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課程來源:TED
     
John Walker 談重塑宏偉演藝
John Walker re-creates great performances
 
講者:John Walker
2007年12月演講,2008年8月在TED上線
 
翻譯:                劉契良
編輯:                洪曉慧
簡繁轉換:            陳盈
後制:                劉契良
字幕影片後制:        謝旻均
 
 
 
關於這場演講
 
想像一下聆聽昔日傑出鋼琴家重現演藝風華,彷彿他們重生再現眼前一般。John Q. Walker 展示如何分析錄製品中細微的鍵擊及踏板調音,然後藉由電腦控制的平台式鋼琴重新播放出來。
 
關於
 
軟體實業家 John Q. Walker 使用電腦讓幕幕鋼琴傳奇重獲新生,以數位的方式從音軌中重建往昔演藝,並在真實的樂器上原音重現,而且是現場演出。
 
為何要聽他演講:
 
Glenn Gould、Thelonious Monk、Art Tatum 都是遺失在時空中的現場鋼琴演奏傳奇,但 John Q. Walker 要我們想像一下再度聽到那些昔日傑出樂手重現風華,好像他們重現眼前一般。這是 Walker 公司 Zenph Studios 的承諾,他們以科技重建現場音樂演出,鋼琴音軌被轉換為細微的鍵擊及踏板調音,然後藉由電腦控制的平台式鋼琴重新播放出來。
 
於 2002 年創辦 Zenph 之前,Walker 是頂尖的 VoIP 研發者,而且對制定 IEEE 802 區域網路(LAN)和 802.11 無線 LAN (「Wi-Fi」)標準頗具影響力。他本身亦熱衷於鋼琴。
 
「這對音樂歷史而言是非常重要的產品發表」」
Stereophile 對重現 Art Tatum 《Piano Starts Here》的評論
 

John Walker 的英語網上資料
 
 
[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。
 
 
我們之中 99 %的人想要當聆聽者,而非樂手,僅是聆聽,對吧?!而我們渴望獲得一樣東西,即使我們一直都不曉得那是什麼,我們渴望能和樂手共聚一堂,就在音樂錄製的那天,就在他演出的那天,所以,我們去聽現場演奏會,以滿足這項渴望,但我們所聆聽的玩意兒有99%是錄製品,結果你愈想回顧歷史的樂音,所聽到的強烈感就越低,於是我們想,必需要有個解決方案,讓我們分離演奏,將它從錄製中獨立出來,從錄製品中抽出。
 
 
往昔,錄製的方式是透過錄音室中的多支麥克風,但演奏本身是樂手們飛躍手指的方式及他們所使用的樂器,那就是隱藏在錄製品中的數據,為了達成這個目標,很多的軟硬體要以高解析度運作,山葉樂器出產了一項神奇的東西叫作 Disklavier Pro,外觀看起來很像是平台式鋼琴,但你可能不知道,它將扛起所有的重責大任,內部充滿的是螺線管、光纖、電腦及所有這類的東西,日本製造的最高解析度產品,但直到我們能跨越高解析度的門檻,這一切才會產生作用,而我們跨越的那道門檻,稱作神奇幽谷,就人工智慧詞彙而言,我們有一套程序,意即將一切輸入電腦做數位化及很多的分析,我們斟酌每個音符及那些音符的所有屬性,樂手按下時的力道及按住的方式及他們移動手指的方式,所以,我們研發出全新的手指移動科學,其實就是你鋼琴老師所教的一切,但從沒人對這類行為做科學分析。
 
 
我要從 Glenn Gould 談起,他在 25 年前過世,年方 50,他是一位深受喜愛的鋼琴家,也許是 20 世紀最偉大的狂熱鋼琴家之一,他對在聽眾前演奏感到厭煩了,自覺是「演奏猴子」,他如此自嘲,所以他退一步,什麼都不做,只是潛心於他的專長之中,Gould 的專長是演奏巴哈,他最出名的錄製品或許就是《郭德堡變奏曲》,巴哈之前只有分別寫過一些主旋律和變奏曲,他有一些早期的作品,但之後的生涯中,在音樂素養成熟階段,他說:「主旋律在這,另加 30 首變奏曲」,事實上,這個主旋律根本不是樂音,而只是基調,Gould 將其錄製到兩張主要的唱片,你可能知道,一張是單音,另一張是立體聲,附帶一提,他在單音版用了踏板調音,但當他較年長時,他說:「不,等等,我想更精準些,不使用踏板」,我要讓各位現場聆聽的是 1955 年的版本,我們將播出頭幾曲,Glenn Gould,1955 年版。
 
(樂音)
 
感覺如何?
 
(掌聲)
 
讓我闡釋一下這是怎麼辦到的,首先,讓我們來看看最後一步,這是,這個程序極為繁複,包含了軟體與樂手等,但一切都就緒之後,我們知道耳朵是最終的裁判,我們在一隻耳朵播放原音,另一隻耳朵播放新錄製樂音,我將以這種方式重播一次,右方的擴音器將播放原音,左方的擴音器將播放新錄製樂音,如同那台機器所播出的新樂音,兩種版本將同時播出。
 
(樂音)
 
那是原音
 
(樂音)
 
在《侏羅紀公園》之前,使皮膚附著在肌肉上的科學並不存在,對吧?!所以,在影像的世界,我們能夠在有生之年創造出自然的行為,這是另一項用科學支持自然行為的範例,你聽到原音,追根究底,我是出發點是經歷,我的經歷是:我想要身處該樂室,聆聽樂手的演出,你們很多人負擔得起購買這玩意兒,但如果不行,現在有高解析度的環繞音響,我必需要和你們分享,如果你尚未聽聞過高解析度環繞音響,馬上去找音響裝置商及愛搞高級音響的玩家,那種身歷其境絕非一般音響可以比擬,但如果沒玩那一套,也許你可以聽耳機,同一張唱片上會有五種錄音,Sony 唱片有五種錄音,你可以用耳機聆聽這種稱作雙耳音體的錄音,那是一顆假人頭立在樂器前,雙耳裝有麥克風,當你戴上耳機收聽演奏時,你就好像附身到 Glenn Gould 的體內,或許會有人竊笑,直到樂手正在彈奏的樂手聽到,說:「我不敢相信!這就像是他在彈奏鋼琴一樣」,除了你現在人在 Glenn Gould 體內彈奏鋼琴,感覺上好像你的手指正在彈奏,遊移於整個過程之中,這顛覆了遊戲規則。
 
 
現在,我們知道有些東西的品質極為突出,整個過程對溫度及溼度特別敏感,各位今天所聽的並非完美,它混合了木材、鑄鐵、毛氈及鋼絲等一切,以上各項都對溫度及溼度出奇地敏感,所以在進到錄製過程時,總必需要在每曲間停頓,如果有需要的話,還得重組鋼琴,現場一旁總有些大動作的位移組建,假人頭及我們的錄音工程師站在一旁看我們重組鋼琴,雖然沒有附上日期,但一步步地,音樂將被轉變成數據,就像過去 35 或 40 年間,各行各業所經歷過的一樣,聽覺方面的起步較晚,我不是說數位化、位元及再版,而是轉為其錄製當下的數據,即它演奏的方式,聽覺的起步較晚是因為我們的雙耳十分敏銳,具高解析度,而且直接連結到我們的情緒,你無法輕易地騙倒雙耳,你的雙眼很容易滿足於色彩與動作,《星際爭霸戰》有這麼一集(笑聲)。
 
 
我知道,它就靜靜地等著我去找尋它,那集《星際爭霸戰》對我而言,就是 James Daly 飾演 Methuselah,記得這一集嗎?有一幕是他和他的...跳舞,我不會毀了 1967 年這集在你心中的地位,你知道我講的是什麼嗎?Nimoy,抱歉,Spock 坐在鋼琴椅上,並開始彈奏布萊姆斯的華爾茲,他們紛紛隨音樂起舞,然後 Spock 轉身說:「James,我知道所有布萊姆斯的華爾茲曲目,我相信這首並未名列其中」,那就是我想做的,我想要聽到布萊姆斯未寫出的華爾茲,我想聽到 Horowitz 未曾彈出的曲目,但我相信我們已上軌道,當我們獲得數據,讓我們可以萃取出風格、曲樣及公式等一切,你已在電腦動畫領域中看到了這個的實踐,現在來到這個領域,將轉變成這個,如簡報所示,音樂等於音符加上演奏的方式,而未來將是這一套新公式(音樂=數據加演算)。
 
 
因為如各位剛聽到的即是電腦演奏的數據,而非 Glenn Gould 在樂室中的演奏,但它具有人性,我相信你可以邁向下一步,實現成為真正聆聽者的夢想,今天你每次聆聽錄音,每次你拿出 iPod 或其他播放器,每次的收聽,都是一樣,固定住了,如果可以每次聽都不一樣呢?今早你感到較傷感,你想聽屬於你的歌,同一首,比你昨天彈時更傷感些,你想要聽其他樂手的演奏,你想要聽在不同樂室的演奏或其他需求,這就像是《星際爭霸戰》每集都有的全像甲板,每當我聽到這兒,都會起雞皮疙瘩,這麼神奇刺激,每次我聆聽那張錄音都像,天啊,我無法相信自己身處同一樂室,且已達到這般成果,那是更好的經歷,對比起你曾聽過的任何種模式。
 
 
最後,我要以一分鐘的 Art Tatum 總結,我已超出預算時間了,我們為他製作了新錄音,九月時在 Shrine 禮堂演出,那是他在 1949 演奏會中錄製的 Shrine 禮堂現場,我必需要報告的是,我們的這間實驗室仿一切的測量建造,位於北卡萊納州 Raleigh,然後帶到洛城來,身為公司的總裁,我真的對我們的所在感到不自在,那是很不自在的感覺,當所有的設備都搬出,所有 Sony 團隊,所有的人都將坐在聽眾席,我們將鋼琴放在Shire 舞台上的適當位置,它自 1949 年以來從未改變,仍能坐滿 6,000 人,在舞台上的焦點處,Tatum 開始演奏,每一個音符、鍵擊、連音、重音及踏板都是完美,因為他在那天為該樂室演奏,而我們再次補捉到所有的數據,我現在就為各位播放,幸運的就在這兒─這是他常彈的安可曲,長度一分鐘,愛爾蘭三拍快版,讓我們來聽聽他的幽默。
 
(樂音)
 
(掌聲)
 
那就是現場聽眾所做的反應。
 
(掌聲)
 
感謝聆聽。
Michael,感謝您的邀約。
 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Imagine hearing great, departed pianists play again today, just as they would in person. John Q. Walker demonstrates how recordings can be analyzed for precise keystrokes and pedal motions, then played back on computer-controlled grand pianos.

About John Q. Walker

Software entrepreneur John Q. Walker uses computers to bring piano legends back to life -- digitally reconstructing their performances from audio tracks and playing them on real instruments, live. Full bio and more links

Transcript

99 percent of us have the dream of listeners. Not being the musicians -- the listeners, right? And we crave one thing, even though we kind of don't know it all the time. We crave to be in the room with the musician the day it was recorded, the day it was played. And we go to live concerts, and we get that as much as we can. But then we listen to the other 99 percent of our stuff recorded. And it turns out the further back you go in history, the little rougher it sounds. And so we said, there's a solution to this. Let's separate the performance, as a thing, out from the recording, which was how it was made. You know, the thing with microphones in the room and all that day. But the performance itself was how the musicians worked their fingers, and what instruments they were using. And it's the data hidden inside the recording. In order to do this, it's a lot of hardware and software that runs in a very high resolution. And Yamaha makes an incredible thing called the Disklavier Pro, that looks like a nice grand piano there -- and you probably didn't realize it's going to do all these things -- but full of solenoids, and fiber optics, and computers and all this kinds of stuff -- the highest resolution out of Japan. And this just didn't work until we could cross this line that says high-definition. And we were able to cross this line, called the uncanny valley, in terms of -- artificial intelligence terms. We have a process where we, you know, kind of put it into the computer and digitize it, and then a whole lot of analysis. And we look at every single note, and all the attributes of those notes: how hard they were struck, and how they were held down, and how you move the fingers. So we had to develop a whole new science of how you move your fingers. And, you know, it's a thing your piano teacher teaches you, but we never had a science behind these kinds of things.

I'm going to start with Glenn Gould. He died 25 years ago this year, and was born 75 years ago this year. Was a beloved pianist, maybe the great cult pianist of the 20th century. He just got tired of being in front of an audience, and felt like -- "a performing monkey," was, in fact, was his term. So he stepped back, and did nothing but the crafting of his work. And Gould's specialty was playing Bach. His maybe most famous recording was something called "The Goldberg Variations." Bach only wrote themes and variations one time. He wrote some early pieces, but late in his life, in his mature period, he said, "Here's a theme -- 30 variations." In fact the theme isn't even the melody, it's the baseline. And Gould recorded it in two major recordings that you may know about, one in mono, and one in stereo. And the one in mono, by the way, he used the pedal, and as he got older he said, "No, no, wait a minute. I'm going to get very scientific about this and not use the pedal." What I'd like you to hear live is the 1955 version, and we'll play the first couple pieces of it. Glenn Gould, 1955. (Music) How about that? (Applause)

So let me tell you a little bit how this was done. First of all, let me get you to the end step. This is -- we have a fairly complex process that, you know, software and musicians and so on, but when we're all done, we know that the ear is the final arbiter. We can play the original in one ear, and a new recording in the other. So I'm going to do this for you right now, what you just heard. And in the right speaker is going to be the original recording and the left speaker is going to be the new recording -- actually of an instrument just like that one, and I'm going to play them together at the same time. (Music) That's the original. (Music)

Before Jurassic Park, there was no science for how skin hung off of muscle, right? So in the video world, we've been able to invent, in our lifetimes, natural behavior. And this is kind of another example of putting a science behind natural behavior. And then you heard the original. Ultimately, I started with the experience. And the experience is: I want to be in the room and hear the musicians. Lots of you can afford to buy one of these. But, if not, there is now high-definition surround-sound. And I got to tell you, if you haven't heard high-definition surround, go down to your audio dealer, your audiophile dealer. It's so involving compared to regular stereo. But if you don't have that, maybe you can listen on your headphones. And so on the same disk we have five recordings -- Sony has five recordings. And you could listen in headphones with this thing called binaural recording. And it's a dummy head that sits in front of the instrument, and it's got microphones where the ears are. And when you put on headphones and you listen to this, you're inside of Glenn Gould's body. And it is a chuckle until -- you know, the musicians, who are musicians who play the piano, listen to this, say, "I can't believe it! It's just what it's like to play the piano." Except now you're inside Glenn Gould's body playing the piano, and it feels like your fingers are making the decisions and moving through the whole process. It's a game-changer.

Here's now something we know in spectacular quality. The whole process is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. What you heard today was not perfect. It's an amalgam of wood and cast iron and felt, and steel strings, and all these, and they're all amazingly sensitive to temperature and humidity. So when you go into the recording session, you get to stop after every piece and rebuild the piano if you need to. There's the whole action there sitting, kind of, on the side, and the dummy head and our recording engineers standing around while we rebuild the piano. Without putting dates next to these things, step-by-step, music will be turned into data, like every field that's occurred in the past 35 or 40 years. Audio has come very late to this game -- I'm not talking about digitizing, and bits, and re-mastering -- I'm talking about turn it into the data that it was made from, which is how it was performed. And audio came very late because our ears are so hard to fool -- they're high-resolution, and they're wired straight to our emotions, and you can't trick them very easily. Your eyes are pretty happy with some color and movement, you know.

All right, there's this episode of Star Trek. (Laughter) I get it -- it was all just laid in for me yesterday there. The episode of Star Trek for me was James Daly played Methuselah -- remember this one? And at some point he's dancing with his -- and I won't ruin the episode for you, from 1967. Right, do you know where I'm going? And Nimoy, I'm sorry, Spock sits down at the piano, and he starts playing this Brahms waltz, and they all dance to it. And then Spock turns round, he goes, "James, I know all of the Brahms waltzes, and I don't believe this is one of them in the category." That's where I'm at. I want to hear the waltzes Brahms didn't write. I want to hear the pieces that Horowitz didn't play. But I believe we're on a path now when we get to data that we can distill styles and templates and formulas and all these kinds of things -- again, that you've seen happen in the computer graphics world. It's now coming in this world. the transition will be this one. It says right now, we think music is notes and how they're played. And I believe this is coming. Because what you've just heard was a computer playing data -- no Glenn Gould in the room. But yet it was human. And I believe you'll get to the next step, the real dream of listeners. Every time you listen to a recording today, every time you take out your iPod and whatever, every time you listen to it, it's the same thing -- it's frozen. Wouldn't it be cool if every time you listened, it could be different? This morning you're sadder, you want to hear your song, the same song, played sadder than you did yesterday. You want to hear it played by different musicians. You want to hear it in different rooms and whatever.

We've seen all these Star Treks, and they're all holodeck episodes as well. Every time I listen to that, I get goose bumps. It's so amazing, it's so exciting. Every time I listen to that recording it's like, oh my God, I can't believe I'm in the same room. I can't believe this is happening. It's a way better experience than whatever you're used to listening to in whatever form. And lastly, I will wrap up with one minute of Art Tatum. So I've really overshot my budget here. We made a new recording of him playing in the Shrine Auditorium in September. It was a concert he recorded in the Shrine Auditorium in 1949. And I've got to tell you, we have this lab where we build and measure everything, back in Raleigh, North Carolina, and we flew out to Los Angeles. And as the president of the company, I didn't feel real comfortable about where we were. That's a real uncomfortable feeling when all the equipment's come out and a whole Sony team, and people are going to be sitting there in the audience. And we put the piano on the sweet spot of the stage in the Shrine -- which has not changed since 1949, still seats 6,000 people -- and on the sweet spot on the stage, Tatum starts playing ... and every note, every beat, every slur, every accent, every pedal was perfect, because he played it for that room on that day. And we captured all that data all over again. And I want you to hear that right now. And fortunately it's right in here -- this is an encore he used to do. It's one minute long. It's an Irish jig, and I want you to hear his humor. (Music) (Applause) And that's just what the live audience did. (Applause) So thank you very much, Michael, thank you for the opportunity.


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您的 部 落 格 經營的很用心呢!  這不是空口說說 , 而是一個 已 被 眾 多 "名 人" 推 薦 的 創 業 ! 你也能輕易入手 -> http://azyyeayzz.weebly.com/

workonet, 2010-09-30 12:45:52

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