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Shaffi Mather談對抗貪污的新方法

 Shaffi Mather: A new way to fight corruption

  
講者:Shaffi Mather
200911月演講,200912月在TED上線
 
翻譯:陳盈
編輯:洪曉慧
簡繁轉換:劉契良
後制:陳盈
字幕影片後制:謝旻均
 
 
關於此演講:
Shaffi Mather解釋為什麼辭掉第一份工作去做一名社會企業家,通過他的「1298救護車」公司(1298 for Ambulance)提供生命救援的交通服務。現在他有新的想法,計畫成立一家公司來對抗公家機關中貪污成風的現象,要把賄賂逐個消滅。
 
關於Shaffi Mather
Shaffi Mather是「1298救護車」(1298 for Ambulance)和「大眾教育」(Education Access for All)的創始人,也是Moksha-Yug Access的推動者之一。
 
為什麼要聽他演講:
Shaffi Mather是個成功的青年企業家,他把家族房產生意帶到了當地市場的最前線,之後還在兩家印度最大的通信公司Essel Group和Reliance Industries擔任要職。然而,在一次帶母親上醫院的危險經歷之後,他站出來挑戰印度可靠救護車服務的需要。他辭掉Reliance的工作,創辦了1298救護車」(1298 for Ambulance),這是一項盈利的服務,有一個浮動的付費體系,在孟買和喀拉拉邦提供革命性的醫療運輸服務。
 
現在Mather還是Moksha-Yug Access的創始人之一,那是一個在印度農村運營的小額信貸機構,Mather還參與創立了「教育計畫」(The Education Initiative),其中包括網上學習和在印度國內建學校。另外,Mather還是公共利益訴訟律師——爭取透明管理、公共資金使用、人權、民權和憲法第一。他是TED印度之友(TEDIndia Fellow)。
 
Shaffi Mather的英文網上資料:
 
 
[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。
 
Shaffi Mather談對抗貪污的新方法
我對貪污的憤怒,促成了去年我事業的一個大轉變,我成為一個全職執業律師。在過去18個月裏我的律師經歷讓我萌生了一個新的創業想法。我覺得那個想法很值得傳播出去,今天我在這裏和大家分享。雖然這個想法本身正逐漸變得清晰,但我還在寫商業計畫,當想法的數量並未增加時,這肯定有助減少對公開失敗的恐懼。
 
自1993年開始,我一直熱衷於創業和企業家精神,我盡情探索、體驗,嘗試創業和資本主義。我和兩個兄弟在家鄉喀拉拉邦創立領先的地產公司,然後和印度兩個最有名的商人進行專業合作,但那是在他們的新興企業裏。
 
2003年,當我離開專一的資本部門而去研究所謂的社會部門問題時,我確實沒有任何很好的策略或者計畫來尋找盈利方案,以解決迫切的公共問題。生命帶來一系列死亡或接近死亡的經歷,就在我的周遭。這時突顯出印度緊急醫療反應服務的需要,就像美國的911事件。
 
為了解決這個問題,我和四個朋友創立了「大眾救護車服務」,以推進印度的生命救援救護車服務。對於來自發展中國家的人而言,那算不上什麼,這個想法一點新意也沒有。但根據我們的預想,我們有三個關鍵目標,提供世界級的生命救援救護車服務,有自己的收入來源,完全可以自負盈虧地維持下去,任何有緊急醫療需要的人都可以使用這項服務,不用考慮醫療負擔。
 
這個想法催生了「撥打1298叫救護車」。在2004年時,僅有一部救護車,今天在三個邦有超過一百部救護車,從營運至今,運送超過10萬名病人和意外傷患。這項服務……(掌聲)有自己的收入,完全自負盈虧地維持運營,沒有任何公共資金的支持。交叉補貼模式確實可行,有錢人多付,窮人少付,意外傷患可以獲得免費服務。
 
這項服務表現得很可靠,也很有效率。孟買在11月26日不幸遭受恐怖襲擊的時候,影帶顯示這項服務正在發揮作用並拯救出事地點的傷患。那時侯員警甚至還沒抵達現場劃出警戒線,並正式確認為恐怖襲擊。我們是當天首先到達每個出事地點的的醫療回應隊,運送了125個傷者,挽救生命。(掌聲)
 
為了對11月26日襲擊悼念並引以為戒,我們在過去一年幫助了一個巴基斯坦非盈利組織——Aman基金會,建立自負盈虧的生命救援救護車服務。地點在喀拉蚩,由Acumen基金支持。(掌聲)這是我們的一個小小的信號,我們以微弱的方式告訴那些與人性對抗的人,在伊斯蘭、南亞、印度和巴基斯坦,讓他們知道人性會繁盛下去,儘管有這些卑劣的襲擊存在。(掌聲)
 
之後我還和其他人一起創立了另外兩個社會企業,一個是「大眾教育」(Education Access for All),在印度的小鎮上辦學;另一個是Moksha-Yug Access,整合農村供應鏈,依靠以自助團體為主的小額信貸機構提供的資金。我猜我們至少做對了一些事,因為不屈不撓的投資者和風險資金,已經注資超過750萬美元。由於這項專案的重要性,這些資金是以合格交易資本的形式進入,而不是撥款或慈善捐贈。
 
現在我再來講新社會企業的想法,我正在探索這些主題。貪污、賄賂、缺乏透明度,你可能覺得驚訝,昨天八個演講者都在演講中提到這些詞。賄賂和貪污有供需兩個方面,供方多為貪婪且不道德的企業,還有倒楣的普通人,需求方多數是政客官員以及有權力的人。根據世界銀行估計,每年的賄款有一兆美元,情況越來越糟。但是,如果你仔細觀察普通人,他(她)不會每天起床就說「呃,看看今天我要賄賂誰」,或者「看看今天可以收到誰的賄賂」。很多時候,倒楣的普通人都是在迫不得已、沒有退路的情況下賄賂別人。在當今世界,時間就是金錢,掙扎求存是無法想像般的艱難。倒楣的普通人只能屈服並交賄賂金以求生存。
 
現在我提出下一個問題,想像在日常生活中有人叫你交賄金以做成某件事,你會怎樣?當然你可以報警,但如果員警部門也涉入貪污,那有什麼用?你肯定不想給賄金,但你也不想花時間、資源、專業技術或者必要的資金來與之抗衡。不幸地,今天這裏大多數人都相信資本主義政策和市場力量,但是世界上的市場力量
還沒能提供一種服務,讓你可以打電話去付費、然後打擊索賄,就像打擊賄賂服務,或者「1-800打擊賄賂」,(掌聲)www.stopbribes.org,或www.preventcorruption.org ,並沒有這樣的服務。
 
在我早期從商的時候,有一件事讓我揪心。一個70多歲的老奶奶被鎮上規劃辦公室的官員騷擾,她只是要他們批准在自家房子門前建三級臺階,讓她出入更方便。但是負責的官員不批,因為他們要求索賄。這刺痛了我的良知但我未能,或者說我沒有支持或幫助她,因為我那時正忙於發展自己的地產公司。我不想再為這樣的事件揪心,我們以試驗形式致力解決因公共服務或權利索賄的個人事件我們總共在42個案例中拒絕索賄,使用現有的合法工具,例如:資訊權利法案、視頻、音頻或者同儕壓力。我們成功達到客戶最初設定的目標,不用給賄款,利用這些工具的成本大大低於賄款的數目。
 
我相信這42個試驗案例中的工具可以在業務流程外包環境下的標準流程中加以整合。這樣在網路、客服中心和實體加盟辦事處都可以使用。任何人通過支付一定費用,都可以對抗賄賂。目標市場十分具吸引力,每年用於賄賂的錢高達一兆美元,等於印度的國內生產總值,這完全是個處女市場。(笑聲)
 
我建議深入開拓這個想法,來研究提供外包盈利收費業務流程服務的可能性,為了制止賄賂和防止貪污。我確實意識到對抗貪污、伸張正義並非易事。以前不容易,將來也不容易。在我身為律師的過去18個月,我在和大大小小的貪污抗爭,包括印度最大的企業騙子所幹的壞事。多虧了他,我有了三項警局檔案,控訴我侵權、假冒、和恐嚇。
 
與貪污作鬥爭,對我們自己,我們的家人、朋友、甚至孩子而言猶如敲下喪鐘,但我相信我們付出的代價是值得的,它保持了我們的尊嚴,讓世界更公平。是什麼給我們勇氣?在救護車專案剛建立的時候,我告訴我的好朋友,其回應是,這是一個不可能的任務,創始人辭掉高薪的工作來幹這事簡直是瘋了。我說:「我們當然不能把這搞砸,至少我們在思想上要堅信。因為我們是瘋子,要完成不可能的任務,一個瘋子不會知道什麼是不可能的任務」,謝謝。(掌聲)
 
Chris Anderson:Shaffi,講得很好。
 
Shaffi Mather:我只是想在被幹掉之前完成這個任務。(笑聲)
 
Chris Anderson:你談到這些的時候有什麼想法?典型的賄賂和典型的恐懼。你是怎麼想的?
 
Shaffi Mather:我來說個例子。有人要申請護照,那官員坐在那欲索賄三千盧比。那人不想給,於是我們利用正確的資訊告訴他像美國這樣要繳納的費用,拒絕他的索賄要求。我們在四十二個案例中都拒絕官員索賄。反應有以下三種。一類人說:「噢那我給他們發護照吧,別煩我」,有些人回頭說:「噢,你不肯就範,那我就讓你好看」,他會把我們擋回去,於是你要進行整個計畫中下一步。或者用另一種可行的工具,然後他就軟下來,第三類就是這樣。我們在四十二個案例中都獲得進展。
 
Chris Anderson:以這三千盧比,即七十美元的賄款來說,你收取多少處理費用?你的業務真的可以運作嗎?
 
Shaffi Mather:實際收費低於兩百盧比,所以的確可以。
 
Chris Anderson:那是高回報的買賣,我喜歡。
 
Shaffi Mather:是的,我其實不想在這裏說。
 
Chris Anderson:好,這是暫時定價,沒有固定的收費,如果你能做到這些就成世界英雄了,這可以保值。感謝你的分享。(掌聲)
 
 
 
 
 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Shaffi Mather explains why he left his first career to become a social entrepreneur, providing life-saving transportation with his company 1298 for Ambulance. Now, he has a new idea and plans to begin a company to fight the booming business of corruption in public service, eliminating it one bribe at a time.

About Shaffi Mather

Shaffi Mather is the founder of 1298 for Ambulance, Education Access for All, and co-promoter of Moksha-Yug Access. Full bio and more links

Transcript

The anger in me against corruption made me to make a big career change last year, becoming a full-time practicing lawyer. My experiences, over the last 18 months, as a lawyer, has seeded in me a new entrepreneurial idea, which I believe is indeed worth spreading. So, I share it with all of you here today, though the idea itself is getting crystallized and I'm still writing up the business plan. Of course it helps that fear of public failure diminishes as the number of ideas which have failed increases.

I've been a huge fan of enterprise and entrepreneurship since 1993. I've explored, experienced, and experimented enterprise and capitalism to my heart's content. I built, along with my two brothers the leading real estate company in my home state, Kerala. And then worked professionally with two of India's biggest businessmen, but in their startup enterprises.

In 2003, when I stepped out of the pure play capitalistic sector to work on so-called social sector issues, I definitely did not have any grand strategy or plan to pursue and find for-profit solutions to addressing pressing public issues. When life brought about a series of death and near-death experiences within my close circle, which highlighted the need for an emergency medical response service in India, similar to 911 in USA.

To address this, I, along with four friends, founded Ambulance Access for All, to promote life-support ambulance services in India. For those from the developing world, there is nothing, absolutely nothing new in this idea. But as we envisioned it, we had three key goals: Providing world-class life support ambulance service which is fully self sustainable from its own revenue streams, and universally accessible to anyone in a medical emergency, irrespective of the capability to pay.

The service which grew out of this, Dial 1298 for Ambulance, with one ambulance in 2004, now has a hundred-plus ambulances in three states, and has transported over 100,000 patients and victims since inception. The service is -- (Applause) fully self-sustainable from its own revenues, without accessing any public funds and the cross-subsidy model actually works, where the rich pays higher, poor pays lower, and the accident victims getting the service free of charge.

The service responded effectively and efficiently, during the unfortunate 26/11 Mumbai terror attacks. And as you can see from the visuals, the service was responding and rescuing victims from the incident locations even before the police could cordon off the incident locations and formally confirm it as a terror strike. We ended up being the first medical response team in every incident location and transported 125 victims, saving life. (Applause)

In tribute and remembrance of 26/11 attacks over the last one year, we have actually helped a Pakistani NGO, Aman foundation, to set up a self sustainable life support ambulance service in Karachi, facilitated by Acumen Fund. (Applause) It's a small message from us, In our own small way to the enemies of humanity, of Islam, of South Asia, of India, and of Pakistan, that humanity will continue to bloom, irrespective of such dastardly attacks.

Since then I've also co-founded two other social enterprises. One is Education Access for All, setting up schools in small-town India. And the other is Moksha-Yug Access, which is integrating rural supply chain on the foundations of self-help group based microfinance. I guess we seem to be doing at least a few things right. Because diligent investors and venture funds have committed over 7.5 million dollars in funding. With the significance being these funds have come in as a QT capital, not as grant or as philanthropy.

Now I come back to the idea of the new social enterprise that I'm exploring. Corruption, bribes, and lack of transparency. You may be surprised to know that eight speakers yesterday actually mentioned these terms in their talks. Bribes and corruption have both a demand and a supply side. With the supply side being mostly of greedy corporate unethical businesses and hapless common man. And the demand side being mostly politicians, bureaucrats and those who have discretionary power vested with them.

According to World Bank estimate, one trillion dollars is paid in bribes every year, worsening the condition of the already worse off. Yet, if you analyze the common man, he or she does not wake up every day and say, "Hmm, let me see who I can pay a bribe to today." or, "Let me see who I can corrupt today." Often it is the constraining or the back-to-the-wall situation that the hapless common man finds himself or herself in that leads him to pay a bribe. In the modern day world, where time is premium, and battle for subsistence is unimaginably tough, the hapless common man simply gives in and pays the bribe just to get on with life.

Now, let me ask you another question. Imagine you are being asked to pay a bribe in your day to day life to get something done. What do you do? Of course you can call the police. But what is the use if the police department is in itself steeped in corruption? Most definitely you don't want to pay the bribe. But you also don't have the time, resources, expertise or wherewithal to fight this.

Unfortunately, many of us in this room are supporters of capitalist policies and market forces. Yet the market forces around the world have not yet thrown up a service where you can call in, pay a fee, and fight the demand for a bribe. Like a bribe buster service, or 1-800-Fight-Bribes, or www.stopbribes.org or www.preventcorruption.org. Such a service simply do not exist.

One image that has haunted me from my early business days is of a grandmother, 70 plus years, being harrassed by the bureaucrats in the town planning office. All she needed was permission to build three steps to her house, from ground level, making it easier for her to enter and exit her house. Yet the officer in charge would not simply give her the permit for want of a bribe. Even though it pricked my conscience then, I could not, or rather I did not tend to her or assist her, because I was busy building my real estate company. I don't want to be haunted by such images any more.

I group of us have been working on a pilot basis to address individual instances of demands for bribes for common services or entitlement. And in all 42 cases where we have pushed back such demands using existing and legitimate tools like the right to information act, video, audio, or peer pressure, we have successfully obtained whatever our clients set out to achieve without actually paying a bribe. And with the cost of these tools being substantially lower than the bribe demanded.

I believe that these tools that worked in these 42 pilot cases can be consolidated in standard processes in a BPO kind of environment, and make available on web, call-center and franchise physical offices, for a fee, to serve anyone confronted with a demand for a bribe. The target market is as tempting as it can get. It can be worth up to one trillion dollars, being paid in bribes every year, or equal to India's GDP. And it is an absolutely virgin market.

I propose to explore this idea further, to examine the potential of creating a for-profit, fee-based BPO kind of service to stop bribes and prevent corruption. I do realize that the fight for justice against corruption is never easy. It never has been and it never will be. In my last 18 months as a lawyer, battling small and large scale corruption, including the one perpetrated by India's biggest corporate scamster. Through his charities I have had three police cases filed against me alleging trespass, impersonation and intimidation.

The battle against corruption exact a toll on ourselves, our families, our friends, and even our kids. Yet I believe the price we pay is well worth holding on to our dignity and making the world a fairer place. What gives us the courage? As my close friend replied when told during the seeding days of the ambulance project, that it is an impossible task and the founders are insane to chalk up their blue-chip jobs, I quote, "Of course we can not fail in this, at least in our own minds. For we are insane people, trying to do an impossible task. And an insane person does not know what an impossible task is." Thank you. (Applause)


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