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Barton Seaver談永續發展海產?讓我們做聰明的選擇吧

Barton Seaver: Sustainable seafood? Let's get smart

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Barton Seaver

2010年4月演講,2010年10月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:劉契良

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

廚師Barton Seaver講述現代的兩難境地:海產是我們一個健康的蛋白質來源選擇,但過度捕撈卻對我們的海洋有很大傷害。他建議一個能使餐桌上魚類供應不虞匱乏的簡單方法,其中包括每個媽媽最喜歡的格言-「多吃蔬菜!」

 

關於Barton Seaver

Barton Seaver是倡導永續海產並在華盛頓特區執業的廚師。他藉由共享餐點來講述關於我們共有資源的故事。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Barton Seaver曾掌廚於華盛頓特區一些最負盛名的餐廳。他把永續發展海產的想法帶入了特區喬治城的Hook餐廳。在Hook餐廳之後,他開了Blue Ridge餐廳,而被《君子》雜誌評為2009年度最佳廚師。

 

他現在專注於更大的海洋永續發展議題,此議題與吃有關。他最近被任命為藍色海洋研究所研究員,在使環境社區與現實生活聯繫在一起方面提供幫助,並將美味飲食應用於環保倫理上。他參與國家地理學會的Ocean Now專案,以影響大公司和消費者都朝向更負責及可持續發展資源倫理的方向實行。Barton是華盛頓特區市鎮長營養委員會的委任成員,目前正在幫助特區居民建立一套健康政策。

 

Barton Seaver的英語網上資料

網站:BartonSeaver.org

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Barton Seaver談永續發展海產?讓我們做聰明的選擇吧

 

永續發展是指撈捕何物、在何地、以及如何進行撈捕。對我而言,重要的是人們和為什麼。我想瞭解選擇我餐點的人,想知道我如何影響他們及他們如何影響我。我想知道他們為什麼捕魚,我想知道他們如何仰賴水的恩賜維生。瞭解這一切使我們能轉變將海產視為一種商品的看法,使它成為一個復原我們生態系統的機會。它讓我們頌揚海產,那是我們現在還有幸能吃到的。

 

我們稱它為什麼?我認為,我們應稱它為復原性海產。永續發展就是包容和維持的能力,復原性就是補充和進步的能力。復原性海產適於一個不斷發展的動態系統,認可我們與海洋的關係,將海洋視作一種資源。我們致力使海洋得到補充,促進它的復原力,這是一個瞭解我們環境更有希望、更人性化、更有用的方式。

 

隨身指南 - 標準規則:海洋保護世界中許多物種的列表,非常方便,是一種非常棒的工具;海產物種的綠色、黃色和紅色列表。它的對照非常簡單:購買綠色、不買紅色、購買黃色請三思。但在我看來,如果黃色和紅色列表中物種的命運未獲得改善,只吃綠色清單上的物種確實不夠,因為這並非永續的作法。但如果我們只吃綠色列表中的物種?你必須專門捕獲表上所列的黃鰭鮪魚,來源是永續放養的資源,專門捕獲 – 不是誤捕。對漁民來說很棒,值很多錢,可支撐當地經濟,但它是海中之獅,一種頂級掠食者。

 

這一餐會是什麼情況?我會到一家牛排館吃個16盎司的黃鰭鮪魚排嗎?我會一周吃三次嗎?我或許仍食用綠色清單中的物種,但我沒有給我自己或你們或海洋任何幫助。關鍵是,我們必須有一個脈絡,對這一切有個行動的標準。例如:我聽說紅酒對我的健康很棒,抗氧化物和礦物質對心臟有益,這太棒了!我愛紅酒!我要多喝點,就會健康點。那麼,是多少瓶?在我出了問題的時候?夥伴們,我們有個蛋白質方面的問題,當它與我們的食物有關時,我們已失去了對此的敏感度,而我們正為此付出高昂的代價。問題是,我們把這個代價隱藏在隨波逐流中,我們隱藏的代價在社會接受越來越粗腰圍的身後,這個代價隱藏在利潤怪物的身後。

 

所以對這個復原性海產的首要概念是,確實以我們的需要為考慮。復原性海產的最佳代表不是《大白鯊》或《飛寶》或《Gordon's fisherman》,而是《綠巨人》,即玉米等蔬菜,它們可能還可挽救海洋。Sylvia說,藍色是新的綠色,嗯,我想恭敬地提出,花椰菜的綠色可能成為新的藍色。我們必須繼續盡可能吃最好的海產,如果還有的話,但我們也必須配上一大堆蔬菜一起吃。復原性海產最好的部分是:以半個貝殼盛裝,加上一瓶Tabasco辣椒醬和些許檸檬塊,搭配著五盎司鯛魚,灑上法式第戎芥末醬和酥脆的烤麵包屑,還有熱騰騰的山核桃藜麥燴飯,配上鬆脆的烤花椰菜,外部是那麼香嫩甜美,熏的微焦,只稍稍加了些辣椒片。哇噢!這會是很熱銷的菜單。而最棒的是,所有這些成分都可以在每一個家庭附近的沃爾瑪超市買到。

 

原味主廚傑米.奧利弗發起從我們的飲食方式拯救美國的活動,Sylvia發起以我們的飲食方式拯救海洋。這裡有一個模式,忘了核浩劫,這是一條我們必須擔心的分歧。我們破壞或覆蓋,然後利用我們食物的來源,在不只一個方面對我們自己形成障礙。因此,我認為在吃這整件事上,我們錯得離譜。因此,我認為改變我們期望從食物中得到什麼的觀念,現在是時候了。永續發展是複雜的,但餐點是一種我們都非常瞭解的實物,讓我們從這裡開始。

 

最近有很多運動是綠化我們的食物系統,Dan Barber 和 Alice Waters熱烈宣導綠色食物美味革命,但是綠色食物通常代表一種我們漠視身為食客責任的方式。只因為它來自綠色來源,並不意味著我們可以不在乎的將它裝進盤中。我們有環保蝦,我們可以生產出來,我們有這種技術,但我們絕對無法在吃到飽餐廳吃到環保蝦,這是行不通的。心臟健康餐點是復原性海產很重要的一部分,雖然我們試圖並設法減少海洋族群總體。媒體建議增加海產的消費,研究說,如果我們飲食包括更多的海產,成千上萬的美國祖父母和父母可能多活幾年;這是一個我不願意錯過的獎勵。但這並不全都跟海產有關,這與我們對盤中食物的看法有關。

 

身為一名廚師,對我來說最容易的就是減少我盤子裡的食物分量。幾件事發生了:我賺了更多的錢,人們開始購買開胃菜和沙拉,因為他們知道自己不會只點主菜。人們花更多的時間瞭解自己的飲食,彼此合作討論飲食。簡言之,人們得到的比他們上館子想得到的還多。即使他們攝取了較少的蛋白質,他們在多樣化的飲食中攝取了更多的熱量,他們得到了健康,我賺了更多的錢,這很棒。環境的代價由每盤食物所提供,但它同時提供了許多關於人類利益的考量。

 

我們做的另一件事是,使我們提供的物種多樣化,一般是小銀魚、鯷魚、鯖魚、沙丁魚、貝類、蚌類、牡蠣、蛤蜊、鯛魚、紅點鮭-這些是常見種類。我們讓口味傾向更彈性、更復原性的選擇,這是我們應該偏好的,這就是綠色列表的意義所在,這也是我們能夠真正開始復原環境的做法。

 

但那些大型的掠食動物,這些受歡迎的品種,我剛剛說的是綠色列表中的鮪魚嗎?嗯,如果真有必要,我可以給你一份食譜,它幾乎適用於任何海中的大型魚類,開始囉!首先得有個16盎司的大魚,拿起刀,切成四等分,把它裝進四個盤中,將這四個盤堆滿蔬菜,然後打開一瓶你擁有最好的勃艮第葡萄酒,點燃蠟燭慶祝,慶賀你有機會可以吃到這個恩典。邀請你的朋友和鄰居,每年重複這麼做一次,也許吧!

 

我對食物有很多期望;我期望健康還有快樂、家庭和社區;我期望生產原料、準備菜肴和用餐;這是人類利益共用的全部。我很幸運,我父親是一個傑出的廚師,他很早就教了我關於吃所代表的特權。我清楚地記得我童年的飲食是,合理份量的蛋白質與大量的蔬菜一起上桌,還有少量的澱粉,一般的米飯;至今這仍是我大多會吃的飲食。我去牛排館會不舒服,我會出現肉盜汗症,這就像因蛋白質而宿醉的情形,真令人噁心。但是,所有你會聽到的可怕消息,你已聽說過我們海洋的情況,我有不幸的重擔交付給你。可能最糟糕的是這整個過程中,你母親是正確的-多吃蔬菜。這相當簡單。

 

那麼,我們在飲食中尋找的是什麼?以對健康的益處來說,我正在尋找有益健康的成分,這對我的身體有益;以快樂來說,我尋找的是奶油和鹽,以及美味的東西,使食物不會嘗起來像件苦差;以家人來說,我尋找的是食譜,這要從我個人的歷史追尋;以社區來說,我們從最初就開始。不爭的事實是,我們所吃的一切會造成全球性的影響。盡全力嘗試和學習這個影響是什麼,然後踏出第一步,使它最小化。我們已經看到了我們藍色星球的影像,我們的世界銀行;但它不僅僅是我們的資源儲藏庫,也是全球地理的共用,我們稱之為餐點。因此,如果我們都只取所需,那麼我們就可以開始分享其餘,我們可以開始慶賀,可以開始復原。我們需要盡情享用蔬菜,我們需要享用較少份量的海產。此外,我們必需能放心享用餐點。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Chef Barton Seaver presents a modern dilemma: Seafood is one of our healthier protein options, but overfishing is desperately harming our oceans. He suggests a simple way to keep fish on the dinner table that includes every mom's favorite adage -- "Eat your vegetables!"

About Barton Seaver

Barton Seaver is an advocate of sustainable seafood and a chef in Washington DC. His work tells the story of our common resources through the communion we all share – dinner. Full bio and more links

Transcript

Sustainability represents the what, the where and the how of what is caught. The who and the why are what's important to me. I want to know the people behind my dinner choices. I want to know how I impact them. I want to know how they impact me. I want to know why they fish. I want to know how they rely on the water's bounty for their living. Understanding all of this enables us to shift our perception of seafood away from a commodity to an opportunity to restore our ecosystem. It allows for us to celebrate the seafood that we're also so fortune to eat.

So what do we call this? I think we call it restorative seafood. Where sustainability is the capacity to endure and maintain, restorative is the ability to replenish and progress. Restorative seafood allows for an evolving and dynamic system and acknowledges our relationship with the ocean as a resource, suggesting that we engage to replenish the ocean and to encourage its resiliency. It is a more hopeful, it is a more human and is a more useful way of understanding our environment.

Wallet guides -- standard issue by lots in the marine conservation world -- are very handy, they're a wonderful tool. Green, yellow and red lists seafood species. The association is very easy: buy green, don't by red, think twice about yellow. But in my mind, it's really not enough to just eat green list. We can't sustain this without the measure of our success really changing the fate of the species in the yellow and the red. But what if we eat only in the green list? You've got pole caught yellowfin tuna here -- comes from sustainable stocks. Pole caught -- no bycatch. Great for fishermen. Lots of money. Supporting local economies. But it's a lion of the sea. It's a top predator.

What's the context of this meal? Am I sitting down in a steakhouse to a 16 oz. portion of this? Do I do this three times a week? I might still be in the green list, but I'm not doing myself, or you, or the oceans any favors. The point is that we have to have a context, a gauge for our actions in all this. Example: I've heard that red wine is great for my health -- antioxidants and minerals -- heart healthy. That's great! I love red wine! I'm going to drink so much of it. I'm going to be so healthy. Well, how many bottles is it before you tell me that I have a problem? Well folks, we have a protein problem. We have lost this sensibility when it regards to our food, and we are paying a cost. The problem is we are hiding that cost beneath the waves. We are hiding that cost behind the social acceptance of expanding waistlines. And we are hiding that cost behind monster profits.

So the first thing about this idea of restorative seafood, is that it really takes into account our needs. Restorative seafood might best be represented, not by Jaws, or by Flipper, or the Gordon's fisherman, but rather, by the Jolly Green Giant. Vegetables: they might yet save the oceans. Sylvia likes to say that blue is the new green. Well I'd like to respectfully submit that broccoli green might then be the new blue. We must continue to eat the best seafood possible, if at all. But we also must eat it with a ton of vegetables. The best part about restorative seafood though is that it comes on the half-shell with a bottle of Tabasco and lemon wedges. It comes in a five-ounce portion of tilapia breaded with Dijon mustard and crispy, broiled breadcrumbs and a steaming pile of pecan quinoa pilaf with crunchy, grilled broccoli so soft and sweet and charred and smokey on the outside with just a hint of chili flake. Whooo! This is an easy sell. And the best part is all of those ingredients are available to every family at the neighborhood Walmart.

Jamie Oliver is campaigning to save America from the way we eat. Sylvia is campaigning to save the oceans from the way we eat. There's a pattern here. Forget nuclear holocaust; it's the fork that we have to worry about. We have ravaged or earth and then used the food that we've sourced to handicap ourselves in more ways than one. So I think we have this whole eating this wrong. And so I think it's time we change what we expect from our food. Sustainability is complicated, but dinner is a reality that we all very much understand, so let's start there.

There's been a lot movement recently in greening our food systems. Dan Barber and Alice Waters are leading passionately the green food Delicious Revolution. But green foods often represent a way for us to disregard the responsibility as eaters. Just because it comes from a green source doesn't mean we can treat it with disregard on the plate. We have eco-friendly shrimp. We can make them; we have that technology. But we can never have any eco-friendly all-you-can-eat shrimp buffet. It doesn't work. Heart healthy dinner is a very important part of restorative seafood. While we try and manage declining marine populations, the media's recommending increased consumption of seafood. Studies say that tens of thousands of American grandmothers, grandfathers, mothers and fathers might be around for another birthday if we included more seafood. That's a reward I am not willing to pass up. But it's not all about the seafood. It's about the way that we look at our plates.

As a chef, I realize the easiest thing for me to do is reduce the portion sizes on my plate. A couple things happened. I made more money. People started buying appetizers and salads, because they new they weren't going to fill up on the entrees alone. People spent more time engaging in their meals, engaging with each other over their meals. People got, in short, more of what they came there for, even though they got less protein. They got more calories over the course of a diversified meal. They got healthier. I made more money. This is great. Environmental consideration was served with every plate, but it was served with a heaping mound of consideration for human interests at the same time.

One of the other things we did was begin to diversify the species that we served -- small silverfish, anchovies, mackerel, sardines were common. Shellfish, mussels, oysters, clams, tilapia, char -- these were the common species. We were directing tastes towards more resilience, more restorative options. This is what we need to favor. This is what the green list says. But this is also how we can actually begin to restore our environment.

But what of those big predators, those fashionable species, that green list tuna that I was talking about earlier? Well, if you must, I have a recipe for you. It pretty much works with any big fish in the ocean, so here we go. Start with a 16 oz. portion of big fish. Get a knife. Cut it into four portions. Put it on four plates. Mound up those four plates with vegetables and then open up the very best bottle of Burgundy you have, light the candles and celebrate it. Celebrate the opportunity you have to eat this. Invite you friends and neighbors over and repeat once a year, maybe.

I expect a lot from food. I expect health and joy and family and community. I expect that producing ingredients, preparing dishes and eating meals is all part of the communion of human interests. I was lucky enough that my father was a fantastic cook. And he taught me very early on about the privilege that eating represents. I remember well the meals of my childhood. They were reasonable portions of protein served with copious quantities of vegetables and small amounts of starch, usually rice. This is still how I largely eat today. I get sick when I go to steakhouses. I get the meat sweats. It's like a hangover from protein. It's disgusting. But of all the dire news that you'll hear and that you have heard about the state of our oceans, I have the unfortunate burden of delivering to you possibly the very worst of it, and that is this whole time, your mother was right. Eat your vegetables. It's pretty straightforward.

So what are we looking for in a meal? Well for health, I'm looking for wholesome ingredients that are good for my body. For joy, I'm looking for butter and salt and sexy things that make things taste less like penance. For family, I'm looking for recipes that genuflect to my own personal histories. For community though, we start at the very beginning. There's no escaping the fact that everything we eat has a global impact. So try and learn as best you can what that impact is and then take the first step to minimize it. We've seen an image of our blue planet, our world bank. But it is more than just a repository of our resources; it's also the global geography of the communion we call dinner. So if we all take only what we need, then we can begin to share the rest, we can begin to celebrate, we can begin to restore. We need to savor vegetables. We need to savor smaller portions of seafood. And we need to save dinner.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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