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課程來源:TED
     

 

Jonathan Klein 談改變世界的照片

Jonathan Klein:Photos that changed the world

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Jonathan Klein

2010年2月演講,2010年4月在TED上線

 

翻譯:魚骨頭

編輯:洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後制:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

攝影師不僅記錄歷史,也創造歷史。在TED大學,來自華蓋創意的Jonathan Klein展示了一些最具標誌性的圖片,並談論了當一代人,看到一張讓人無法轉移目光的照片時,會做些什麼。

 

關於Jonathan Klein

Jonathan Klein經營了華蓋創意,一個擁有大量照片和插圖的圖片庫,這些是他們創意活動的主要支柱。

 

為什麼要聽他演講:

即便你不常用(或不熟悉)互聯網,很可能你上一次上網—或者上一張打開的網頁—你會看到來自華蓋創意圖片庫的照片。華蓋創意的照片和插圖處處可見,應用於你能想到的各個領域。不必驚訝,華蓋創意起步於資訊時代,以互聯網和光碟為傳播媒介,以此擊敗了傳統的印刷機構。

 

Jonathan Klein,華蓋創意的共同創始人(與Mark Getty一起)和現任行政總裁,使公司在過去15年中取得了成功。他於九十年代領導公司進行了大規模的照片庫收購活動,到了兩千年的今天,在其龐大的圖片庫中,又加入了社論照片、連續鏡頭和音樂。但是他的故事不止於他的經營技巧。聽Klein的演講,人們很快便能領會他對照片的激情—不僅用來記錄生活或記錄歷史,不僅用來銷售產品或進行公關活動—也可以改變公眾的觀念,或許,可以讓世界變得更加公正。

 

Klein擔任愛滋病商業聯盟和Real Networks (影音公司,流行播放器RealPlayer的創造者)的董事會成員。

 

「照片便觸動了人們的內心,從而致使改變的發生」

—Jonathan Klein

 

Jonathan Klein的英語網上資料

網站: Getty Images

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Jonathan Klein 談改變世界的照片

 

在我的行業中,人們相信照片可以改變世界。好吧,我們很天真,天真的像小松鼠。事實上,我們知道照片本身不能改變世界,但我們也知道,自攝影起源以來,照片便觸動了人們的內心,從而致使改變的發生。

 

我們先來看一組照片,我想其中的大部分你們都見過,這些照片是標誌性的,標誌到可能都被用濫了。事實上,它們廣為人知,即便是稍微換了一種形式也認得出來。

 

(笑聲)

 

但我想我們要找另外一些圖片,這些圖片,可以不容置疑地揭露重大問題,可以跨越國界,跨越宗教信仰。這些圖片,可以激勵我們站出來去做些什麼,換句話說,採取行動。這幅圖大家都看過,它改變了我們對物質世界的看法,我們從未以這個角度看過我們的星球。許多人把諸多環保運動的興起,歸因於我們第一次這樣的看到我們的星球,如此渺小,如此脆弱。

 

40年後,這個小組,比任何人都清楚地認識到人類對環境的巨大破壞力,最終,我們對此採取行動。這種破壞力表現在各個方面。例如,這張Brent Stirton在剛果拍下的照片,這些大猩猩被殺害,或者說被處死。毫無疑問,它們引起了國際社會的憤慨。近期,海地地震的發生,讓我們悲哀的意識到大自然的破壞力。

 

而我認為,更為危險的是人類之間的自相殘殺。奧斯威辛集中營的倖存者Samuel Pisar坦言,我將引用他的話,「那場屠殺讓我們知道,即便是最殘暴的自然災害,與喪失了理性與良知的人類相比,都顯得溫和慈祥。」

 

還有另一種迫害,來自阿布格里卜監獄以及關塔那摩監獄的令人震驚的照片,產生了深遠的影響。由於這些照片的公佈,而並非圖片本身,迫使政府改變了其政策。一些人會主張,那些照片比其他運動都更能揭示伊拉克戰爭的真相,而且,那些照片揭下了侵略軍所謂道義的面具。

 

我們往前一點看,六七十年代,越南戰爭的照片幾乎每天在每個美國家庭中都能看到。新聞照片使人們與戰爭受害者面對面,一個被汽油彈燒傷的小女孩,一位在抗議活動中被國民警衛隊殺害的俄亥俄州肯特州立大學學生。事實上,這些圖片本身已經成為了抗議的最強音。

 

照片還有消除人們的無知和猜疑的力量,特別是,對此我講過很多次,在此我只展示一張照片。愛滋病問題。在八十年代,人們對愛滋病患者偏見之大,甚至於不願談及此事。1987年,世界上最有名的女人,威爾士王妃的一個簡單的舉動,抱著患愛滋病的兒童,極大的消除了偏見,在歐洲尤為明顯。她比誰都清楚照片的影響力。

 

所以當一張觸及內心的照片擺在面前,我們都面臨一個選擇,或者轉移目光,或者去重視它。令人欣慰的是,這些照片1998年在衛報一經發表,他們投入大量精力,以及大量金錢,來進行蘇丹饑荒拯救行動。是照片改變了世界嗎?不是,但照片的影響不容小覷,照片經常使我們對自己的信仰和對彼此的責任產生質疑。我們都看過卡崔娜颶風的災後照片,我覺得對大眾來說,他們的心靈受到了衝擊,我想他們去參加2008年11月的競選投票,不會忘記那些災難中的人民的。

 

遺憾的是,一些珍貴的照片被認為太直觀,不適合觀看,我在此展示一張Eugene Richards拍攝的伊拉克戰爭老兵,出自一部傑出之作,但從未發表過,叫做「戰爭是每個人的災難」。但並不是只有直觀的照片能讓我們記起戰爭的悲慘,John Moore在阿靈頓公墓拍了這張照片,當一切衝突歸於平靜,在世界上每個發生過衝突的地方都有一張照片,來自一個靜謐之處,始終在我心頭縈繞,更甚於其他照片。

 

Ansel Adams說過一句話,我對此不太認同,「你不是在攝影,而是在創造」。在我看來,不是攝影師在創造,而是你們。我們在照片中加入了自己的價值觀和信仰體系,因此,照片能與我們共鳴。我公司裡有七千萬張照片,我把其中一張放在辦公室裏,就是這張。我希望,當你看到下一張觸及心靈的照片時,會更加明白其中的因由。而且我知道,對於在座的聽眾,你們一定會有所行動。

 

最後感謝所有攝影工作者。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Photographs do more than document history -- they make it. At TED University, Jonathan Klein of Getty Images shows some of the most iconic, and talks about what happens when a generation sees an image so powerful it can't look away -- or back.

About Jonathan Klein

Jonathan Klein runs Getty Images, a stock photo agency whose vast archive of still photography and illustrations is a mainstay of the creative class. Full bio and more links

Transcript

In my industry, we believe that images can change the world. Okay, we're naive, we're bright-eyed and bushy-tailed. The truth is that we know that the images themselves don't change the world, but we're also aware that, since the beginning of photography, images have provoked reactions in people, and those reactions have caused change to happen.

So let's begin with a group of images. I'd be extremely surprised if you didn't recognize many or most of them. They're best described as iconic, so iconic, perhaps they're cliches. In fact, they're so well-known that you might even recognize them in a slightly or somewhat different form.

(Laughter)

But I think we're looking for something more. We're looking for something more. We're looking for images that shine an uncompromising light on crucial issues, images that transcend borders, that transcend religions, images that provoke us to step up and do something, in other words, to act. Well, this image, you've all seen. It changed our view of the physical world. We had never seen our planet from this perspective before. Many people credit a lot of the birth of the environmental movement to our seeing the planet like this for the first time, its smallness, its fragility.

40 years later, this group, more than most, are well aware of the destructive power that our species can wield over our environment. And at last, we appear to be doing something about it. This destructive power takes many different forms. For example, these images taken by Brent Stirton in the Congo, these gorillas were murdered, some would even say crucified, and unsurprisingly, they sparked international outrage. Most recently, we've been tragically reminded of the destructive power of nature itself with the recent earthquake in Haiti.

What I think that is far worse is man's destructive power over man. Samuel Pisar, an Auschwitz survivor said, and I'll quote him, "The Holocaust teaches us that nature, even in its cruelest moments, is benign in comparison with man, when he loses his moral compass and his reason."

There's another kind of crucifixion. The horrifying images from Abu Ghraib as well as the images from Guantanamo had a profound impact. The publication of those images, as opposed to the images themselves, caused a government to change its policies. Some would argue that it is those images that did more to fuel the insurgency in Iraq than virtually any other single act. Furthermore, those images forever removed the so-called moral high ground of the occupying forces.

Let's go back a little. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Vietnam War was basically shown in America's living rooms day in, day out. News photos brought people face to face with the victims of the war, a little girl burned by napalm, a student killed by the National Guard at Kent State University in Ohio during a protest. In fact, these images became the voices of protest themselves.

Now, images have power to shed light of understanding on suspicion, ignorance, and in particular -- I've given a lot of talks on this but I'll just show one image -- the issue of HIV/AIDS. In the 1980s the stigmatization of people with the disease was an enormous barrier to even discussing or addressing it. A simple act, in 1987, of the most famous woman in the world, the Princess of Wales, touching an HIV/AIDS infected baby, did a great deal, especially in Europe, to stop that. She, better than most, knew the power of an image.

So when we are confronted by a powerful image, we all have a choice. We can look away, or we can address the image. Thankfully, when these photos appeared in the Guardian in 1998, they put a lot of focus and attention, and in the end a lot of money, towards the Sudan famine relief efforts. Did the images change the world? No, but they had a major impact. Images often push us to question our core beliefs and our responsibilities to each other. We all saw those images after Katrina, and I think for millions of people, they had a very strong impact, and I think it's very unlikely that they were far from the minds of Americans when they went to vote in November 2008.

Unfortunately, some very important images are deemed too graphic or disturbing for us to see them. I'll show you one photo here, and it's a photo by Eugene Richards of an Iraq War veteran from an extraordinary piece of work, which has never been published, called "War is Personal." But images don't need to be graphic in order to remind us of the tragedy of war. John Moore set up this photo at Arlington cemetery. After all the tense moments of conflict, in all the conflict zones of the world, there's one photograph from a much quieter place that haunts me still, much more than the others.

Ansel Adams said, and I disagree with him, "You don't take a photograph, you make it." In my view, it's not the photographer who makes the photo, it's you. We bring to each image our own values, our own belief systems, and as a result of that, the image resonates with us. My company has 70 million images. I have one image in my office. Here it is. I hope that the next time you see an image that sparks something in you, you'll better understand why, and I know that, speaking to this audience, you'll definitely do something about it.

And thank you to all the photographers.

(Applause)


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