11 (PDF)# (PDF)
問題集12 (PDF) (PDF)

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

6.685 Electric Machines

Fall 2005


Axial view of a surface mount motor.Axial view of a surface mount motor from chapter 7 of the lecture notes. (Image by Prof. James Kirtley.)

Course Highlights

This course features a full set of lecture notes and problem sets with solutions in the assignments section.

Course Description

6.685 explores concepts in electromechanics, using electric machinery as examples. It teaches an understanding of principles and analysis of electromechanical systems. By the end of the course, students are capable of doing electromechanical design of the major classes of rotating and linear electric machines and have an understanding of the principles of the energy conversion parts of Mechatronics. In addition to design, students learn how to estimate the dynamic parameters of electric machines and understand what the implications of those parameters are on the performance of systems incorporating those machines.



Syllabus

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Course Description

This course covers topics including: treatment of transformers, electromechanical transducers, rotating and linear electric machines; lumped parameter electromechanics of interaction; consideration of the basic machine types: dc, induction, synchronous; development of device characteristics: energy conversion density, efficiency, and of system interaction characteristics, regulation, stability, controllability, and response. Problems taken from current research.



This Subject is Really About

This subject is really about electromechanics, using electric machinery as the examples. It teaches, at the level of MIT graduate students, an understanding of principles and analysis of electromechanical systems. At the end of the subject the students will have capability of doing electromechanical design of the major classes of rotating and linear electric machines, and will have an understanding of the principles of the energy conversion parts of Mechatronics. The approach taken is "relentlessly classical" in the sense that it attempts to develop an understanding of the phenomena that are important. A resort to numerical methods is made only as a last resort when other methods will not do. Emphasis is on understanding phenomena and interactions. In addition to design, students will also learn how to estimate the dynamic parameters of electric machines and to understand what the implications of those parameters are on performance of systems incorporating those machines.

Examples are taken from current research. During the academic year 2005-2006, those examples are expected to include some set of:

A novel permanent magnet machine with a second, wound and excited rotor intended for use as a generator for wind turbines. Improvements in induction motors, including the use of higher conductivity rotor materials (copper) and attempts to improve our understanding of stray load loss.

We will also be attempting to include some 'hands on' component to the subject, using relatively small scale demonstration machine/dynamometer sets we are acquiring for this purpose.



Teaching Philosophy

The subject audience is graduate students at MIT. We assume that the students are smart and self-motivated, require little hand-holding and know when to come in and ask for help. There are three hours of lecture per week and these move relatively fast. We make limited reference to a couple of books, but they are supplemented by notes written by the instructor. Heavy emphasis is placed on the homework, with a mix of problems from textbooks and others suggested by current research. There are two quizzes. No final exam.



Textbook

There is no single textbook for the subject. Class notes are provided in the lecture notes section, containing almost everything that is important. We mention two books that might be of interest and for future reference use.

Fitzgerald, A. E., Charled Kingsley, Jr., and Stephen D. Umans. Electric Machinery. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2007. ISBN: 0071230106.
The book is useful for background, has some good explanations and pictures of machines. It is, however, not very analytical and we will be making extensive use of handouts. You may not need it.

Beaty, H. Wayne, and James L. Kirtley, Jr. Electric Motor Handbook. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1998. ISBN: 0070359717.
Not really a handbook but not yet a textbook, this shows some of the analytical techniques we will be using. It is a bit more finished than the class notes but does not contain a lot of material beyond them.





Calendar

The calendar below provides information on the course's lecture (L) and quiz (Q) sessions. The topics are subject to redirection according to shifting interests of the instructor and members of the class.


Course calender. SES # TOPICS KEY DATES
L1 Introduction, Morphology, Field Description of Forces Problem set 1 out
L2 Energy Conversion Principles, Forces Problem set 2 out
L3 Synchronous Machines: Round Rotor Problem set 1 due
L4 Machine Size, Power Density Problem set 2 due

Problem set 3 out
L5 Classical Synchronous Machine Theory Problem set 4 out
L6 Two-Reaction Theory: Salient Pole Machines Problem set 3 due
L7 Windings and Winding Patterns: Development of Inductance Problem set 5 out
L8 Induction Machine: Equivalent Circuit Based Development Problem set 4 due
L9 Induction Machine Analysis, Torque-Speed Curves Problem set 5 due

Problem set 6 out
L10 Squirrel-Cage Motors, Drives Problem set 7 out
L11 DC Machines: Faraday's Law Problem set 6 due
Q1 Quiz 1  
L12 Loss Mechanisms: Linear Conductor and Nonlinear Iron  
L13 Variable Reluctance Machine Principles Problem set 8 out
L14 PM Synchronous Machines ("Brushless DC") Problem set 7 due
L15 Machine Design and Synthesis System Problem set 9 out
L16 Design Case: Surface PM Machine Problem set 8 due
L17 Two-Reaction Theory and Coordinate Transformations Problem set 10 out
L18 Dynamic Models of Synchronous Machines Problem set 9 due
L19 Simulation of Electric Machine Transients Problem set 11 out
L20 Interaction with Drives: PWM Inverters Problem set 10 due
L21 Speed Control of Induction Motors, Reactive Control of Generators Problem set 12 out
L22 MST Revisited: Linear Induction and Synchronous Machines Problem set 11 due
L23 Analysis of single phase Induction Machines (Current Research) Problem set 12 due
L24 Recap and Catch Up  
Q2 Quiz 2  




Lecture Notes

The course notes are written by Prof. James Kirtley and are organized by chapter. The notes come without any warranty. They are intended to be helpful but may be full of errors. Corrections and/or questions which lead to better or clearer explanations will be gratefully received.


Lecture note files. CHAPTER # TOPICS
1 Electromagnetic Forces (PDF)
2 Magnetic Circuit Basics (PDF)
3 Eddy Currents, Surface Impedances and Loss Mechanisms (PDF)
4 Elementary Synchronous Machine Models (PDF)
5 Winding Inductances (PDF)
6 DC (Commutator) and Permanent Magnet Machines (PDF)
7 Permanent Magnet "Brushless" DC Motors (PDF)
8 Analytic Design Evaluation of Induction Machines (PDF)
9 Synchronous Machine Simulation Models (PDF)




Assignments

This section contains documents that could not be made accessible to screen reader software. A # symbol is used to denote such documents.

Heavy emphasis is placed on the homework assignments. Students are encouraged to read chapters or sections of the course notes prior to attempting the homework to get a better understanding of the concepts presented.


Assignment files. ASSIGNMENTS SOLUTIONS
Problem Set 1 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 2 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 3 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 4 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 5 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 6 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 7 (PDF) (PDF)
Problem Set 8 (PDF)# (PDF)
Problem Set 9 (PDF)# (PDF)
Problem Set 10 (PDF)# (PDF)
Problem Set 11 (PDF)# (PDF)
Problem Set 12 (PDF) (PDF)

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有關本課程的討論

中文 Problem Set 2 Solutions內文文字跑掉
如題

Anonymous, 2012-11-20 20:59:53
中文note8講義連結遺失
如標題
Anonymous, 2012-11-20 09:15:36

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