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課程來源:MIT
     
歐巴馬談可更新能源政策
President Obama Pushes Clean Energy speech at MIT
 
講者:Barack Obama
2009年10月23日於麻省理工學院演講,同月在MIT Library上線
 
譯者:劉契良
編輯:洪曉慧
簡繁轉換:陳盈
後製:劉契良
字幕影片後製:謝旻均
 
 
 
關於這場演講
歐巴馬總統邀請全美加入這場以潔淨能源引領全球經濟的競賽,並進而創造在地工作,讓大家免於依賴外國石油,讓我們的生活最安全。
  
 
演講本文
非常感謝,請就座,感謝麻省理工學院(掌聲),我很榮幸能受邀到訪,我的夢想之一即是造訪麻省劍橋最有名望的學府(掌聲),請等一下,當然是麻省劍橋市這一區最有名望的學府(笑聲),我會待上一會兒,我知道有一些工學院學生在Building 10上捉弄我的車隊(笑聲),這讓你看到麻省理工學院的另一面,即每個人都放下了週期表(笑聲),怎麼啦?(笑聲)
 
 
我要感謝你們的熱情歡迎,還有你們全體正在做的工作,生產與測試維繫我們未來經濟與生活深遠願景的新思維,我特別要感謝兩位傑出的麻省理工學院教授,Eric Lander及剛在台上演講的Ernie Moniz,因為他們服務於我科學與技術顧問委員會中的出色表現,在研擬聯邦政府能如何有效對抗H1N1病毒的威脅上,他們更是幫了大忙,我由衷的感謝他們。
 
 
今天現場還有一些貴賓,我想要簡短地介紹一下,首先,我的好友且是麻省地區科學與技術的擁護鬥士,我的朋友Deval Patrick人在現場(掌聲),副州長Tim Murray在場(掌聲),檢察總長Martha Coakley在場(掌聲),州審計長Joe DeNucci在場(掌聲),劍橋市長Denise Simmons在場(掌聲),波士頓市長Tom Menino不在場,但他到機場接我,表現很好(笑聲),他祝我一切順利,有一位是華府過去20年來的全明星,但去年特別突出,表現顯見於各種議題,從阿富汗到潔淨能源等每一件事,一位好朋友─John Kerry,請為John Kerry鼓掌(掌聲),另一位了不起的國會成員,我相信這是你的選區,對嗎?!Mike,Mike Capuano,請為Mike用力鼓掌(掌聲)。
 
 
Moniz博士也是麻省理工學院能源計劃MITEI的主任,他和Hockfield院長剛向我展示了學院所執行的一些非凡的能源研究,像是能將太陽光線導向太陽能蓄電池,進而產生電力的窗戶輕量、高效能的電池,不是做出來的,而是培養出來的,這真是很神奇,用工程病毒來生產電池,更有效的照明系統仰賴奈米科技而生,還有創意十足的工程,能將國外風力發電傳回國內使用,讓無風時亦能享有電力的夢想成真。
 
 
這提醒了大家一件事,你們都是發明傳統的接班人,不只有在場人士,還有全美所有的人,因為發明改善了我們的健康與福祉,並助我們達到今日無可取代的繁榮盛況,今天前來的路上,我和Kerry議員與Deval州長說,能來到這兒真是令人感到很興奮,因為這些表現優異的年輕人和領導有方的Hockfield教授,為美國添加了一些必要的元素,這些勇敢的先生女士們承繼了一項優良傳統,將他們的才能與努力灌注到追求新發現,而美國也延續了一項優良的傳統─支持這些大膽的少數者,因為他們願意為一個可能會失敗的想法冒險,但這想法也可能改變世界。
 


就算是在美國所見最黑暗的年代裡,我們總是在找尋一條光明的地平線,回想一下,就在內戰硝煙正旺之時,林肯總統制定了土地授予學院系統,包括麻省理工學院在內,因此讓數以百萬人可以擠身高等教育的窄門,另外,在二次世界大戰結束的前一整年,羅斯福總統簽署了GI法案,引爆一波強勁且影響深遠的市佔經濟成長,還有在蘇維埃發射了第一顆環繞地球軌道的人造衛星Sputnik之後,美國繼起並贏得太空競賽,因為我們投資科學與技術帶領人類不只是踏上月球的一小步,還給地球創造了巨大的經濟效益,所以,這證明了我們一直都很關注發明,還有新發現,那是我們DNA的一部份。



但事實上,我們也面臨比,前幾個世代更複雜的挑戰,例如,一套承諾鬆綁新對策的醫療系統,附加於可能會讓家庭,企業與我們政府破產的醫療系統,一個全球的市場,連結的不只是華爾街交易員,還有一般市井小民及中國工廠工人,這是一個我們共享機會的經濟,但也必需共同承擔危機,我們的安全也面臨威脅,我們的安全威脅來自於那些企圖剝奪促成我們繁榮所需之相互關聯與開放基礎的人,帶動我們經濟起飛的能源系統亦威脅到我們的安全,並危害了我們的地球,雖然,今日的挑戰不同,但我們必需擁有相同的開創精神,那是我們成功的永恆中心要素。
 
 
而這更是完全應證到能源議題上,對於從石化能源過渡到可更新能源的作法上,肯定會有諸多的討論空間,我們也瞭解世上不存在萬靈仙丹,但對於如何從進口石油經濟提升為出口,潔淨能源科技的作法,肯定會引起諸多的辯論,我們如何駕馭麻省理工學院所展示的發明潛能來創造出數百萬計的工作機會,我們又要如何帶領世界防範氣候變化將造成的最嚴重後果,這些都將引爆各種形式的激辯,無論是在實驗室,還是國會,但毫無疑問地,我們都必須做到上述的一切。
 
 
現今世界各地的國家都得承認能源供應日益匱乏,而需求卻不斷擴大,且進一步使用能源會危及我們遺留給後代的地球,因此整個世界正積極地參與一場和平的競爭,以決定驅動21世紀能源的科技,從中國到印度、從日本到德國,所有的國家都在比賽研發新式生產與使用能源的方式,最後贏得競賽的國家終將主宰全球經濟,我對這點確信不移,而且要美國成為最終的贏家,就這麼簡單。(掌聲)
 
 
這是為何一月通過的「經濟復甦法案」會包含史上最大宗的潔淨能源投資方案,那不只是要用以終結這場經濟衰退,更是要為永續繁榮奠定新基,「經濟復甦法案」包含投入800億的經費,讓數以千計的美國人投身研發複合式汽車專用的新電池科技;全國電網現代化,讓我們的家庭與商業能更有效地使用能源及讓可更新電力的產能提升兩倍,這些措施都在創造私營領域的工作機會,例如:能源屋、汽車與卡車的生產、升級為智慧型電表、裝置太陽能電板、組建風力渦輪發電機,並在全國設置新裝備、工廠與實驗室,同時,還會贊助傑出的研究。
 
 
事實上,再過幾週,就在波士頓此地,工人就會開始破土興建嶄新的「風力技術測試中心」,這個專案的落實都靠「經濟復甦法案」2500萬美元的投資,還有麻省及其夥伴的支持,我想再次強調,州長Patrick的領導風格與遠見促成本專案順利上路,他在今天來這兒的路上一直在推銷麻省,我回他說:「你不用推銷,我早就愛上麻省了」。(掌聲)
 
 
但他力挺這一切的落實。(掌聲)
 
 
數以百計的人都將參與這間新測試設施的興建,但其利益遠超過這一切工程,這將是美國研究人員第一次能測試全球最新、最大的風力渦輪葉片,其長度約像一座足球場,相對地,它將可讓美國企業研發出最有效節能的渦輪,並在往後20年,引領一個市值估計超過2兆美元的市場,這項補助和其他用在麻省的「經濟復甦法案」投資,將有助創造本地及全國的潔淨能源相關工作,這都有賴你們州長的努力,他一直努力讓麻省保持在潔淨能源領導的地位,無論是增加可更新電力的供應、讓太陽能產能提升四倍,或是讓麻省節能投資提升三倍,所有的一切都有助於創造新工作機會及產業(掌聲),這真的值得為他鼓掌。(掌聲)
 
 
我們不只是投資現有的技術,還要投資會引領明日技術的科學,「經濟復甦法案」,提供科學研究史上最大的單一挹注,我要再次強調,「經濟復甦法案」-刺激經濟方案是科學研究史上最大的單一挹注(掌聲),加碼,資金的加碼已讓這個校園不一樣,而我的預算案也讓研究與實驗永遠可以扣抵稅額,這能激發創新與工作機會,讓每1塊錢的成本,反在經濟中增加2塊錢的活動。
 
 
這一切的高潮有賴全面立法的通過,最終讓可更新能源成為美國可獲利式的能源,John Kerry正在推動這項立法,他在跨黨派合作方面獲得長足進展,因為這不應是黨派問題,每一位美國人都有責任(掌聲),每一位美國人都有責任推動立法,將我們的能源系統轉化為更節能、更潔淨,而且讓美國的能源獨立,善用我們豐富的資源,包括如何善用往後幾十年我們都無可避免還要繼續使用的石化燃料,諸如媒、石油及天然氣,另外,還要思索如何更有效、潔淨地善用上述燃料,創造安全的核能,永續的,可永續生產的生化燃料。
 
 
最後是我們能善用的風力、波浪與太陽能等能源,這項轉化將會儘快且謹慎地落實,確保我們現在所做的事能促進短、中、長期經濟目標的成長,我相信輿論也正朝這個方向推進,五角大廈已正式宣佈,我們對石化燃料的依賴是一項安全威脅,自伊拉克及阿富汗退伍的軍人正巡迴全國為Operation Free奔走,宣導終結我們對石油依賴的訴求,今天也有幾位在現場(掌聲),就在那(掌聲)、
 
 
國內的年輕子弟,我在全美各地所遇到的年輕人,他們瞭解到這是他們這個世代所面臨的挑戰,商界領袖與環衛領袖正站在同一陣線,為保護將遺留子孫的經濟與地球而戰,眾議院已通過歷史性的立法,麻省議員Ed Markey的努力斡旋貢獻良多,他值得大家為他用力鼓掌(掌聲),我們現在可以看到著名共和黨員像Lindsey Graham參議員,在這個議題上力挺長期環衛領袖John Kerry,快速地在參議院通過法案。
 
 
事實上,能源委員會在其主席Jeff Bingaman參議員的領導下,已通過全面立法中的關鍵條款,所以,我們現在所見是一種聚合現象,那些唱反調的人士,那些假裝這事無關緊要的同胞正在被不斷地邊緣化,但我們必需明白的是,一旦我們愈加聚合,反對的聲浪將會愈大,我們將更常聽到,那些自身利益與意識形態與我們迫切需要採取之行動相衝突者發出的聲音,會有人表示轉向潔淨能源將摧毀我們的經濟,但實際上,卻是我們現有的系統危害到我們的繁榮,阻礙我們創造數以百萬計的新工作機會,也將會有人嘲諷般地宣示,而他們的宣示完全不顧壓倒性的科學證據,他們宣示反對氣候變化事實的唯一目的,只是為了阻撓或延宕眾所皆知那些必需的改變,我們必需要針對那些同胞做工。


但我們需明白有另一個要驅散的迷思,這個迷思十分危險,因為我們多少都深受其害,它的危險性遠超過任何想在我們推動進程半途中發動的攻擊,那就是自認無可奈何或無力改變的思維,那是悲觀主義的思維,悲觀式地註解我們的政治太爛,我們的人太不願意為我們做艱難的抉擇來實際處理這個我們正在面對的能源議題,這場論戰內含的一個想法是,我們多少已失去了一些重要的東西,諸如:捍衛美國精神、處理艱難挑戰的意願、終結那些挑戰的決心,還有相信我們可以解決問題,我們可以集體行動,還有過去我們所擁有的一些美德。
 
 
但我不相信,因為我在麻省理工學院看到了,這些美德,因為我在全國都看到了這些美德,因為我們都知道當任務需要時,我們做得到,因為美國是可以掌控原子內電力與能量的國家,我們將其應用於輪船和現代化的太陽能電池,我們也曾成功拓墾大西部並探索外太空,我們一直都在尋找新境界,這個世代也不例外,今日的新境界在地圖上找不到,而是不斷地在下列環境中被探索,像教室、實驗室、創投實業與工廠,而今日的拓荒者並非,遙不可及,而是圍繞在我們四周,他們是企業家、發明家、研究員,與工程師,他們引領我們走向未來,如同前人所為,美國在過去兩個世紀以來,一直領導全世界進行探索,我們將繼續領導明日的潔淨能源經濟。
 
 
只要大家謹記,我們一直以來所達成的目標,我們也將繼續用這種精神啟發自己,達成未來更多的目標,我有信心,這就是目前正在這所頂尖學院發生的事,如果您能加入我們的行列,參與這場將持續經年累月的苦仗,我有信心,全國將萬眾一心,確保我們站上我們應在的能源領袖位置,非常感謝,女士先生們,上帝保佑您,上帝保佑美利堅合眾國。
 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

Obama’s Speech on Renewable Energy Policy Sign in to Recommend

Published: October 23, 2009

Following is a transcript of President Obama's remarks on Friday at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as released by the White House:

Thank you very much. Please, have a seat. Thank you. Thank you, M.I.T. (Applause.) I am -- I am hugely honored to be here. It's always been a dream of mine to visit the most prestigious school in Cambridge, Massachusetts. (Applause.) Hold on a second -- certainly the most prestigious school in this part of Cambridge, Massachusetts. (Laughter.) And I'll probably be here for a while -- I understand a bunch of engineering students put my motorcade on top of Building 10. (Laughter.)

This tells you something about MIT -- everybody hands out periodic tables. (Laughter.) What's up with that? (Laughter.)

I want I want to thank all of you for the warm welcome and for the work all of you are doing to generate and test new ideas that hold so much promise for our economy and for our lives. And in particular, I want to thank two outstanding MIT professors, Eric Lander, a person you just heard from, Ernie Moniz, for their service on my council of advisors on science and technology. And they have been hugely helpful to us already on looking at, for example, how the federal government can most effectively respond to the threat of the H1N1 virus. So I'm very grateful to them.

We've got some other special guests here I just want to acknowledge very briefly. First of all, my great friend and a champion of science and technology here in the great Commonwealth of Massachusetts, my friend Deval Patrick is here. (Applause.) Our Lieutenant Governor Tim Murray is here. (Applause.) Attorney General Martha Coakley is here. (Applause.) Auditor of the Commonwealth, Joe DeNucci is here. (Applause.) The Mayor of the great City of Cambridge, Denise Simmons is in the house. (Applause.) The Mayor of Boston, Tom Menino, is not here, but he met me at the airport and he is doing great; he sends best wishes.

Somebody who really has been an all-star in Capitol Hill over the last 20 years, but certainly over the last year, on a whole range of issues -- everything from Afghanistan to clean energy -- a great friend, John Kerry. Please give John Kerry a round of applause. (Applause.)

And a wonderful member of Congress -- I believe this is your district, is that correct, Mike? Mike Capuano. Please give Mike a big round of applause. (Applause.)

Now, Dr. Moniz is also the Director of MIT's Energy Initiative, called MITEI. And he and President Hockfield just showed me some of the extraordinary energy research being conducted at this institute: windows that generate electricity by directing light to solar cells; light-weight, high-power batteries that aren't built, but are grown -- that was neat stuff; engineering viruses to create -- to create batteries; more efficient lighting systems that rely on nanotechnology; innovative engineering that will make it possible for offshore wind power plants to deliver electricity even when the air is still.

And it's a reminder that all of you are heirs to a legacy of innovation -- not just here but across America -- that has improved our health and our wellbeing and helped us achieve unparalleled prosperity. I was telling John and Deval on the ride over here, you just get excited being here and seeing these extraordinary young people and the extraordinary leadership of Professor Hockfield because it taps into something essential about America -- it's the legacy of daring men and women who put their talents and their efforts into the pursuit of discovery. And it's the legacy of a nation that supported those intrepid few willing to take risks on an idea that might fail -- but might also change the world.

Even in the darkest of times this nation has seen, it has always sought a brighter horizon. Think about it. In the middle of the Civil War, President Lincoln designated a system of land grant colleges, including MIT, which helped open the doors of higher education to millions of people. A year -- a full year before the end of World War II, President Roosevelt signed the GI Bill which helped unleash a wave of strong and broadly shared economic growth. And after the Soviet launch of Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth, the United States went about winning the Space Race by investing in science and technology, leading not only to small steps on the moon but also to tremendous economic benefits here on Earth.

So the truth is, we have always been about innovation, we have always been about discovery. That's in our DNA. The truth is we also face more complex challenges than generations past. A medical system that holds the promise of unlocking new cures is attached to a health care system that has the potential to bankrupt families and businesses and our government. A global marketplace that links the trader on Wall Street to the homeowner on Main Street to the factory worker in China -- an economy in which we all share opportunity is also an economy in which we all share crisis. We face threats to our security that seek -- there are threats to our security that are based on those who would seek to exploit the very interconnectedness and openness that's so essential to our prosperity. The system of energy that powers our economy also undermines our security and endangers our planet.

Now, while the challenges today are different, we have to draw on the same spirit of innovation that's always been central to our success. And that's especially true when it comes to energy. There may be plenty of room for debate as to how we transition from fossil fuels to renewable fuels -- we all understand there's no silver bullet to do it. There's going to be a lot of debate about how we move from an economy that's importing oil to one that's exporting clean energy technology; how we harness the innovative potential on display here at MIT to create millions of new jobs; and how we will lead the world to prevent the worst consequences of climate change. There are going to be all sorts of debates, both in the laboratory and on Capitol Hill. But there's no question that we must do all these things.

Countries on every corner of this Earth now recognize that energy supplies are growing scarcer, energy demands are growing larger, and rising energy use imperils the planet we will leave to future generations. And that's why the world is now engaged in a peaceful competition to determine the technologies that will power the 21st century. From China to India, from Japan to Germany, nations everywhere are racing to develop new ways to producing and use energy. The nation that wins this competition will be the nation that leads the global economy. I am convinced of that. And I want America to be that nation. It's that simple. (Applause.)

That's why the Recovery Act that we passed back in January makes the largest investment in clean energy in history, not just to help end this recession, but to lay a new foundation for lasting prosperity. The Recovery Act includes $80 billion to put tens of thousands of Americans to work developing new battery technologies for hybrid vehicles; modernizing the electric grid; making our homes and businesses more energy efficient; doubling our capacity to generate renewable electricity. These are creating private-sector jobs weatherizing homes; manufacturing cars and trucks; upgrading to smart electric meters; installing solar panels; assembling wind turbines; building new facilities and factories and laboratories all across America. And, by the way, helping to finance extraordinary research.

In fact, in just a few weeks, right here in Boston, workers will break ground on a new Wind Technology Testing Center, a project made possible through a $25 million Recovery Act investment as well as through the support of Massachusetts and its partners. And I want everybody to understand -- Governor Patrick's leadership and vision made this happen. He was bragging about Massachusetts on the way over here -- I told him, you don't have to be a booster, I already love the state. (Applause.) But he helped make this happen.

Hundreds of people will be put to work building this new testing facility, but the benefits will extend far beyond these jobs. For the first time, researchers in the United States will be able to test the world's newest and largest wind turbine blades -- blades roughly the length of a football field -- and that in turn will make it possible for American businesses to develop more efficient and effective turbines, and to lead a market estimated at more than $2 trillion over the next two decades.

This grant follows other Recovery Act investments right here in Massachusetts that will help create clean energy jobs in this commonwealth and across the country. And this only builds on the work of your governor, who has endeavored to make Massachusetts a clean energy leader -- from increasing the supply of renewable electricity, to quadrupling solar capacity, to tripling the commonwealth's investment in energy efficiency, all of which helps to draw new jobs and new industries. (Applause.) That's worth applause.

Now, even as we're investing in technologies that exist today, we're also investing in the science that will produce the technologies of tomorrow. The Recovery Act provides the largest single boost in scientific research in history. Let me repeat that: The Recovery Act, the stimulus bill represents the largest single boost in scientific research in history. (Applause.) An increase -- that's an increase in funding that's already making a difference right here on this campus. And my budget also makes the research and experimentation tax credit permanent -- a tax credit that spurs innovation and jobs, adding $2 to the economy for every dollar that it costs.

And all of this must culminate in the passage of comprehensive legislation that will finally make renewable energy the profitable kind of energy in America. John Kerry is working on this legislation right now, and he's doing a terrific job reaching out across the other side of the aisle because this should not be a partisan issue. Everybody in America should have a stake -- (applause) -- everybody in America should have a stake in legislation that can transform our energy system into one that's far more efficient, far cleaner, and provide energy independence for America -- making the best use of resources we have in abundance, everything from figuring out how to use the fossil fuels that inevitably we are going to be using for several decades, things like coal and oil and natural gas; figuring out how we use those as cleanly and efficiently as possible; creating safe nuclear power; sustainable -- sustainably grown biofuels; and then the energy that we can harness from wind and the waves and the sun. It is a transformation that will be made as swiftly and as carefully as possible, to ensure that we are doing what it takes to grow this economy in the short, medium, and long term. And I do believe that a consensus is growing to achieve exactly that.

The Pentagon has declared our dependence on fossil fuels a security threat. Veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan are traveling the country as part of Operation Free, campaigning to end our dependence on oil -- (applause) -- we have a few of these folks here today, right there. (Applause.) The young people of this country -- that I've met all across America -- they understand that this is the challenge of their generation.

Leaders in the business community are standing with leaders in the environmental community to protect the economy and the planet we leave for our children. The House of Representatives has already passed historic legislation, due in large part to the efforts of Massachusetts' own Ed Markey, he deserves a big round of applause. (Applause.) We're now seeing prominent Republicans like Senator Lindsey Graham joining forces with long-time leaders John Kerry on this issue, to swiftly pass a bill through the Senate as well. In fact, the Energy Committee, thanks to the work of its Chair, Senator Jeff Bingaman, has already passed key provisions of comprehensive legislation.

So we are seeing a convergence. The naysayers, the folks who would pretend that this is not an issue, they are being marginalized. But I think it's important to understand that the closer we get, the harder the opposition will fight and the more we'll hear from those whose interest or ideology run counter to the much needed action that we're engaged in. There are those who will suggest that moving toward clean energy will destroy our economy -- when it's the system we currently have that endangers our prosperity and prevents us from creating millions of new jobs. There are going to be those who cynically claim -- make cynical claims that contradict the overwhelming scientific evidence when it comes to climate change, claims whose only purpose is to defeat or delay the change that we know is necessary.

So we're going to have to work on those folks. But understand there's also another myth that we have to dispel, and this one is far more dangerous because we're all somewhat complicit in it. It's far more dangerous than any attack made by those who wish to stand in the way progress -- and that's the idea that there is nothing or little that we can do. It's pessimism. It's the pessimistic notion that our politics are too broken and our people too unwilling to make hard choices for us to actually deal with this energy issue that we're facing. And implicit in this argument is the sense that somehow we've lost something important -- that fighting American spirit, that willingness to tackle hard challenges, that determination to see those challenges to the end, that we can solve problems, that we can act collectively, that somehow that is something of the past.

I reject that argument. I reject it because of what I've seen here at MIT. Because of what I have seen across America. Because of what we know we are capable of achieving when called upon to achieve it. This is the nation that harnessed electricity and the energy contained in the atom, that developed the steamboat and the modern solar cell. This is the nation that pushed westward and looked skyward. We have always sought out new frontiers and this generation is no different.

Today's frontiers can't be found on a map. They're being explored in our classrooms and our laboratories, in our start-ups and our factories. And today's pioneers are not traveling to some far flung place. These pioneers are all around us -- the entrepreneurs and the inventors, the researchers, the engineers -- helping to lead us into the future, just as they have in the past. This is the nation that has led the world for two centuries in the pursuit of discovery. This is the nation that will lead the clean energy economy of tomorrow, so long as all of us remember what we have achieved in the past and we use that to inspire us to achieve even more in the future.

I am confident that's what's happening right here at this extraordinary institution. And if you will join us in what is sure to be a difficult fight in the months and years ahead, I am confident that all of America is going to be pulling in one direction to make sure that we are the energy leader that we need to be.

Thank you very much, everybody. God bless you. God bless the United States of America.


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