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Diana Laufenberg 談由錯誤中學習

Diana Laufenberg: How to learn? From mistakes

 

Photo of three lions
hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Diana Laufenberg

2010年11月演講,2010年12月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:劉契良

簡繁轉換:趙弘

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Diana Laufenberg 分享她從教學中學習到的三件令人嘖嘖稱奇的事,包括從錯誤中學習的關鍵性領悟。

 

關於Diana Laufenberg

Diana Laufenberg在費城領導科學學院教導11年級的美國歷史。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

Diana Laufenberg是出身於威斯康辛農場的孩子,11年前搬到堪薩斯,並在3年後移居亞利桑那從事教育工作。她教導過7-12年級的社會學科。Laufenberg最近的教學冒險歷程是費城領導科學學院(SLA)。SLA是一間位於費城,並與Franklin研究所建教合作的新型高中。這種教學方法既古老亦創新。

 

SLA是間以探索驅動,並以專題課程為基礎教學的高中,著重於21世紀的學習方法。SLA提供了嚴格的大學預科課程,重點放在科學、技術、數學和創業精神。SLA的學生在圍繞專題課程的環境下學習,探索、研究、合作、發表和反思等核心價值觀是所有課程的重點。

 

Diana Laufenberg的英語網上資料

部落格:laufenberg.wordpress.com/

Twitter:@dlaufenberg

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Diana Laufenberg 談由錯誤中學習

 

我已從事教學很長一段時間,在這個過程中,獲得很多關於兒童和學習的知識,但我真的希望更多人能理解學生的潛能。1931年,我的祖母,在相片的左下角,從八年級畢業。她從學校中獲得知識,因為學校是知識的殿堂。知識在書本中,在老師腦海中,她需要到學校獲得,因為這正是學習的方法。很快的前進了一代,這是Oak Grove的校舍,只有一間,我父親去只有一間校舍的學校上學。他依然得前往學校,從老師身上學習知識,存儲在他唯一的可擕式記憶中-他的大腦,並隨身攜帶,因為這就是知識傳播的方式。老師傳授給學生,然後在世界上運用。當我還是個孩子時,家中有一套百科全書,是在我出生那年購買的。當時看來很棒,因為我不需要等到去圖書館時才能獲得資料,這些資料就在我家。這很棒,跟上一代人經歷過的相比之下與眾不同,它改變了我與知識的互動,即使只有一點點程度。但這些知識離我更近,隨手可得。

 

在我還是個高中生到我開始教書那段時間當中,我們目睹網際網路的出現。大約在網際網路成為一種教育工具的時候,我離開威斯康辛,搬到堪薩斯,堪薩斯的一個小鎮。在那裡一個可愛的小鎮中,即堪薩斯州鄉村學區,我得到教書的機會。在那裡,我教導我最喜歡的科目-美國政府。第一年我滿懷熱情,賣力教導美國政府這門我所喜愛的政治體制,12年級的孩子們並不完全熱衷於美國政府體制。第二年我學到了一些東西,我得改變策略。我將一個真實的體驗呈現在他們面前,讓他們能為自己學習。我沒有告訴他們該做什麼、該怎麼做,我把一個問題擺在他們眼前,就是為他們社區建立一個選舉論壇。

 

他們製作傳單,號召辦事處;他們確認行程,與秘書會談;製作一本選舉論壇小冊,讓整個小鎮對候選人有更充分瞭解。他們邀請大家到學校進行夜間會談,關於政府與政治的議題,以及街道是否都已建設完善?並真正擁有這個強大的學習體驗。較具經驗的年長的老師看著我並走過來說,「哦,就是她,多天真!她真以為自己辦得到!」(笑聲)「她根本不知道自己會遭遇什麼狀況。」但我知道這些孩子會出席,我相信這一點。我每星期都告訴他們我對他們的期許。那天晚上,全部90個孩子穿著適當,做本分的工作,並擁有這個體驗,我只需坐著旁觀。這是屬於他們的,這是一個體驗,這是真實的,這對他們深具意義,他們會進步。

 

我從堪薩斯搬到可愛的亞利桑那,我在Flagstaff教了好幾年,這次是教中學生。幸運的是,我不用教他們美國政府,可以教他們更令人興奮的地理課。再次的,因學習而振奮。但我發現自己在亞利桑那州這份工作有趣的部分是,我確實能和這一群傑出的中學生一起合作,在一所真正的公立學校中。我們必須把握擁有這個機會的時刻,這個機會是,我們要去與Paul Rusesabagina見面。這位紳士,電影《盧安達飯店》以他為背景,他將來到我們隔壁的高中演講。我們可以走到那裡,甚至不需付巴士費用。沒有任何費用成本,完美的實地考察。

 

問題來了。如何將七、八年級的學生帶到談論種族屠殺的演講中,並以負責和尊重的方式處理這個問題?他們知道該怎麼做。所以我們選擇將Paul Rusesabagina視為一位紳士的典範,他令人罕見的用自己生命做一些正面的事,然後我給了學生一個挑戰,要他們在自己的生活、故事或世界中,定義一個他們認為做了類似事情的人。我要求他們製作一部與這有關的短片,這是我們第一次這麼做。沒有人真正知道如何在筆電上製作這個短片,但他們參與了。我要求他們用自己的聲音配旁白,這是一個最棒的啟示時刻。當你要孩子們用他們自己的聲音,要他們為自己發聲,說出他們願意分享的東西。這個作業最後一個問題是,你打算如何用你的生命帶給其他人正面影響?當你問他們,並花時間傾聽時,孩子們所說的是非比尋常的。

 

很快的來看賓夕法尼亞,我在那裡找到現在的自我。我在領導科學研究院教書,這是Franklin研究所和費城學區間的聯合建教學校。這是一所9到12年級的公立學校,但我們用十分不同的方法教學。我搬到那裡主要是想成為學習環境的一部分,並證實我對孩子們學習方式所知,而且確實想調查,當你願意對一些過去的陳規放手,什麼是可能的。資訊匱乏的時代,從我祖母上學時,到我父親、甚至我上學時,一直到資訊爆炸的時代。所以當資訊隨手可得時,你會怎麼做?為什麼你要孩子去學校?如果他們不再需要到校就能獲得知識?

 

在費城,我們有一人一台筆電課程,所以孩子每天帶著他們的筆電,帶筆電回家以獲得知識。你必須適應的是,當你提供工具讓學生獲得知識,你必須適應這個想法,允許孩子失敗,作為學習過程的一部分。我們目前面對的教育現況是,迷戀於一個正確答案的文化,這可能出現在一般選擇題測驗中。我在這裡與大家分享,這不是學習,這是大錯特錯的要求,告訴孩子永遠不能出錯,要求他們永遠要有正確的答案,不允許他們學習。所以我們做這個專題,這是其中一個專題的作品,我很少展示這個,因為這個專題的結果失敗了。

 

我的學生們製作這些資料圖,作為一個小組的成品,我們決定在年末來做,作為對漏油問題的回應。我要他們以看到的資料圖為例,那是許多傳媒中都有的資料,看一看其中有趣的部分是什麼,為自己也製作一個,以美國歷史中不同的人為災難為題。他們需以一定的標準去做,他們對這個有點不適應,因為我們從來沒有做過這個,他們不知道究竟該怎麼做。他們可以討論,進行的非常順利,他們可以寫得非常非常好。但要求他們以不同的方式做想法交流,讓他們有點不自在。但我給他們空間,就只是做這件事,去創造、去弄明白,看看我們能做些什麼。學生努力不懈,製作出最佳的視覺作品,沒有讓人失望。這是在大約兩、三天之內完成的,這是學生一致推崇的作品。

 

我要學生坐下來,問:「誰的作品最好?」他們立刻開口,「那個」,上面沒有可讀的資料,「就是那個」。我說,「好在哪裡?」他們這麼說,「哦,設計的很好,色彩用的很好,還有什麼什麼…」他們在整個過程中大聲討論。我說,「念出來」。他們說,「喔,那個也不是那麼棒」。然後我們看另一個。沒有很好的視覺效果,但有很多的資料,並花了一個小時討論學習過程。因為這跟它是否完美,或它是否是我可以創造出來的無關,要求是要他們為自己創造。這個專題允許他們失敗,經歷過程、從中學習。我的班級今年會再做一次這個專題,這次他們將做得更好,因為學習必須包括一些失敗,因為失敗是教學的一部份。

 

在這個過程中有很多照片,我可以從這裡點擊出來,但得謹慎選擇,這是我最喜歡的一張,學生的學習。學習可以是什麼光景?在一個景象中,我們放開孩子們必須到學校以獲取知識這個觀念,相對地,問他們可以如何運用,問他們真正感興趣的問題,他們不會失望。要他們到四處去為自己觀察東西,實際體驗學習、玩耍、探究。這是我最喜歡的照片之一,因為這是週二照的。我要學生去投票,這是羅比,這是他第一次投票,他想與大家共享,並做這件事,但這也是學習。因為我們要他們踏出去,到真實世界中。

 

重點是,如果我們繼續把教育當做到學校去獲得知識,而非經驗的學習,賦予學生發聲的權益並擁抱失敗,我們會迷失。如果我們繼續擁有一個不重視這些特質的教育系統,今日每人所談論的一切都將是不可能的。因為我們無法以一個標準化測驗達成,無法以單一正確答案的文化達成目標。我們知道如何做得更好,現在正是將它做得更好的時候!

 

(掌聲)

 

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Diana Laufenberg shares 3 surprising things she has learned about teaching -- including a key insight about learning from mistakes.

About Diana Laufenberg

Diana Laufenberg teaches 11th-grade American History at the Science Leadership Academy in Philadelphia. Full bio and more links

Transcript

I have been teaching for a long time, and in doing so have acquired a body of knowledge about kids and learning that I really wish more people would understand about the potential of students. In 1931, my grandmother -- bottom left for you guys over here -- graduated from the eighth grade. She went to school to get the information because that's where the information lived. It was in the books, it was inside the teacher's head, and she needed to go there to get the information, because that's how you learned. Fast-forward a generation: this is the one room schoolhouse, Oak Grove, where my father went to a one room schoolhouse. And he again had to travel to the school to get the information from the teacher, store it in the only portable memory he has, which is inside his own head, and take it with him, because that is how information was being transported from teacher to student and then used in the world. When I was a kid, we had a set of encyclopedias at my house. It was purchased the year I was born, and it was extraordinary, because I did not have to wait to go to the library to get to the information; the information was inside my house and it was awesome. This was different than either generation had experienced before, and it changed the way I interacted with information even at just a small level. But the information was closer to me. I could get access to it.

In the time that passes between when I was a kid in high school and when I started teaching, we really see the advent of the internet. Right about the time the internet gets going as an educational tool, I take off from Wisconsin and move to Kansas, small town Kansas, where I had an opportunity to teach in a lovely, small town rural Kansas school district, where I was teaching my favorite subject, American government. My first year -- super gung ho -- going to teach American government, loved political system. Kids in the 12th grade: not exactly all that enthusiastic about the American government system. Year two: learned a few things -- had to change my tactic. And I put in front of them an authentic experience that allowed them to learn for themselves. I didn't tell them what to do, or how to do it. I posed a problem in front of them, which was to put on an election forum for their own community.

They produced fliers, they called offices, they checked schedules, they were meeting with secretaries, they produced an election forum booklet for the entire town to learn more about their candidates. They invited everyone into the school for an evening of conversation about government and politics and whether or not the streets were done well, and really had this robust experiential learning. The older teachers -- more experienced -- looked at me and went, "Oh, there she is. That's so cute. She's trying to get that done." (Laughter) "She doesn't know what she's in for." But I knew that the kids would show up. And I believed it. And I told them every week what I expected out of them. And that night, all 90 kids -- dressed appropriately, doing their job, owning it. I had to just sit and watch. It was theirs. It was experiential. It was authentic. It meant something to them. And they will step up.

From Kansas, I moved on to lovely Arizona, where I taught in Flagstaff for a number of years, this time with middle school students. Luckily I didn't have to teach them American government. Could teach them the more exciting topic of geography. Again, thrilled to learn. But what was interesting about this position I found myself in in Arizona, was I had this really extraordinarily eclectic group of kids to work with in a truly public school. And we got to have these moments where we would get these opportunities. And one opportunity was we got to go and meet Paul Rusesabagina, which is the gentleman that the movie "Hotel Rwanda" is based after. And he was going to speak at the high school next door to us. We could walk there; we didn't even have to pay for the buses. There was no expense cost. Perfect field trip.

The problem then becomes how do you take seventh- and eighth-graders to a talk about genocide and deal with the subject in a way that is responsible and respectful, and they know what to do with it. And so we chose to look at Paul Rusesabagina as an example of a gentleman who singularly used his life to do something positive. I then challenged the kids to identify someone in their own life, or in their own story, or in their own world, that they could identify that had done a similar thing. I asked them to produce a little movie about it. It's the first time we'd done this. Nobody really knew how to make these little movies on the computer. But they were into it. And I asked them to put their own voice over it. It was the most awesome moment of revelation that when you ask kids to use their own voice and ask them to speak for themselves, what they're willing to share. The last question of the assignment is: how do you plan to use your life to positively impact other people? The things that kids will say when you ask them and take the time to listen is extraordinary.

Fast-forward to Pennsylvania, where I find myself today. I teach at the Science Leadership Academy, which is a partnership school between the Franklin Institute and the school district of Philadelphia. We are a nine through 12 public school, but we do school quite differently. I moved there primarily to be part of a learning environment that validated the way that I knew that kids learned, and that really wanted to investigate what was possible when you are willing to let go of some of the paradigms of the past, of information scarcity when my grandmother was in school and when my father was in school and even when I was in school, and to a moment when we have information surplus. So what do you do when the information is all around you? Why do you have kids come to school if they no longer have to come there to get the information?

In Philadelphia we have a one-to-one laptop program, so the kids are bringing laptops with them everyday, taking them home, getting access to information. And here's the thing that you need to get comfortable with when you've given the tool to acquire information to students, is that you have to be comfortable with this idea of allowing kids to fail as part of the learning process. We deal right now in the educational landscape with an infatuation with the culture of one right answer that can be properly bubbled on the average multiple choice test, and I am here to share with you, it is not learning. That is the absolute wrong thing to ask, to tell kids to never be wrong. To ask them to always have the right answer doesn't allow them to learn. So we did this project, and this is one of the artifacts of the project. I almost never show them off because of the issue of the idea of failure.

My students produced these info-graphics as a result of a unit that we decided to do at the end of the year responding to the oil spill. I asked them to take the examples that we were seeing of the info-graphics that existed in a lot of mass media, and take a look at what were the interesting components of it, and produce one for themselves from a different man-made disaster from American history. And they had certain criteria to do it. They were a little uncomfortable with it, because we'd never done this before, and they didn't know exactly how to do it. They can talk -- they're very smooth, and they can write very, very well, but asking them to communicate ideas in a different way was a little uncomfortable for them. But I gave them the room to just do the thing. Go create. Go figure it out. Let's see what we can do. And the student that persistently turns out the best visual product did not disappoint. This was done in like two or three days. And this is the work of the student that consistently did it.

And when I sat the students down, I said, "Who's got the best one?" And they immediately went, "There it is." Didn't read anything. "There it is." And I said, "Well what makes it great?" And they're like, "Oh, the design's good, and he's using good color. And there's some ... " And they went through all that we processed out loud. And I said, "Go read it." And they're like, "Oh, that one wasn't so awesome." And then we went to another one -- it didn't have great visuals, but it had great information -- and spent an hour talking about the learning process, because it wasn't about whether or not it was perfect, or whether or not it was what I could create; it asked them to create for themselves. And it allowed them to fail, process, learn from. And when we do another round of this in my class this year, they will do better this time. Because learning has to include an amount of failure, because failure is instructional in the process.

There are a million pictures that I could click through here, and had to choose carefully -- this is one of my favorites -- of students learning, of what learning can look like in a landscape where we let go of the idea that kids have to come to school to get the information, but instead, ask them what they can do with it. Ask them really interesting questions. They will not disappoint. Ask them to go to places, to see things for themselves, to actually experience the learning, to play, to inquire. This is one of my favorite photos, because this was taken on Tuesday, when I asked the students to go to the polls. This is Robbie, and this was his first day of voting, and he wanted to share that with everybody and do that. But this is learning too, because we asked them to go out into real spaces.

The main point is that, if we continue to look at education as if it's about coming to school to get the information and not about experiential learning, empowering student voice and embracing failure, we're missing the mark. And everything that everybody is talking about today isn't possible if we keep having an educational system that does not value these qualities, because we won't get there with a standardized test, and we won't get there with a culture of one right answer. We know how to do this better, and it's time to do better.

(Applause)
 


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资讯年代于学校体验真实世界

Anonymous, 2011-03-30 14:59:43

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