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課程來源:TED
     
 Dan Barber 談我如何愛上一條魚
Dan Barber: How I fell in love with a fish
 
講者:Dan Barber
20102月演講,20103月在TED上線
 
翻譯:陳盈
簡體編輯:洪曉慧
簡繁轉換:劉契良
後制:陳盈
字幕影片後制:謝旻均
 
 
關於演講:
廚師Dan Barber要解決今天很多廚師都面臨的一個困境:如何保留菜單上的魚。在這個有著透徹研究,並摻著冷笑話的演講中,他詳述對一條永續發展價值魚類的追求,以及他作為一個食物熱愛者所享受的一次蜜月之旅,就從他在西班牙發現一條以革命性方式餵養、且極其美味的魚開始。
 
關於Dan Barber
Dan Barber是一個廚師也是一個學者—他持續不懈地追求我們生產及享用之食物背後的故事和原因。
 
為什麼要聽他演講:
Dan Barber是紐約及威斯特郡Stone Barns藍山餐廳的廚師,他在Stone Barns使用的是一種結合農業和土地的天然烹飪方法。就像在Chez Pim(譯者註:一個美食部落格)裏面描述的那樣:「Stone Barns離曼哈頓只有45分鐘車程,但它就像另一個完全不同的世界,那裏是一個自給自足和對環境負責的模式,是一個運作良好的農場、牧場以及米其林三星餐廳」。這是一種新的食物鏈觀點。
Barber的食物哲學注重樂趣和深思熟慮過的保育—知道盤子裏的食物從哪來,及驅使我們選擇食物的隱形力量。他寫過關於美國農業政策的文章,呼籲人們要有新的觀念,不要為了促進某些作物的生產,而犧牲了一些更合適的生物種類,導致食物鏈失衡。
2009年,Barber獲得James Beard美國傑出廚師大獎,在《時代》雜誌「年度100」中名列世界最具影響力的人之一。
「Dan Barber逐漸被視為是一位廚師思想家,他宣傳一些簡單的理念,顛覆了大家對我們所吃食物的看法。」
Gothamist.com
 
Dan Barber的網上英文資料:
 
[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。
 
Dan Barber 談我如何愛上一條魚
我在生活中認識很多魚,但只愛其中兩種。第一種更像一次激情的戀愛,是一條漂亮的魚,美味、結實、多肉,菜單上最暢銷的一種,多棒的一條好魚啊。(笑聲)更妙的是,這種魚是漁場養殖的,以最高永續發展標準養的,賣這種魚不錯。
 
我愛上這條魚長達好幾個月。有一天,公司老闆打電話來,問我是否可以在一個場合發言,內容是養殖場的永續發展價值。「當然可以」,我說。這家公司正致力解決對我們廚師來說將會成為無法想像的問題——我們如何把魚留在菜單上?
 
過去50年,我們從海裏釣魚,就像砍伐森林那樣。這並沒有過分強調它的破壞性,90%的大型魚類,我們喜歡的那些,鮪魚、大比目魚、鮭魚、旗魚,它們的數量都急劇減少,幾乎快絕跡了。無論如何,水產業和魚類養殖會成為我們未來的一部分,有很多反對這麼做的意見,漁場會產生污染,大部分都會。而且生產效率低,例如鮪魚。這是一個主要的缺點,其飼料轉化率是15:1。這就是說,15磅野生魚才能換來1磅養殖的鮪魚,永續發展性不高,而且還不是很好吃。
 
所以,最後有一家公司想用正確的方法來做,我想支持他們。在那活動的前一天,我打電話給那公司的公關部負責人,我們叫他Don吧。
 
「Don」,我說,「說出事實就可以了,你們目前為止在漁場養殖上很出名,你們不搞污染」。
 
「是的」,他說,「我們到現在為止都分散處理魚的廢物,而非集中處理」,他又說,「我們基本上是自成一派的,我們的飼料轉化率是2.5:1」,他說,「是行業裏面最好的。」
 
2.5:1,很好。「2.5:1指的是什麼?你們用什麼餵魚?」
 
「永續蛋白質」,他說。
 
「很好」,我說,然後掛了電話。那天晚上我躺在床上,想永續蛋白質是什麼鬼?(笑聲)
 
第二天,在活動開始前,我打電話給Don。我說:「Don,有一些永續蛋白質的例子嗎?」他說不知道,會幫忙詢問。之後我和那家公司的好些人通電話,但沒有人能給我一個明確的答案。直到最後,我和首席生物學家通電話,我們也叫他Don吧。(笑聲)
 
「Don」,我說,「有一些永續蛋白質的例子嗎?」他說了一些藻類和一些魚粉,然後說到雞粒。我說:「雞粒?」
 
他說:「是啊,羽毛、雞皮、骨粉,還有零碎的東西,乾燥之後處理過就成為飼料了。」
 
我說:「這種飼料裏面有多少是雞?」同時在想,應該有2%。
 
「嗯,大概30%吧」,他說。
 
我說:「Don,用雞來餵魚,永續性何在?」(笑聲)
 
電話那頭很久都沒聲音,然後他說:「世界上的雞太多了。」(笑聲)
 
我不喜歡這條魚了。(笑聲)不,不是因為我有點自以為是,覺得自己是一個熱愛並精通食品的人,雖然我確實是這樣。(笑聲)不,我確實不喜歡這種魚了,我對上帝發誓,就在那次談話之後,那種魚吃起來的味道像雞。(笑聲)
 
第二條魚是完全不同的愛情故事,這是浪漫型的。這是一條你越瞭解就越喜歡的魚。我第一次是在西班牙南部一家餐廳裏吃到它,一個當記者的朋友一直在說這種魚,她好像在給我們作媒似的。(笑聲)魚上桌了,白色,亮得快發光的樣子。廚師把魚煮過頭了,好像煮了兩次。令人驚訝的是,那魚仍然很好吃。
 
哪位能把魚煮過頭之後仍然很好吃的?我就不能,但這個人可以。我們叫他Miguel吧,其實他的名字就叫Miguel。(笑聲)不,魚不是他煮的,他不是廚師,起碼以你我的理解是這樣的。他是Veta La Palma的一個生物學家。那是西班牙西南角的一個漁場,就在Guadalquivir河的一端。
 
直到1980年代,這農場還是阿根廷人所有。他們在本是濕地的地方養肉牛,為了這樣做,他們把地裏的水排乾,他們修築了複雜的溝渠系統,把地裏的水排到河裏。這樣不可行,不經濟。從生態學上看,這是一種災難,這樣導致約90%的鳥類死掉,這個地方有很多鳥。於是在1982年,一家有環境道德的西班牙公司買了那塊地。
 
他們做了什麼?他們逆轉水流,就是把開關轉到另一邊,不是把水往外排,而是用管道把水引回來。他們把那些溝渠都淹沒了,他們弄了一個27,000英畝的漁場。鱸魚、鯡魚、小蝦、鰻魚。在這個過程中,Miguel和這家公司逆轉了生態破壞。這個漁場讓人難以置信。我是說,你從來沒有見過這樣的事。從地平線望出去,一直到相當廣闊之處,你見到的都是淹沒的溝渠,還有這又厚又肥沃的沼澤地。
 
不久前我和Miguel在那裏,他是個讓人驚訝的人。他是四分之三的達爾文加四分之一的鱷魚先生。(笑聲)OK?我們在那裏吃力地走過濕地。我氣喘吁吁,大汗淋漓,泥巴有我膝蓋高。Miguel鎮定地給我上了一堂生物課。這裏,他指出一種稀有的黑翅鳶。這裏,他在講浮游植物的礦物需要。這裏,他看到一組圖案,讓他想起坦桑尼亞長頸鹿。
 
事實上,Miguel工作有很長一段時間是在非洲Mikumi國家公園。我問他如何成為這樣的魚類專家。
 
他說:「魚?我不知道任何關於魚的東西。我是關係專家。」之後他繼續說了更多關於稀有鳥類、藻類和奇怪的水生植物的東西。
 
別誤會我的意思,這確實十分讓人著迷,之後又說生物族群之類的東西。很好,但我戀愛了。我還陶醉在回憶中,昨晚那條美味的煮過頭的魚。於是我打斷他,說,「Miguel,你的魚怎麼這麼好吃?」
 
他指著那藻類。
 
「老兄,我知道藻類和浮游植物等關係,很神奇。但你的魚吃什麼?飼料轉換率是多少?」
 
他繼續告訴我,這是一個富足的系統。這裏的魚吃的是它們在野生環境下會吃到的東西,每單位面積裏的植物,浮游植物,浮游動物,這就是魚吃的東西。這系統很健康,完全是自我再生的,不放飼料。你們聽過不用餵養動物的農場嗎?
 
那天稍晚些我和Miguel在漁場裏開車轉轉,我問他:「這地方看起來很天然,」跟我去過的任何漁場都不一樣,「你是如何衡量成功這件事的?」
 
就在那時,好像電影導演要人換佈景那樣,我們在拐角的地方看到最令人驚異的一幕。那裏有無數隻粉紅的紅鸛,簡直就是一張粉紅的地毯,一望無邊。「那就是成功」,他說,「看看它們的肚子,粉紅色的,它們吃得很飽。」很飽?我完全不懂。
 
我說:「Miguel,它們在狂吃你的魚嗎?」(笑聲)
 
「是的!」,他說,(笑聲)「我們20%的魚,還有魚卵成為了鳥的食物。去年這裏有60萬隻鳥,超過250個品種。今天,這成為全歐洲其中一個最重要的私營鳥類保護區。」
 
我說:「Miguel,鳥的數量不斷增長,對於一個漁場而言,這不是最糟的事嗎?」(笑聲)
 
他搖搖頭,表示不是。他說:「我們漁場的生態範圍廣泛,而非封閉。這是一個生態網。紅鸛吃小蝦,小蝦吃浮游植物。所以鳥肚的粉紅色越深,系統就越好。」
 
OK,我們來回顧一下。一個不用飼料餵動物的農場,一個以其捕食動物的健康來衡量成功的農場。這是一個漁場,也是一個鳥類保護區。順便說一句,那些紅鸛,它們不是一出生就在那裏,它們的窩在一個鎮裏,離農場150英里以外的地方。那裏的土壤條件更適合築巢。每個早上,它們都飛150英里到這座農場。每個晚上,它們又飛150英里回鎮上。(笑聲)它們這樣做是因為可以跟著A92高速公路斷斷續續的白線飛行。(笑聲)不是開玩笑的。
 
那時我在想像一群企鵝。於是我看著Miguel說:「Miguel,它們飛150英里來農場,然後晚上飛150英里回去?它們回去是為了孩子嗎?」他看著我的樣子就好像我剛唱了一段Whitney Houston的歌。(笑聲)他說:「不,它們這麼做
是因為這裏有更好的食物。」(笑聲)
 
我沒提到我最喜歡的那種魚的皮。魚很美味,但我不喜歡魚皮,不喜歡烤焦的魚皮,不喜歡脆的魚皮。那是一種辣辣的,像焦油的味道,做菜時幾乎都去掉魚皮。但是,當我在西班牙南部那家餐廳吃到魚皮時,那完全不像是魚皮的味道,鮮甜爽口,就像咬了海洋一口。我跟Miguel提到這些,他點點頭說:「那魚皮像海綿,是任何東西進入魚體前最後的防禦。它進化成可以吸收各種雜質。」他還說:「但我們的水沒有雜質。」
 
OK,一個不用飼料餵魚的農場,一個以其捕食動物的健康來衡量成功的農場。然後當他說農場沒有雜質時,我意識到這是很保守的說法。因為流經農場的水來自Guadalquivir河,那條河挾帶著所有現在的河裏會有的東西,化學污染物,殘留的農藥。當河流經農場系統時,流出的水會比進來的時候乾淨。農場系統很健康,可以淨化水源。所以,這不僅是不用飼料餵動物的農場,不僅是以其捕食動物的健康來衡量成功的農場,還可說是一個淨化水廠。不僅是對那些魚來說如此,對你我來說也一樣。因為當河水流走的時候,它會流入大西洋。我知這那只成為海洋的一小部分,但我很重視這一點,你們也應該如此。因為這個愛情故事雖很浪漫,但也很有教育意義。你可以說這是未來美食的食譜,無論我們談的是鱸魚或肉牛。
 
現在我們需要的是一個大膽的新概念農業,其中有很美味的食物。(笑聲)(掌聲)但對很多人而言,這太激進了。我們不是現實主義者,而是熱愛食物的人,我們是戀愛中的人,愛農夫市場,愛小型家庭農場。我們談論當地食物,吃有機食物。當你提到這些,可以保證未來食物優質的事時,某些地方的某些人會站出來說:「嘿,夥伴,我喜歡粉紅色的紅鸛。但你如何餵飽全世界?如何餵飽全世界?」
 
我可以說實話嗎?我不喜歡這個問題。不,不是因為我們已經生產了對世界而言已經多得過剩的食物。當今世界上有十億人還在挨餓,十億,空前龐大的數字。因為總體分配不均,而不是總量不夠。我不喜歡這個問題,是因為它決定了過去50年我們食物體系的邏輯。
 
用糧食餵草食動物,拿農藥對付單一栽培的植物,把化學物倒進泥土裏,用雞來餵魚。結果各種企業化農業只會問說:「如果我們更廉價地提供更多人食物,有什麼壞處呢?」一直以來,這就是動機,就是被認為正當的理由,就是美國農業的商業計畫。我們可以把這叫做,一門趕盡殺絕的生意,可以快速蠶食生態資本,目的是達到快速生產。這不是一門生意,也不是農業。
 
我們的今天食物來源已經受到威脅,不是因為供應下降,而是資源減少。我們要依靠的不是最新的嫁接技術和收割機的發明,而得靠肥沃的土地;不是依靠水泵,而得靠活水;不是依靠鏈鋸,而得靠森林;不是依靠捕魚船和魚網,而得靠海裏的魚。
 
想餵飽全世界?讓我們開始來問:我們要怎麼餵飽自己?或者換個更好的方式問,我們該如何創造條件讓每個社區能自給自足?(掌聲)要做到這樣,就不能指望未來沿用現今的農業模型,它早已過時了,不堪一擊。那個模型需要大量資本、化學藥品和機械,但不會生產任何有益的食物。然而,我們來看看生態學模型,這已經歷了20億年的生活實踐。看看Miguel,像他這樣的農夫,不是個獨立在世界之外的農場,農場要讓資源再生而不是耗盡資源,農場要廣泛經營,不是自我封閉。農夫不僅是生產者,還是關係專家。因為他們也是味道的專家。很實在地說,他們是永遠比我好的廚師。我很同意這一點,因為如果這是優質食物的將來,那就會很美味。
 
謝謝。
(掌聲)
 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Chef Dan Barber squares off with a dilemma facing many chefs today: how to keep fish on the menu. With impeccable research and deadpan humor, he chronicles his pursuit of a sustainable fish he could love, and the foodie's honeymoon he's enjoyed since discovering an outrageously delicious fish raised using a revolutionary farming method in Spain.

About Dan Barber

Dan Barber is a chef and a scholar -- relentlessly pursuing the stories and reasons behind the foods we grow and eat. Full bio and more links

Trasnscript

So, I've known a lot of fish in my life. I've loved only two. That first one, it was more like a passionate affair. It was a beautiful fish, flavorful, textured, meaty, a best-seller on the menu. What a fish. (Laughter) Even better, it was farm-raised to the supposed highest standards of sustainability. So you could feel good about selling it.

I was in a relationship with this beauty for several months. One day, the head of the company called and asked if I'd speak at an event about the farm's sustainability. "Absolutely," I said. Here was a company trying to solve what's become this unimaginable problem for our chefs. How do we keep fish on our menus?

For the past 50 years, we've been fishing the seas like we clear-cut forests. It's hard to overstate the destruction. 90 percent of large fish, the ones we love, the tunas, the halibuts, the salmons, swordfish, they've collapsed. There's almost nothing left. So, for better or for worse, aquaculture, fish farming, is going to be a part of our future. A lot of arguments against it. Fish farms pollute, most of them do anyway, and they're inefficient, take tuna. A major drawback. It's got a feed conversion ratio of 15 to one. That means it takes fifteen pounds of wild fish to get you one pound of farm tuna. Not very sustainable. Doesn't taste very good either.

So here, finally, was a company trying to do it right. I wanted to support them. The day before the event I called the head of PR for the company. Let's call him Don.

"Don," I said, "just to get the facts straight, you guys are famous for farming so far out to sea, you don't pollute."

"That's right," he said. "We're so far out, the waste from our fish gets distributed, not concentrated." And then he added, "We're basically a world unto ourselves. That feed conversion ratio? 2.5 to one," he said. "Best in the business."

2.5 to one, great. "2.5 to one what? What are you feeding?"

"Sustainable proteins," he said.

"Great," I said. Got off the phone. And that night, I was lying in bed, and I thought: What the hell is a sustainable protein? (Laughter)

So the next day, just before the event, I called Don. I said, "Don, what are some examples of sustainable proteins?"

He said he didn't know. He would ask around. Well, I got on the phone with a few people in the company. No one could give me a straight answer. Until finally, I got on the phone with the head biologist. Let's call him Don too. (Laughter)

"Don," I said, "what are some examples of sustainable proteins?"

Well, he mentioned some algaes and some fish meals, and then he said chicken pellets. I said, "Chicken pellets?"

He said, "Yeah, feathers, skin, bone meal, scraps, dried and processed into feed."

I said, "What percentage of your feed is chicken?" thinking, you know, two percent.

"Well, it's about 30 percent," he said.

I said, "Don, what's sustainable about feeding chicken to fish?" (Laughter)

There was a long pause on the line, and he said, "there's just too much chicken in the world." (Laughter)

I fell out of love with this fish. (Laughter) No, not because I'm some self-righteous, goody-two shoes foodie. I actually am. (Laughter) No, I actually fell out of love with this fish because, I swear to God, after that conversation, the fish tasted like chicken. (Laughter)

This second fish, it's a different kind of love story. It's the romantic kind, the kind where the more you get to know your fish, you love the fish. I first ate it at a restaurant in southern Spain. A journalist friend had been talking about this fish for a long time. She kind of set us up. (Laughter) It came to the table a bright, almost shimmering, white color. The chef had overcooked it. Like twice over. Amazingly, it was still delicious.

Who can make a fish taste good after it's been overcooked? I can't, but this guy can. Let's call him Miguel. Actually his name is Miguel. (Laughter) And no, he didn't cook the fish, and he's not a chef. At least in the way that you and I understand it. He's a biologist at Veta La Palma. It's a fish farm in the southwestern corner of Spain. It's at the tip of the Guadalquivir river.

Until the 1980s, the farm was in the hands of the Argentinians. They raised beef cattle on what was essentially wetlands. They did it by draining the land. They built this intricate series of canals, and they pushed water off the land and out into the river. Well, they couldn't make it work, not economically. And ecologically, it was a disaster. It killed like 90 percent of the birds, which, for this place, is a lot of birds. And so in 1982, a Spanish company with an environmental conscience purchased the land.

What did they do? They reversed the flow of water. They literally flipped the switch. Instead of pushing water out, they used the channels to pull water back in. They flooded the canals. They created a 27,000 acre fish farm -- bass, mullet, shrimp, eel -- and in the process, Miguel, and this company, completely reversed the ecological destruction. The farm's incredible. I mean, you've never seen anything like this. You stare out at a horizon that is a million miles away, and all you see are flooded canals and this thick, rich marshland.

I was there not long ago with Miguel. He's an amazing guy, three parts Charles Darwin and one part Crocodile Dundee. (Laughter) Okay? There we are slogging through the wetlands, and I'm panting and sweating, got mud up to my knees, and Miguel's calmly conducting a biology lecture. Here, he's pointing out a rare Black-Shouldered Kite. Now, he's mentioning the mineral needs of phytoplankton. And here, here he sees a grouping pattern that reminds him of the Tanzanian Giraffe.

It turns out, Miguel spent the better part of his career in the Mikumi National Park in Africa. I asked him how he became such an expert on fish.

He said, "Fish? I didn't know anything about fish. I'm an expert in relationships." And then he's off launching into more talk about rare birds and algaes and strange aquatic plants.

And don't get me wrong, that was really fascinating, you know, the biotic community unplugged, kind of thing. It's great, but I was in love. And my head was swooning over that overcooked piece of delicious fish I had the night before. So I interrupted him. I said, "Miguel, what makes your fish taste so good?"

He pointed at the algae.

"I know, dude, the algae, the phytoplankton, the relationships, it's amazing. But what are your fish eating? What's the feed conversion ratio?"

Well, he goes on to tell me it's such a rich system, that the fish are eating what they'd be eating in the wild. The plant biomass, the phytoplankton, the zooplankton, it's what feeds the fish. The system is so healthy, it's totally self-renewing. There is no feed. Ever heard of a farm that doesn't feed its animals?

Later that day, I was driving around this property with Miguel, and I asked him, I said, "For a place that seems so natural," unlike like any farm I'd ever been at, "how do you measure success?"

At that moment, it was as if a film director called for a set change. And we rounded the corner and saw the most amazing sight, thousands and thousands of pink flamingos, a literal pink carpet for as far as you could see.

"That's success," he said. "Look at their bellies, pink. They're feasting." Feasting? I was totally confused.

I said, "Miguel, aren't they feasting on your fish?" (Laughter)

"Yes," he said. (Laughter) "We lose 20 percent of our fish and fish eggs to birds. Well, last year, this property had 600,000 birds on it, more than 250 different species. It's become, today, the largest and one of the most important private bird sanctuaries in all of Europe."

I said, "Miguel, isn't a thriving bird population like the last thing you want on a fish farm?" (Laughter) He shook his head, no.

He said, "We farm extensively, not intensively. This is an ecological network. The flamingos eat the shrimp. The shrimp eat the phytoplankton. So the pinker the belly, the better the system."

Okay, so let's review. A farm that doesn't feed its animals, and a farm that measures its success on the health of its predators. A fish farm, but also a bird sanctuary. Oh, and by the way, those flamingos, they shouldn't even be there in the first place. They brood in a town 150 miles away, where the soil conditions are better for building nests. Every morning, they fly 150 miles into the farm. And every evening, they fly 150 miles back. (Laughter) They do that because they're able to follow the broken white line of highway A92. (Laughter) No kidding.

I was imagining a march of the penguins thing, so I looked at Miguel. I said, "Miguel, do they fly 150 miles to the farm, and then do they fly 150 miles back at night? Do they do that for the children?"

He looked at me like I had just quoted a Whitney Houston song. (Laughter) He said, "No. They do it because the food's better." (Laughter)

I didn't mention the skin of my beloved fish, which was delicious, and I don't like fish skin. I don't like it seared. I don't like it crispy. It's that acrid, tar-like flavor. I almost never cook with it. Yet, when I tasted it at that restaurant in southern Spain, it tasted not at all like fish skin. It tasted sweet and clean like you were taking a bite of the ocean. I mentioned that to Miguel, and he nodded. He said, "The skin acts like a sponge. It's the last defense before anything enters the body. It evolved to soak up impurities." And then he added, "But our water has no impurities."

Okay. A farm that doesn't feed its fish. A farm that measures its success by the success of its predators. And then I realized when he says, a farm that has no impurities, he made a big understatement, because the water that flows through that farm comes in from the Guadalquivir river. It's a river that carries with it all the things that rivers tend to carry these days, chemical contaminants, pesticide runoff. And when it works its way through the system and leaves, the water is cleaner than when it entered. The system is so healthy, it purifies the water. So, not just a farm that doesn't feed its animals, not just a farm that measures its success by the health of its predators, but a farm that's literally a water purification plant, and not just for those fish, but for you and me as well. Because when that water leaves, it dumps out into the Atlantic. A drop in the ocean, I know, but I'll take it, and so should you, because this love story, however romantic, is also instructive. You might say it's a recipe for the future of good food, whether we're talking about bass or beef cattle.

What we need now is a radically new conception of agriculture, one in which the food actually tastes good. (Laughter) (Applause) But for a lot people, that's a bit too radical. We're not realists, us foodies. We're lovers. We love farmers' markets. We love small family farms. We talk about local food. We eat organic. And when you suggest these are the things that will insure the future of good food, someone somewhere stands up and says, "Hey guy, I love pink flamingos, but how are you going to feed the world? How are you going to feed the world?"

Can I be honest? I don't love that question. No, not because we already produce enough calories to more than feed the world. One billion people will go hungry today. One billion -- that's more than ever before -- because of gross inequalities in distribution, not tonnage. Now, I don't love this question because it's determined the logic of our food system for the last 50 years.

Feed grain to herbivores, pesticides to monocultures, chemicals to soil, chicken to fish, and all along agribusiness has simply asked, "If we're feeding more people more cheaply, how terrible could that be?" That's been the motivation. It's been the justification. It's been the business plan of American agriculture. We should call it what it is, a business in liquidation, a business that's quickly eroding ecological capital that makes that very production possible. That's not a business, and it isn't agriculture.

Our bread basket is threatened today, not because of diminishing supply, but because of diminishing resources, not by the latest combine and tractor invention, but by fertile land, not by pumps, but by fresh water, not by chainsaws, but by forests, and not by fishing boats and nets, but by fish in the sea.

Want to feed the world? Let's start by asking: How are we going to feed ourselves? Or better, How can we create conditions that enable every community to feed itself? (Applause) To do that, don't look at the agribusiness model for the future. It's really old, and it's tired. It's high on capital, chemistry, and machines, and it's never produced anything really good to eat. Instead, let's look to the ecological model. That's the one that relies on two billion years of on-the-job experience.

Look to Miguel, farmers like Miguel, farms that aren't worlds unto themselves, farms that restore instead of deplete, farms that farm extensively instead of just intensively, farmers that are not just producers, but experts in relationships, because they're the ones that are experts in flavor too. And if I'm going to be really honest, they're a better chef than I'll ever be. You know, I'm okay with that, because if that's the future of good food, it's going to be delicious.

Thank you. (Applause)


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Anonymous, 2015-01-21 23:46:19
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workonet, 2010-09-30 12:29:59

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