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課程來源:TED
     

Kristina Gjerde 談制定公海法

Kristina Gjerde: Making law on the high seas

 

 

講者:Kristina Gjerde

2010年4月演講,2010年11月在Mission Blue Voyage上線

 

翻譯:                劉契良

編輯:                洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:            趙弘

後制:                劉契良

字幕影片後制:        謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

 

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

 

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Kristina Gjerde 研究公海法,我們海洋的 64% 未受任何國家法律的保護,美麗的相片顯示出 Gjerde 與其他律師致力保護,使其免受拖網與垃圾傾倒危害的隱祕世界,作法是透過制定明智政策與合宜的公關。

 

關於 Kristina Gjerde

Kristina Gjerde 是公海法專家,公海是指廣大未受國內法管轄的海域與海床,這些地方是世界所共有,Gjerde 的任務是讓世界合作,一起保護公海。

 

為何要聽她演講:

Kristina Gjerde 是海洋保護法的專家,她是「國際保護自然聯盟」(IUCN)的公海政策指導委員,幫助社群與政府找尋實在的保護環境方案,她專注於未受任何國內法管轄的棘手海域與海床,這些地方是世界所共有,Gjerde 的任務是讓世界合作,一起保護公海。

 

Gjerde 現時正與海洋生物普查計畫及其他科學組織合作,要創提「全球海洋生物多樣化方案」,努力的方向是要確認出公海與海床中具特別生態與生物重要性的領域,她運用其法律與科學的專業,尋找對這些特別領域的保護,使其成為全球海洋保護區網路的一部份。

 

Kristina Gjerde 的英語網上資料

首頁:IUCN

 

[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

「翻譯編輯:myoops.org

 

 今天,我要帶領各位進行一趟旅程,目的地十分深遂、晦暗且未經探索,我們對其瞭解的程度比月球陰暗面更少,此處是充滿神話與傳奇的地方,這裡也是古時地圖中標誌為「此處有怪獸的地方」,此處是任何新探險旅程會帶回神奇與怪異萬分之生物新發現的地方,我們的祖先的確會將牠們視作怪獸,這地方讓我欽羨不已,因為我在「國際保護自然聯盟」的同事走訪馬達加斯加南部海底山實際拍攝照片,一探這些神奇的深海生物,我們要談的是公海,公海是個法律詞彙,事實上,它佔地球 50% 面積,平均海深是 4,000 公尺,同為事實的是公海覆蓋並提供近 90% 生物所需的棲息地,而且那是以全球生物整體而論,理論上,那裡屬全球共有,屬於我們每一個人,但事實是,公海的管理握在那些有資源前去探索的實體手中,今天,我要帶領各位走過這趟旅程,希望能撥開一些過時迷思、傳說與假說烏雲,因為這些讓我們成為共犯,將公海判入黑暗地帶,我們的旅程到訪一些最近幾年才被發現的特別海域,以說明為何我們必需加以關注,最終,我們將嘗試發展並倡導新的公海管治思維,立基於海洋盆地的保育,並架構於全球規範的領域,以警惕與尊重的心態。

 

 

這是一幅公海照的鳥瞰圖,那片深藍的海域,作為一位國際法律師這更令我感到可怕,比我們見過的任何生物或怪獸更可怕,因為這與我們確實可以保護海洋的說法不符,全球的海域提供所有的碳封存、熱含量及氧氣,如果能保護 36% 海域的話,那裡才是真正的地球之心,但我們必須正視一些問題,那就是當今的國際法,舉例而言,像運輸業,國際法就提供了較多的保護在最靠近海岸的海域,像是垃圾傾倒,大家以為那會自動消失,但法律規範了傾倒垃圾的船運,而準則規範卻實際上隨著遠離海岸線而鬆散,結果是深海埋藏的垃圾堆有德州的兩倍大,令人難以置信,我們曾以為解決污染的方法是透過稀釋,但那已證明無效,我們已從社會科學家和像經濟學家 Elinor Ostrom 身上學到什麼?她研究局部區域的公有財產管理現象,有些特定的前提必須先制定之後才能管理與使用開放空間,以為個人與全體的公益,前提包括分享責任的觀念,能將人們聚成一個社群的共同準則,第二是有條件的使用,意即可以邀請人們參與,但所有的人都要依法行事,當然,要人們都依法行事還需要一套有效運作的系統能監督與執行,因為我們發現,信任是一回事,但也需要驗明,我還想要表達的是,我們看待公海的角度不全然是極度悲觀,若有一群非常熱衷的個人,包括科學家與保育者、攝影師與國家,我們便能實際地改變悲劇的進程,那點出脆弱的海景遭到摧毀,像是這片珊瑚樂園,各位從螢幕上可以看得出來,我們確實可以加以保護,使其逃過深海拖網捕魚作業傷害的命運,但要如何做?如上述,我們擁有一群攝影師,他們乘船出海,拍下實際作業過程的照片,我們亦花很多時間待在聯合國的地下室試圖與多國政府打交道,使其明白在遠洋發生的事,鮮有人能想像得到這些生物的存在,三年中,從 2003 到 2006 年,我們建立準則,而那確實改變了漁夫從事深海拖網捕魚作業的方法,不再是無所不至且任意作為,我們確實建立了一套制度,要求對前往之目的地做事前評量,還有預防重大傷害的責任,2009 年,當聯合國評估進展時,他們發現幾近 1 億平方公里的海床已受保護,這不表示那是最終解決方案,或甚至能提供永久保護,但那卻意味著一群個體可以組成社群實際形塑公海管理的方式,創造出一種新的制度,我樂觀地看待我們能創造一個真正海藍景觀的機會。

 

 

為了這個美麗的星球,Sylvia Earle 的願望給我們提供了那種力量,進入人心的力量,各位可以那麼認為,有些人的視野本來較窄,但現在卻有望對生物的整個生命循環感興趣,像是這隻海龜,一生大部份時間生活在公海,今天,我們僅會瀏覽小部份,這類特別海域的範例,以點出概念,讓大家明瞭其所含納的豐富與驚奇,像馬尾藻海,不是由海岸線圍出的海域,而是幾條洋流圍出的特定區域,同時圍出並發展成擁有大量馬尾藻類海草的海,馬尾藻在之中繁盛聚集,其也因鰻魚產卵地而聞名,包括北歐與北美溪河中的鰻魚,兩處的鰻魚都在大量減少,在斯德哥爾摩甚至已不復見,最近英國喜見五條歐洲鰻,但馬尾藻海以聚集馬尾藻種子相同的方式,實際上卻也累積塑膠,來源含括整個區域,這張相片並未確切顯示出我想展示的塑膠污染,因為我並未親訪,但最近有份研究,在二月公佈,內容提及該海域每平方公里有 200,000 個塑膠垃圾,現時正漂浮在馬尾藻海水面,那影響的棲息地正是許多物種幼苗的成長所在,牠們來到馬尾藻海,本欲尋求保護與食物,馬尾藻海也是一處充滿驚奇的地方,對聚集於此的這些獨特物種而言,因為牠們已發展出適應馬尾藻棲地的變態,當地也提供了特別的棲地,給這些飛魚產卵,但我從這張照片得出的是,我們的確有機會發起全球保育倡議,百慕達群島政府已承認其需求與責任,將馬尾藻海的部份界定為其國內司法管轄範圍,但大部份卻沒有,協助帶動這項保護運動,以達致對這片重要海域的保護。往下走來到較寒冷的地帶,位於南大洋的羅斯海,那裡實際上是處海灣,被視為是公海,因為南極大陸已超越任何領土主張的範圍,所有水中的東西都被視作公海處理,但羅斯海重要的地方是其中成堆的大塊浮冰,在春夏時節提供了大量浮游生物與磷蝦的生存環境,那支撐起,直到最近,幾乎未受破壞的近海生態,但不幸地是 CAMLAR,區域性委員會,其任務是保護與管理魚獲及其他海洋生物資源,不幸地是,他們開始向捕魚利益低頭,並授權擴大捕撈當地海域中的南極犬牙魚,一艘紐西蘭船隻的船長剛從當地返回,描述大量減少的現象亦發生在羅斯海的殺人鯨身上,當地殺人鯨依靠南極犬牙魚作為主食來源,我們要做的是大膽地起身,一個一個地團結起來,督促政府,向區域性漁獵管理組織施壓,宣示我們的權利,宣示某些特定的海域該視作公海捕魚來管理,所以,漁獵自由不再意謂著到處及隨時的捕魚自由,再回到離美國較近的海域,哥斯大黎加海丘是最近發現的區域,具有作為藍鯨全年棲地的潛能,當地有足夠的食物能供牠們渡過夏天與冬天,但哥斯大黎加海丘不尋常的地方是,事實上,那裡並非是永遠固定的區域,那是種海洋現象隨著季節變換時地,所以,事實是那裡並非永恆位於公海,也並非永遠是周圍五個中美國家的專屬經濟海域,海丘會隨季節移動,因此,要加以保護成為一種挑戰,另一項挑戰是保護隨其移動的物種,我們可以使用和漁夫相同的技術,確認物種所在,以靠近這海域,當它最脆弱的時候,很可能以年為週期,較靠近我們居住的岸邊,這張事實上是攝於加拉帕戈斯群島,很多物種會集結於這個區域,那也是當地備受關注的原因,故要將其納入保育東熱帶太平洋海景的範圍內。

 

 

這個倡議是「國際保育組織」負責協調,同時加入多方夥伴與多國政府,以嘗試制定統整的管理制度,範圍含括整個區域,這提供了一個美好的範例,關於可前往之處,以真正的區域倡議來說,它此刻正保護著五處世界遺產所在,不幸地,世界遺產公約目前並當未承認當地保育有必要超越國內司法,所以,像哥斯大黎加海丘,從技術層面看來,還無法認定其目前落在公海範圍內,我們一直以來的建議是我們必需修改世界遺產公約,使其能採納並驅策對這些世界遺產所在的全面保護,或者,我們必需要改變其名號,稱之為半個世界遺產公約,但我們也知道像這些海龜等物種,並不會停在東熱帶太平洋海景原地不動,牠們常會廻游到廣闊的南太平洋,大部份的時間就待在那裡,但結果常是拖回一身垃圾,或成為混獲的一部份,我真想建議的是,我們應提高保育規模,我們應在保育區域內施行,也應在整片海洋盆地施行,現時,我們已擁有工具與技術讓我們能夠推廣較大範圍的海洋盆地倡議,我們聽說了太平洋食肉動物追蹤計畫,17 個海洋生物普查計畫其中之一,它提供了像這樣的數據資料,關於輕巧的小灰鸌,牠們以整個海洋盆地為家,牠們飛行 65,000 公里的時間不到一年,所以,我們從海洋生物普查計畫獲益良多,高潮成果將在十月發表,所以想知道詳情,請保持關注。

 

 

我覺得很令人感到興奮的是海洋生物普查計畫,不只關注太平洋食肉動物追蹤專案,而且還研究了未經探索的中水層,像這隻游動的海參已在此被發現,幸運的是,我們 IUCN 能夠與海洋生物普查計畫,還有許多在那裡工作的科學家合作,試圖實際轉譯這些資訊供政府決策者參考,我們現在已得到多國政府的支持,我們經過科技小組解讀這些資訊,令人感到興奮的是我們確實握有足夠的資訊能讓我們進一步保育這些重要的希望點、熱點,同時,我們也要說,「Yes,我們需要更多,需要更向前一步」,但各位可能會質疑如果成功保育這些海域或制定合宜的公海捕魚管理制度,實際上要如何確保執行呢?那引發我除了海洋科學之外的第二項熱衷,那就是外太空科技,我曾想要成為一位太空人,所以,我一直都在注意有什麼工具可以用以觀測地球,從外太空的角度看來,結果發現許多極精巧的工具,就像我們已知可以用來追蹤已標記物種的工具,追蹤牠們整個生命週期,地點廣及整片海洋,我們也能標記漁船並加以追蹤,許多漁船已裝有無線電傳應器,那讓我們能找出它們的位置,甚至知道它們在幹嘛,但非所有漁船都裝有該設備,不需要太多高科技便能實際地嘗試創造出新法來管治,如果您想要有特權,獲得公海資源,我們必需知道,有人必需知道,您人在哪?在幹嘛?回到我想要傳播給各位的訊息,我們能避開共有的悲劇,我們可以停止利益衝突的作法,關於這 50% 的地球,即公海,但我們的思維必需擴大,全球化,我們必需改變實際管理這些資源的作法,我們要有新作為,且心存謹慎與尊重,同時,我們也要有在地思維,這是 Sylvia Earle 希望所期許的愉悅與驚奇,我們可以將鎂光燈照向許多這些之前未知的區域,並與相關人士展開談判,如果你願意,讓他感到實際感到成為社群的一份子,進而影響未來的管理方式,第三是我們必需要從整體海洋盆地管理的角度來探究,因為那些物種分佈在整個海洋盆地,許多深海社群的基因分怖遍及整個海洋盆地,我們必需瞭解同時開始管理並保育,為了達成這個目標,還需要海洋盆地管理制度,意即,我要擁有區域管理制度,管理專屬經濟海域,擴大其規模並加以整合像南大洋,擁有兩種分立的組織,漁業界與保育界組織,綜合上述,我想要誠摯地感謝並推崇 Sylvia Earle 的願望,因為那助我們重視國內司法管轄外的公海及深海區域,那幫助聚集了一群非凡的專家,他們真的試圖要解決並深入這些問題,因為那已為我們帶來管理與理性使用的障礙,針對這片曾是如此遙遠、未知的海域,在這趟旅程中,我希望我已提供關於公海的一個新詮釋角度,那裡也是我們的家,我們必需齊心協力,如果我們想要在未來,擁有一片大家共有的永續海洋,感謝聆聽。

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Kristina Gjerde studies the law of the high seas -- the 64 percent of our ocean that isn't protected by any national law at all. Gorgeous photos show the hidden worlds that Gjerde and other lawyers are working to protect from trawling and trash-dumping, through smart policymaking and a healthy dose of PR.

About Kristina Gjerde

Kristina Gjerde is an expert on the law of the high seas -- the vast areas of the sea and seabed that exist beyond any national jurisdiction. These places belong to the world; Gjerde's work helps the… Full bio and more links

Transcript

Today I'm going to take you on a voyage to some place so deep, so dark, so unexplored that we know less about it than we know about the dark side of the moon. It's a place of myth and legend. It's a place marked on ancient maps as "Here be monsters." It is a place where each new voyage of exploration brings back new discoveries of creatures so wondrous and strange that our forefathers would have considered them monstrous indeed. Instead, they just make me green with envy that my colleague from IUCN was able to go on this journey to the south of Madagascar seamounts to actually take photographs and to see these wondrous creatures of the deep.

We are talking about the high seas. The high seas is a legal term, but in fact, it covers 50 percent of the planet. With an average depth of the oceans of 4,000 meters, in fact, the high seas covers and provides nearly 90 percent of the habitat for life on this Earth. It is, in theory, the global commons, belonging to us all. But in reality, it is managed by and for those who have the resources to go out and exploit it. So today I'm going to take you on a voyage to cast light on some of the outdated myths and legends and assumptions that have kept us as the true stake holders in the high seas in the dark. We're going to voyage to some of these special places that we've been discovering in the past few years to show why we really need to care. And then finally we're going to try to develop and pioneer a new perspective on high seas governance that's rooted in ocean basin-wide conservation, but framed in an arena of global norms of precaution and respect.

So here is a picture of the high seas as seen from above -- that area in the darker blue. To me as an international lawyer, this scared me far more than any of the creatures or the monsters we may have seen, for it belies the notion that you can actually protect the ocean, the global ocean, that provides us all with carbon storage, with heat storage, with oxygen, if you can only protect 36 percent. This is indeed the true heart of the planet. Some of the problems we have to confront are that the current international laws -- for example, shipping -- provide more protection to the areas closest to shore. For example, garbage discharge, something you would think just simple goes away, but the laws regulating ship discharge of garbage actually get weaker the farther you are from shore. As a result, we have garbage patches twice the size of Texas. It's unbelievable. We used to think the solution to pollution was dilution, but that has proved to be no longer the case.

So what we have learned from social scientists and economists like Elinor Ostrom, who are studying the phenomenon of management of the commons on a local scale, is that there are certain prerequisites that you can put into place that enable you to manage and access open space for the good of one and all. And these include a sense of shared responsibility, common norms that bind people together as a community. Conditional access: you can invite people in, but they have to be able to play by the rules. And of course, if you want people to play by the rules, you still need an effective system of monitoring and enforcement, for as we've discovered, you can trust, but you also need to verify.

What I'd also like to convey is that it is not all doom and gloom that we are seeing on the high seas. For a group of very dedicated individuals -- scientists, conservationists, photographers and states -- were able to actually change a tragic trajectory that was destroying fragile seascapes such as this coral garden that you see in front of you. That is, we're able to save it from a fate of deep-sea bottom trawling. And how did we do that? Well as I said, we had a group of photographers that went out on board ships and actually photographed the activities in process. But we also spent many hours in the basements of the United Nations, trying to work with governments to make them understand what was going on so far away from land that few of us had ever even imagined that these creatures existed.

So within three years, from 2003 to 2006, we were able to get norm in place that actually changed the paradigm of how fishers went about deep-sea bottom trawling. Instead of go anywhere, do anything you want, we actually created a regime that required prior assessment of where you're going and a duty to prevent significant harm. In 20009 when the U.N. reviewed progress, they discovered that almost 100 million square kilometers of seabed had been protected. This does not mean that it's the final solution, or that this even provides permanent protection, but what it does mean is that a group of individuals can form a community to actually shape the way high seas age governed, to create a new regime. So I'm looking optimistically at our opportunities for creating a true blue perspective for this beautiful planet. Sylvia's wish provides us with that leverage, that access, to the heart of human beings, you might say, who have rarely seen places beyond their own toes, but are now hopefully going to become interested in the full life-cycle of creatures like these sea turtles, who indeed spend most of their time in the high seas.

Today we're just going to voyage to a small sampling of some of these special areas, just to give you an idea of the flavor of the riches and wonders they do contain. The Sargasso Sea, for example, is not a sea bounded by coastlines, but it is bounded by oceanic currents that contain and envelope this wealth of sargassum that grows and aggregates there. It's also known as the spawning ground for eels from Northern European and Northern American rivers that are now so dwindling in numbers that they've actually stopped showing up in Stockholm. And five showed up in the U.K. just recently.

But the Sargasso Sea, the same way it aggregates sargassum weed, actually is pulling in the plastic from throughout the region. This picture doesn't exactly show the plastics that I would like it to show, because I haven't been out there myself. But there has just been a study that was released in February that showed there are 200,000 pieces of plastic per square kilometer now floating on the surface of the Sargasso Sea, and that is affecting the habitat for the many species in their juvenile stages who come to the Sargasso Sea for its protection and its food. The Sargasso Sea is also a wondrous place for the aggregation of these unique species that have developed to mimic the sargassum habitat. It also provides a special habitat for these flying fish to lay their eggs. But what I'd like to get from this picture is that we truly do have an opportunity to launch a global initiative for protection. Thus the government of Bermuda has recognized the need and its responsibility as having some of the Sargasso Sea within its national jurisdiction -- but the vast majority is beyond -- to help spearhead a movement to achieve protection for this vital area.

Spinning down to someplace a little bit cooler than here right now, the Ross Sea in the Southern Ocean. It's actually a bay. It's considered high seas, because the continent has been put off limits to territorial claims, so anything in the water is treated as if it's the high seas. But what makes the Ross Sea important is the vast sea of pack ice that in the spring and summer provides a wealth of phytoplankton and krill that supports what, til recently, has been a virtually intact near-shore ecosystem. But unfortunately CAMLAR, the regional commission in charge of conserving and managing fish stocks and other living marine resources, is unfortunately starting to give in to fishing interests and has authorized the expansion of toothfish fisheries in the region. The captain of a New Zealand vessel who was just down there is reporting a significant decline in the number of the Ross Sea killer whales, who are directly dependent on the Antarctic toothfish as their main source of food. So what we need to do is to stand up boldly, singly and together, to push governments, to push regional fisheries management organizations, to declare our right to declare certain areas off limits to high seas fishing, so that the freedom to fish no longer means the freedom to fish anywhere and anytime.

Coming closer to here, the Costa Rica Dome is a recently discovered area -- potentially year-round habitat for blue whales. There's enough food there to last them the summer and the winter long. But what's unusual about the Costa Rica Dome is, in fact, it's not a permanent place. It's an oceanographic phenomenon that shifts in time and space on a seasonal basis. So in fact, it's not permanently in the high seas. It's not permanently in the exclusive economic zones of these five Central American countries, but it moves with the season. As such, it does create a challenge to protect, but we also have a challenge protecting the species that move along with it. We can use the same technologies that fishers use to identify where the species are, in order to close the area when it's most vulnerable, which may, in some cases, be year-round.

Getting closer to shore, where we are, this was in fact taken in the Galapagos. many species are headed through this region, which is why there's been so much attention put into conservation of the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape. This is the initiative that's been coordinated by Conservation International with a variety of partners and governments to actually try to bring integrated management regime throughout the area. That's, it provides a wonderful example of where you can go with a real regional initiative. It's protecting five World Heritage sites. Unfortunately, the World Heritage Convention does not recognize the need to protect areas beyond national jurisdiction, at present. So a place like the Costa Rica Dome could not technically qualify the time it's in the high seas. So what we've been suggesting is that we either need to amend the World Heritage Convention, so that it can adopt and urge universal protection of these world heritage sites, or we need to change the name and call it Half the World Heritage Convention. But we also know is that species like these sea turtles do not stay put in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape. These happen to go down to a vast South Pacific gyre, where they spend most of their time and often end up getting hooked like this, or as bycatch.

So what I'd really like to suggest is that we need to scale-up. We need to work locally, but we also need to work ocean basin-wide. We have the tools and technologies now to enable us to take a broader ocean basin-wide initiative. We've heard about the Tagging of Pacific Predators project, one of the 17 Census of Marine Life projects. It's provided us data like this, of tiny, little sooty shearwaters that make the entire ocean basin their home. They fly 65,000 km in less than a year. So we have the tools and treasures coming from the Census of Marine Life. And its culminating year that's going to be launched in October. So stay tuned for further information. What I find so exciting is that the Census of Marine Life has looked at more than the tagging of pacific predators, it's also looked in the really unexplored mid-water column, where creatures like this this flying sea cucumber have been found. And fortunately, we've been able, as IUCN, to team up with the Census of Marine Life and many of the scientists working there to actually try to translate much of this information to policymakers. We have the support of governments now behind us. We've been revealing this information through technical workshops. And the exciting thing is that we do have sufficient information to move ahead to protect some of these significant hope spots, hot spots. At the same time we're saying, "Yes, we need more. We need to move forward."

But many of you have said, if you get these marine protected areas, or a reasonable regime for high seas fisheries management in place, how are you going to enforce it? Which leads me to my second passion besides ocean science, which is outer space technology. I wanted to be an astronaut, so I've constantly followed what are the tools available to monitor Earth from outer space -- and that we have incredible tools like we've been learning about, in terms of being able to follow tagged species throughout their life-cycles in the open ocean. We can also tag and track fishing vessels. Many already have transponders on board that allow us to find out where they are and even what they're doing. But not all the vessels have those to date. It does not take too much rocket science to actually try to create new laws to mandate, if you're going to have the privilege of accessing our high seas resources, we need to know -- someone needs to know -- where you are and what you're doing.

So it brings me to my main take-home message, which is we can avert a tragedy of the commons. We can stop the collision course of 50 percent of the planet with the high seas. But we need to think broad scale. We need to think globally. We need to change how we actually go about managing these resources. We need to get the new paradigm of caution and respect. At the same time, we need to think locally, which is the joy and marvel of Sylvia's hope spot wish, is we can shine a spotlight on many of these previously unknown areas, and to bring people to the table -- if you will -- to actually make them feel part of this community that truly has a stake in their future management. And third is that we need to look at ocean basin-wide management. Out species are ocean basin-wide. Many of the deep sea communities have genetic distribution that goes ocean basin-wide. We need to understand, but we also need to start to manage and protect. And in order to do that, you also need ocean basin management regimes. That's, we have regional management regimes within the exclusive economic zone, but we need to scale these up, we need to build their capacity, so their like the Southern Ocean, where they do have the two-pronged fisheries and conservation organization.

So with that, I would just like to sincerely thank and honor Sylvia Earle for her wish, for it is helping us to put a face on the high seas and the deep seas beyond national jurisdiction. It's helping to bring an incredible group of talented people together to really try to solve and penetrate these problems that have created our obstacles to management and rational use of this area that was once so far away and remote.

So on this tour, I hope I provided you with a new perspective of the high seas, one, that it is our home too, and that we need to work together if we are to make this a sustainable ocean future for us all.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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