MyOOPS開放式課程
請加入會員以使用更多個人化功能
來自全球頂尖大學的開放式課程,現在由世界各國的數千名義工志工為您翻譯成中文。請免費享用!
課程來源:TED
     

Eric Sanderson談擘劃紐約─城市形成前

Pictures New York -- before the City

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Eric Sanderson

20097月演講,200910月在TED上線

 

翻譯:劉契良

編輯:洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:陳盈

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本  

 

關於這場演講

在亨利‧哈德遜發現紐約港的400年後,Eric Sanderson 分享他如何製作Mannahatta3D地圖,各個街區鉅細靡遺地,顯現城市建立前迷人的山丘、河流及野生動物,而當時的時代廣場是一片荒蕪濕地。

 

關於Eric Sanderson

憑藉著一張18世紀的地圖、一套全球定位系統和大量的資料,Eric Sanderson重新描繪出1609年時的曼哈頓,且剛好趕上紐約建城四百年紀念。

 

為何要聽他演講:

在成為西方文化世界的中心前,曼哈頓叫作Mannahatta─亦即17世紀美洲原住民口中的「多丘之島」,透過電腦建模、刻苦的研究及四處尋訪,野生動物保育協會生態學家Eric Sanderson逐個街區重現1609年時,亨利‧哈德遜首度駛入這座叢林海港的曼哈頓生態。

 

Mannahatta計劃」,呈現出Sanderson令人讚許的研究果實,從現今平坦丘陵地的金融區,到曾是充滿水獺的哈林區,這計劃令人驚喜的視覺饗宴,是由電腦繪圖天才Markley Boyer監製。整體架構圍繞著一本書、一個網站與一份3D地圖,呈現出像「Google地球」般的舊時紐約樣貌。城鎮旁的飾版是為了紀念已消失的小溪或棲息地,不只是哀傷地回顧現在無可避免地被覆蓋掉的原貌,「Mannahatta計劃」更是設計為激發人們對紐約和其他城市生態永續發展的重視。

Mannahatta計劃渴望達到精緻的原貌重現,小至各種苔蘚都鉅細靡遺,進而激發博物學家能擁有像華盛頓般的開創精神…,概念當然是要讓我們能重視自然界的遺跡,即使是在這個生態環境已逐漸沒落之地」。

 

Nick Paumgarten,《紐約客》

 

Eric Sanderson 的英語網上資料

網站:Mannahatta計劃 The Mannahatta Project 

 

[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Eric Sanderson談擘劃紐約─城市形成前

 

未見事物的本質。城市─過去與未來。在牛津這兒,也許我們可將Lewis Carroll做為借鏡,觀看紐約市反映出的現況,並試圖認清我們真實的內在。或許還能穿越到另一個世界,或像F. Scott Fitzgerald所言,「每當明月升高,荒蕪的房屋開始消逝,直到我逐漸意識到這座古老島嶼,曾是荷蘭水手眼中繁花盛開之地,新世界中一處翠綠的處女地。」

 

我和同事花了十年的時間,重新探索這個失落的世界。我們將專案命名為「Mannahatta計劃」。我們試圖重現亨利‧哈德遜船長於1609912日下午所見的一切,就是他駛入紐約港的當天。我會將故事分成三段來訴說,如果還有時間的話,再做一個總結。

 

故事的開頭:發現一個地圖。

我不是在紐約長大。我成長於西部Sierra Nevada山區,如圖所示,就在紅岩峽谷。也因為這些孩提時的經歷,我學會熱愛地景。所以在我做研究生報告時,選擇了「地景生態」這個新興的研究範疇。地景生態是關於溪流、草地、森林與懸崖如何成為動植物的棲息地。這些經驗與訓練,引領我順利在「野生動物保育協會」獲得一份極佳的工作,致力於拯救全世界的野生動植物與荒野地貌。過去十年中,我已到過40多個國家,親睹美洲豹、熊、大象、老虎和犀牛。

 

但每次我回國時,我都會回到紐約市。週末時,我也會像觀光客一樣上到帝國大廈的頂端,往下看著那裡的地景及生態系統。然後,我會想,「這個地景是如何成為動植物的棲息地?它如何成為像我這種動物的棲息地?」我也會到時代廣場,看著牆上令人驚豔的美女。然後想,為何沒有人看看她們背後的歷史人物?我也到中央公園去,看著中央公園起伏的地形,對比著陡峭的曼哈頓中城地形。

 

我開始閱讀紐約市的歷史和地理。然後我讀到,紐約市曾是第一座巨型城市,在1950年時就擁有一千萬以上的人口。我開始檢視這樣的畫作。台下來自紐約的人請注意,這是西城高速公路下的125街。(笑聲)這曾經是一處海灘,畫中有畫家John James Audubon坐在岩石上的身影,上方滿是林木的高點即是華盛頓高地。傑佛瑞虎克燈塔方向,即是今日喬治‧華盛頓大橋橫跨的所在。

 

或是這幅1740年代描繪格林威治村的圖畫,兩名國王學院(即後來的哥倫比亞大學)學生,坐在山丘上俯視著山谷。但我到格林威治村想找出這座山丘時,卻已遍尋不著。當然也找不到那棵棕櫚樹。怎麼會有那棵棕櫚樹?(笑聲)

 

但也就在這樣的尋訪過程中,我找到了一張地圖。就是螢幕上的這張。它存在地理資訊系統中,所以我可以進行縮放。這張地圖並非出自哈德遜時期,而是在美國革命時。170年之後,由一位英國軍事製圖師繪製,在其軍隊佔領紐約市之時。這是很了不起的一張地圖,現存於貴國Kew地區的國家檔案館中。長10呎,寬3.5呎。

 

如果我們放大曼哈頓下城,就可以看出紐約市當初的幅員,就是美國革命末期當時的情形。這裡是Bowling Green,這兒是百老匯,還有市府公園。所以,當時城市基本上是延伸到市府公園。再往上走,便能看到地形已改變,景觀已消失。這兒曾是紐約市飲水水源的Collect水塘。它曾在最初200年供應用水。對美洲原住民而言,年代更可以推溯至數千年之前。你也可以看到Lispenard草地。水道流過此處,即Tribeca現址。而海灘更是從Battery一路延伸上來,直達42街。

 

這張地圖是因軍事用途而製,所以,描繪出道路、建築、防禦工事等這些主體。但他們也繪製出具生態研究價值的東西。當然這也有軍事上的價值,如山丘、沼澤與溪流。這是Richmond Hill,還有Minetta Water,即曾流經格林威治村的河流。Gramercy Park的沼澤在這兒,還有Murray Hill。這是Murray's House,200年前位於Murray Hill上。這裡是時代廣場。這兩條河川匯流形成一處濕地,就在時代廣場的位置,時間是美國革命末期。

 

我是在一本書上看到這張了不起的地圖。當時我想,「如果我可以對這張地圖進行地理座標參照,如果我可以把這張地圖放在今日紐約市的格線上,我就能找出關於這座城市失落的景觀。一塊塊拼出人們熟悉的地貌,人們上班地點,和他們居住地方的地貌,還有他們喜好的食肆。」經過一些努力之後,我們對它進行了地理座標參照,讓我們能放入現代的城市街道、建築和開放空間。之後,我們便能放大Collect水塘的所在地,我們也能將Collect水塘和溪流數位化,以看出這些地點在現今城市中的實際位置。有趣的是在於找出事物對比於舊地形的位置。

 

但我對這張地圖有另一個主意。假設我們移除街道、建築,也移除開放空間,然後我們可以再利用這張地圖。假設我們移除18世紀的景觀,我們便能穿越時空,使其回復它的基本生態,諸如山丘、溪流、基礎的水文、海岸線、海灘這些形塑生態景觀的基礎層面。

 

然後,再加入像地質,床岩地質和表面地質、冰川遺跡或是土壤地圖,內含17種土壤類型,這是經國家土壤保育署所定義的。我們也可用數值高程模型,描繪出代表山高的地形,我們便能計算坡度,算出方位。也能算出冬季風向,算出掃過地景的冬季冷風走向。地圖上白色部份是不會受冬季冷風吹襲的地方。

 

我們匯編了美洲原住民Lenape族所有曾居住地點的資訊, 並建立一張他們可能駐足地點的機率地圖。所以這張地圖上的紅點即是曼哈頓最適合人類永續發展的地方。包含近水區域、可供漁撈的海港近處、及免受冬季寒風吹襲的地點。我們瞭解到Lenape聚落曾落腳於Collect水塘附近。我們也瞭解到他們有園藝種植活動。他們開闢了美麗的玉米、豆類和南瓜花園,即「蔬菜三姐妹」花園。

 

於是我們建立一套模型,來描繪這些田地現在的位置,還有舊時田地及其後續的情況。一般人可能會認為這些田地都已荒廢。但事實上,它們只是變成草原,成為草原鳥類與植物的棲地,或是接續形成灌木林地。這一切隨後都和所有生態社群混合在同一地圖中。結論是,曼哈頓曾擁有55種不同的生態系統種類。你能將這些想像成是不同的鄰里。其獨特性就像Tribeca、上東城區和Inwood,只是它們是森林、濕地、海生聚落和海灘。

 

以單位面積來看,55種確實很多。曼哈頓曾擁有的生態群落,以每英畝單位來看,比優勝美地還多,也比黃石公園和Ambaselli國家公園多。那真是令人意想不到的景觀。足以支撐起一個很不一樣的生態多樣性系統。

 

第二段:重建家園。

我們研究魚類、蛙類、鳥類和蜂類,發現曼哈頓曾經擁有85種不同的魚類。新英格蘭草原松雞是已絕跡的物種。還有曾經可在所有溪中發現的河狸及黑熊。還有美國原住民,我們研究他們如何利用及看待他們的地景。我們試圖繪製出這些東西。而為了達到這個目的,我們繪製出他們的棲息所需。

 

他們從何處獲取食物?還有飲水?遮蔽處?他們從何處獲得繁殖資源?以生態學家的角度來看,這一切的交點是棲息地。但對於大多數人而言,交點卻是他們稱為家的地方。我們繼續閱讀田野指南,標準的田野指南,也就是你們書架上可能都有的那一種。誠如大家所知,河狸需要的是「流速和緩且曲折的溪流,河邊要有山楊、赤楊和柳樹,位於水邊。」這是最適合河狸的環境。

 

所以,我們開始製作列表。左邊是河狸,右邊是溪流、山楊、赤楊和柳樹。這就是我們所需的地圖,可以用來預測找得到河狸的地點。或是像牟氏龜需要草地、昆蟲和有陽光的地方。山貓需要野兔、河狸和獸穴。很快地,我們開始瞭解到河狸可能是山貓所需的獵物。但河狸也有所需之物,所以無論是獵食或是被獵食,我們都能將其串連起來,創立一個網路,串連這些物種的棲地關係。

 

此外,我們瞭解到,你可以開始成為一位河狸專家。你還可以探究山楊需要什麼。山楊需要火和乾土。你也可以探究潮溼草地需要什麼。它需要河狸來建立濕地。可能還有其他的東西。你也可以討論有陽光的地方。有陽光的地方需要什麼?不是棲地本身,而是什麼樣的條件讓它充滿陽光?或是火、乾土。這樣你就可以將這些畫在1,000欄的格線上方,左側也填入1,000欄的資料。然後我們便能像網路般形象化這份資料,如同一個社群網路。

 

這就是所有棲地關係的網路圖。所有曼哈頓的動植物,及其所需的一切。就能回溯到當初的地質情況,回溯到網路核心當初的時空。我們稱此為「繆爾網路」,放大後會變成這樣。每一點都代表著不同的物種,或是溪流、土壤種類。而細灰線即是將其連結在一起的連線。這些連線復原了自然的狀態,其結構正是自然運作的動力,藉此全盤一目了然。我們稱此為「繆爾網路」,以紀念蘇格蘭-美國博物學家約翰‧繆爾。他說,「當我們試圖辨認出任何事物時,總會發現它立即牽動上千條隱形的線索,密不可分的與宇宙中所有事物相連。」

 

我們引用了繆爾網路,將其置入我們的地圖中。假設我們要到8586街,及Lex和第3大道之間的地點。也許那兒曾有一條小溪流貫其間,而這可能就是曾生長在該處的樹木,還有花朵、地衣和苔蘚,蝴蝶、溪中的魚和樹上的鳥。也許還有一種森林響尾蛇曾生活在那,或黑熊曾遊蕩其中,美洲原住民曾落腳該處。我們應用了這些資料。

 

你可以親自到我們的網站上參觀。你可以放大曼哈頓任何一塊區域,瞧瞧其400年前的樣貌。我們嘗試將其用於展露一種景致。

第三段

我們使用好萊塢所使用的工具,來製作這些像電影般的驚奇景致。

 

我們試著用它來使第三大道形象化。我們取得地景,建立地形。將土壤和水道擺上,並調亮地景。圖中也會加上生態群落,並加入不同物種。為此,我們會實際拍攝影像,飛越時代廣場,朝哈德遜河的方向,等待哈德遜的到來。使用這項科技,我們可以製作這些絕妙的地理座標參照景觀。基本上,我們可以將曼哈頓任何一扇窗外的景色,轉換成其400年前的地貌。

 

這是從東河向Murray Hill看去的景觀,即今日聯合國的所在位置。這是由哈德遜河上游向下俯瞰的景色。曼哈頓在左邊,紐澤西州在右邊,遠處是大西洋。這是時代廣場的鳥瞰,可以看到河狸水塘,視野落在東方,我們也能看到Collect水塘,Lispenard沼澤就在其後。還有美洲原住民耕作的田地。這是紐約今日的城市地貌。所以當你看到影集《法律與秩序》中的律師爬上階梯,他們事實上是走下紐約法院前的階梯,然後走進Collect水塘,如果是400年前的話。

 

這些影像都是我的朋友兼同事Mark Boyer的傑作,他今天有到現場,我想請各位給他鼓鼓掌,感謝他的完美表現。(掌聲)

 

科學與視覺化融合所產生的力量,讓我們創造了這些影像。也許請看看鏡子的兩面。雖然我今天只有簡短的演講時間,但我希望你們能心懷感恩,因為Mannahatta是一個非常特別的地方。圖片左側與右側之處,因其多樣性而相息息相關,而其中的活力正是我們現代世界所需。

 

但請不要認為我不喜歡城市。我非常喜愛紐約,我喜愛這座城市及它的多樣性與活力,還有依存於其上的稠密人口,以及人們間緊密相連的關係。事實上,我覺得它們是一體兩面的。如同Lewis Carroll在「鏡中奇緣」中所描述的,我們可將兩者比較,並同時置於心中。兩者是一體的,城市無法脫離自然。我想這就是我們未來建造城市所需學習的部份。

 

現在我來做個簡短的總結。無關過去,而是關於往後的400年。我們已明瞭的是,城市是人類的棲息處,它需要供應人類所需。包括家的感覺、食物、飲水和遮風擋雨處、繁殖的資源和有意義的感覺,這是針對人性特別增列的棲息需求。許多TED演講都與意義相關,關於將意義帶入我們生活中。藉由不同的方法,透過科技、藝術和科學,以及很多其他事物。我們多半將焦點集中在生活方面,以致於沒有好好地注意食物、飲水和遮蔽處,以及我們養育小孩所需。

 

我們如何展望未來之城?如果我們走到麥迪遜廣場公園,想像一下四處無車,只有腳踏車及大片的森林、溪流,而不是下水道及排水溝?想像一下上東城區被綠色植物所覆蓋,小溪蜿蜒流過城市,風車能提供我們所需的電力?或是想像一下整個紐約大都會區。目前是1200萬人的家,但未來將有1200萬人可能住在擁擠的曼哈頓,而其僅佔此區36%的土地面積,其間遍佈農牧地、濕地,還有我們所需的沼澤。

 

我想這才是我們所需的未來。這樣的未來蘊含相同的生物多樣性、豐富性及曼哈頓特有的活力,但同時能學習過去的永續生存之道。無論是生態,原始生態,或是自然的一切。非常感謝。(掌聲)

 

 

 

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

400 years after Hudson found New York harbor, Eric Sanderson shares how he made a 3D map of Mannahatta's fascinating pre-city ecology of hills, rivers, wildlife -- accurate down to the block -- when Times Square was a wetland and you couldn't get delivery.

About Eric Sanderson

Armed with an 18th-century map, a GPS and reams of data, Eric Sanderson has re-plotted the Manhattan of 1609, just in time for New York's quadricentennial. Full bio and more links

Transcription

The substance of things unseen. Cities, past and future. In Oxford, perhaps we can use Lewis Carroll and look in the looking glass that is New York City to try and see our true selves, or perhaps pass through to another world. Or, in the words of F. Scott Fitzgerald, "As the moon rose higher, the inessential houses begin to melt away until gradually I became aware of the old island here that once flowered for Dutch sailor's eyes, a fresh green breast of the new world."

My colleagues and I have been working for 10 years to rediscover this lost world, in a project we call The Mannahatta Project. We're trying to discover what Henry Hudson would have seen on the afternoon of September 12th, 1609, when he sailed into New York harbor. And I'd like to tell you the story in three acts. And if I have time still, an epilogue.

So, Act I: A Map Found. So, I didn't grow up in New York. I grew up out west in the Sierra Nevada mountains, like you see here, in the Red Rock Canyon. And from these early experiences as a child I learned to love landscapes. And so when it became time for me to do my graduate studies, I studied this emerging field of landscape ecology. Landscape ecology concerns itself with how the stream and the meadow and the forest and the cliffs make habitats for plants and animals. This experience and this training lead me to get a wonderful job with the Wildlife Conservation Society, which works to save wildlife and wild places all over the world. And over the last decade, I traveled to over 40 countries to see jaguars and bears and elephants and tigers and rhinos.

But every time I would return from my trips I'd return back to New York City. And on my weekends I would go up, just like all the other tourists, to the top of the Empire State Building, and I'd look down on this landscape, on these ecosystems, and I'd wonder, "How does this landscape work to make habitat for plants and animals? How does it work to make habitat for animals like me?" I'd go to Times Square and I'd look at the amazing ladies on the wall, and wonder why nobody is looking at the historical figures just behind them. I'd go to Central Park and see the rolling topography of Central Park come up against the abrupt and sheer topography of midtown Manhattan.

I started reading about the history and the geography in New York City. I read that New York City was the first mega-city, a city of 10 million people or more, in 1950. I started seeing paintings like this. For those of you who are from New York, this is 125th street under the West Side Highway. (Laughter) It was once a beach. And this painting has John James Audubon, the painter, sitting on the rock. And it's looking up on the wooded heights of Washington Heights, to Jeffrey's Hook, where the George Washington Bridge goes across today.

Or this painting, from the 1740s, from Greenwich Village. Those are two students at King's College -- later Columbia University -- sitting on a hill, overlooking a valley. And so I'd go down to Greenwich Village and I'd look for this hill. And I couldn't find it. And I couldn't find that palm tree. What's that palm tree doing there? (Laughter)

So, it was in the course of these investigations that I ran into a map. And it's this map you see here. It's held in a geographic information system which allows me to zoom in. This map isn't from Hudson's time, but from the American revolution, 170 years later, made by British military cartographers during the occupation of New York City. And it's a remarkable map. It's in the National Archives here in Kew. And it's 10 feet long and three and a half feet wide.

And if I zoom in to lower Manhattan you can see the extent of New York City as it was, right at the end of the American Revolution. Here's Bowling Green. And here's Broadway. And this is City Hall Park. So the city basically extended to City Hall Park. And just beyond it you can see features that have vanished, things that have disappeared. This is the Collect Pond, which was the fresh water source for New York City for its first 200 years, and for the Native Americans for thousands of years before that. You can see the Lispenard Meadows draining down through here, through what is Tribeca now, and the beaches that come up from the Battery, all the way to 42nd St.

This map was made for military reasons. They're mapping the roads, the buildings, these fortifications that they built. But they're also mapping things of ecological interest, also military interest: the hills, the marshes, the streams. This is Richmond Hill, and Minetta Water which used to run its way through Greenwich Village. Or the swamp at Gramercy Park, right here. Or Murray Hill. And this is the Murray's house on Murray Hill, 200 years ago. Here is Times Square, the two streams that came together to make a wetland in Times Square, as it was at the end of the American Revolution.

So I saw this remarkable map in a book. And I thought to myself, "You know, if I could georeference this map, if I could place this map in the grid of the city today, I could find these lost features of the city, in the block-by-block geography that people know, the geography of where people go to work, and where they go to live, and where they like to eat." So, after some work we were able to georeference it, which allows us to put the modern streets on the city, and the buildings, and the open spaces, so that we can zoom in to where the Collect Pond is. We can digitize the Collect Pond and the streams, and see where they actually are in the geography of the city today. So this is fun for finding where things are relative to the old topography.

But I had another idea about this map. If we take away the streets, and if we take away the buildings, and if we take away the open spaces, then we could take this map. If we pull off the 18th century features we could drive it back in time. We could drive it back to its ecological fundamentals: to the hills, to the streams, to the basic hydrology and shoreline, to the beaches, the basic aspects that make the ecological landscape.

Then, if we added maps like the geology, the bedrock geology, and the surface geology, what the glaciers leave, if we make the soil map, with the 17 soil classes, that are defined by the National Soil Conservation Service, if we make a digital elevation model of the topography that tells us how high the hills were, then we can calculate the slopes. We can calculate the aspect. We can calculate the winter wind exposure -- so, which way the winter winds blow across the landscape. The white areas on this map are the places protected from the winter winds.

We compiled all the information about where the Native Americans were, the Lenape. And we built a probability map about where they might have been. So, the red areas on this map indicate the places that are best for human sustainability on Manhattan, places that are close to water, places that are near the harbor to fish, places protected from the winter winds. We know that there was a Lenape settlement down here by the Collect Pond. And we knew that they planted a kind of horticulture, that they grew these beautiful gardens of corn, beans, and squash, the "Three Sisters" garden.

So, we built a model that explains where those fields might have been. And the old fields, the successional fields that go. And we might think of these as abandoned. But, in fact, they're grassland habitats for grassland birds and plants. And they have become successional shrub lands, and these then mix in to a map of all the ecological communities. And it turns out that Manhattan had 55 different ecosystem types. You can think of these as neighborhoods, as distinctive as Tribeca, and the Upper East Side, and Inwood -- that these are the forest and the wetlands and the marine communities, the beaches.

And 55 is a lot. On a per-area basis, Manhattan had more ecological communities per acre than Yosemite does, than Yellowstone, than Ambaselli. It was really an extraordinary landscape that was capable of supporting an extraordinary biodiversity.

So, Act Two: A Home Reconstructed. So, we studied the fish and the frogs and the birds and the bees, the 85 different kinds of fish that were on Manhattan, the Heath hens, the species that aren't there anymore, the beavers on all the streams, the black bears, and the native Americans, to study how they used and thought about their landscape. We wanted to try and map these. And to do that what we did was we mapped their habitat needs.

Where do they get their food? Where do they get their water? Where do they get their shelter? Where do they get their reproductive resources? To an ecologist, the intersection of these is habitat. But to most people, the intersection of these is their home. So, we would read in field guides, the standard field guides that maybe you have on your shelves, you know, what beavers need is "A slowly meandering stream with aspen trees and alders and willows, near the water." That's the best thing for a beaver.

So we just started making a list. Here is the beaver. And here is the stream, and the aspen and the alder and the willow. As if these were the maps that we would need to predict where you would find the beaver. Or the bog turtle, needing wet meadows and insects and sunny places. Or the bobcat, needing rabbits and beavers and den sites. And rapidly we started to realize that beavers can be something that a bobcat needs. But a beaver also needs things. And that having it on either side means that we can link it together, that we can create the network of the habitat relationships for these species.

Moreover, we realized that you can start out as being a beaver specialist, but you can look up what an aspen needs. An aspen needs fire and dry soils. And you can look at what a wet meadow needs. And it need beavers to create the wetlands, and maybe some other things. But you can also talk about sunny places. So, what does a sunny place need? Not habitat per se. But what are the conditions that make it possible? Or fire. Or dry soils. And that you can put these on a grid that's 1,000 columns long across the top and 1,000 rows down the other way. And then we can visualize this data like a network, like a social network.

And this is the network of all the habitat relationships of all the plants and animals on Manhattan, and everything they needed, going back to the geology, going back to time and space at the very core of the web. We call this the Muir Web. And if you zoom in on it it looks like this. Each point is a different species or a different stream, or a different soil type. And those little gray lines are the connections that connect them together. They are the connections that actually make nature resilient. And the structure of this is what makes nature work, seen with all its parts. We call these Muir Webs after the Scottish-American naturalist John Muir, who said, "When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find that it's bound fast by a thousand invisible cords that can not be broken, to everything in the universe."

So then we took the Muir webs and we took them back to the maps. So if we wanted to go between 85th and 86th, and Lex and 3rd, maybe there was a stream in that block. And would be the kind of trees that might have been there. and the flowers and the lichens and the mosses, the butterflies, the fish in the stream, the birds in the trees. Maybe a timber rattlesnake lived there. And perhaps a black bear walked by. And maybe Native Americans were there. And then we took this data.

You can see this for yourself on our website. You can zoom into any block on Manhattan, and see what might have been there 400 years ago. And we used it to try and reveal a landscape here in Act Three. We used the tools they use in Hollywood to make these fantastic landscapes that we all see in the movies.

And we tried to use it to visualize 3rd Avenue. So we would take the landscape and we would build up the topography. We'd lay on top of that the soils and the waters and illuminate the landscape. We would lay on top of that the map of the ecological communities. And feed into that the map of the species. So that we would actually take a photograph, flying above Times Square, looking toward the Hudson River, waiting for Hudson to come. Using this technology, we can make these fantastic georeferenced views. We can basically take a picture out of any window on Manhattan and see what that landscape looked like 400 years ago.

This is the view from the East River, looking up Murray Hill at where the United Nations is today. This is the view looking down the Hudson River, with Manhattan on the left, and New Jersey out on the right, looking out toward the Atlantic Ocean. This is the view over Times Square, with the beaver pond there, looking out toward the east. So we can see the Collect Pond, and Lispenard Marshes back behind. We can see the fields that the Native Americans made. And we can see this in the geography of the city today. So when you're watching Law and Order, and the lawyers walk up the steps they could have walked back down those steps of the New York Court House, right into the Collect Pond, 400 years ago.

So these images are the work of my friend and colleague, Mark Boyer, who is here in the audience today. And I'd just like, if you would give him a hand, to call out for his fine work. (Applause)

There is such power in bringing science and visualization together, that we can create images like this. Perhaps looking on either side of a looking glass. And even though I've only had a brief time to speak, I hope you appreciate that Mannahatta was a very special place. The place that you see here on the left side was interconnected. It was based on this diversity. It had this resilience that is what we need in our modern world.

But I wouldn't have you think that I don't like the place on the right, which I quite do. I've come to love the city and its kind of diversity, and its resilience, and its dependence on density and how we're connected together. In fact that I see them as reflections of each other. Much as Lewis Carroll did in "Through the Looking Glass." We can compare these two and hold them in our minds at the same time, that they really are the same place, that there is no way that cities can escape from nature. And I think this is what we're learning about building cities in the future.

So if you'll allow me a brief epilogue, not about the past, but about 400 years from now, what we're realizing is that cities are habitats for people, and need to supply what people need: a sense of home, food, water, shelter, reproductive resources, and a sense of meaning. This is the particular additional habitat requirement of humanity. And so many of the talks here at TED are about meaning, about bringing meaning to our lives in all kinds of different ways, through technology, through art, through science, so much so that I think we focus so much on that side of our lives, that we haven't given enough attention to the food and the water and the shelter, and what we need to raise the kids.

So, how can we envision the city of the future? Well what if we go to Madison Square Park, and we imagine it without all the cars, and bicycles instead, and large forests, and streams instead of sewers and storm drains? What if we imagined the Upper East Side with green roofs, and streams winding through the city, and windmills supplying the power we need? Or if we imagine the New York City metropolitan area, currently home to 12 million people, but 12 million people in the future, perhaps living at the density of Manhattan, in only 36 percent of the area, with the areas in between covered by farmland, covered by wetlands, covered by the marshes we need.

This is the kind of future I think we need, is a future that has the same diversity and abundance and dynamism of Manhattan, but that learns from the sustainability of the past, of the ecology, the original ecology, of nature with all its parts. Thank you very much. (Applause)


留下您對本課程的評論
標題:
您目前為非會員,留言名稱將顯示「匿名非會員」
只能進行20字留言

留言內容:

驗證碼請輸入5 + 4 =

標籤

現有標籤:1
新增標籤:


有關本課程的討論

gGlLYfGOXbecwzyjb
greg.txt;1;3

Anonymous, 2014-01-28 14:50:59
課程討論
先說聲抱歉,如果打擾到您們。 誠摯告訴您一個機會:  你想致富嗎? 相信我 ! 這是一個已被眾多名人保證最有效, 低 門 檻 的 創 業 -> http://azyyeayzz.weebly.com/
workonet, 2010-10-13 15:05:52

Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。
協助推廣單位: