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課程來源:TED
     

Patrick Chappatte 談時事漫畫的力量

Patrick Chappatte: The power of cartoons

 

 

講者:Patrick Chappatte

2010年7月演講,2010年10月在TEDGlobal上線

 

翻譯:                劉契良

編輯:                洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:            趙弘

後制:                劉契良

字幕影片後制:        謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

 

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

 

 

 

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

在一系列的慧黠妙語中,Patrick Chappatte 點出卑微時事漫畫的深刻力道,他在黎巴嫩、西非和加薩的專案展示出,如經調適得宜,鉛筆如何能為嚴肅的問題帶來曙光,並讓最不可能聚在一起的人碰頭。

 

關於 Patrick Chappatte

使用乾淨、簡單的筆調,時事漫畫家 Patrick Chappatte 發揮對全球時事的文化修養與直指要害的幽默,點出其中的悲劇性、滑稽與荒謬。

 

為何要聽他演講:

Patrick Chappatte 擁有一身全球化的靈魂,生於巴基斯坦,母親是黎巴嫩人、父親是瑞士人,卻在新加坡長大,他曾居住於紐約,現居瑞士日內瓦,這也許多少解釋了他對待世事的看法,對悲劇性、滑稽與荒謬的事件抱持自由自在的幽默看法。

 

他筆下簡單的線條傳達出具有要點的風趣,他的畫作顯見於《國際先驅論壇報》(英語),日內瓦《時代報》(法語)與《新蘇黎世報週日版》(德語),雖是三種語言,但其畫作中敏銳的見解卻總能令人會心一笑。

 

「詼諧、傷感、慧黠且發人深省,[Chappatte 的畫作]為改變了地球的一段年代做出最有趣的敘述,並將世界轉化到另一個境界」。

《瑞士新聞報》

 

Patrick Chappatte 的英語網上資料

首頁:Patrick Chappatte

 

 

[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

「翻譯編輯:myoops.org

 

Yeah,我是一位報章時事漫畫家,政治漫畫家,不曉得各位是否清楚…報章這玩意兒?那是一種類似紙版的電子圖書閱讀器(笑聲),稍輕於 iPad,比較便宜,各位知道人們怎麼說?人們說印刷報業正逐漸凋零,誰說的?媒體,但這並非新聞,對吧!各位早就知道了(笑聲),女士先生們,世界已變小,我知道這是廢言,但細看一下,到底變得多小、多細微,當然,各位明白原因何在,沒錯,因為科技(笑聲),在場有沒有電腦設計師?好的,這些人讓我的生活變得悽慘,因為觸控板本是圓的,一種美好的圓形,那樣我可以變出有趣的卡漫,但我不曉得如何發揮扁平的觸控板,那種方形的怪物,那讓卡漫家無處發揮,我清楚世界已變平,那是事實,網際網路已延伸至世界的每個角落,甚至是最窮、最偏遠的地方,非洲的每個村落都有網路咖啡店(笑聲),別奢望在那裡喝到星冰樂,我們正在縮小數位落差,連結第三世界,全體連結在一起,下一步呢?您會收到一封電子郵件,Yeah!Well,網際網路賦予我們力量,賦予您力量,賦予我力量,也賦予其他人力量!(笑聲),各位知道嗎?這最後兩張漫畫是我現場的創作,當時我參加河內的一場會議,他們還不是很習慣,以越共 2.0 的標準看來(笑聲),所以,我當場作畫就呈現在大螢幕上,十分轟動,然後,這位仁兄上前來,他給我和我的作品拍照,我心想:「太好了,越南粉絲」,第二天他又來,我想:「哇!他真愛卡漫」,第三天,我終於瞭解,他在執勤,到目前為止,必定有上百張照片,我的微笑與作品存在越南的警局檔案中(笑聲)。

 

 

莫當笑言,這是事實,網際網路已改變我們的世界,至少已震撼音樂產業,已改變我們消費音樂的方式,有點年紀的聽眾肯定記得,我們曾需要到唱片行才能偷到音樂(笑聲),改變還包括我們未來雇主檢視我們履歷的模式,小心,別在臉書上亂來,老媽子已再三叮嚀,科技已解放了我們,這是免費的 WiFi,沒錯,我們得到自由了!至少不用打卡,這是現時人生,好好享受吧!(笑聲),簡而言之,科技、網際網路已改變了我們的生活模式,科技大亨,像螢幕上這一位,被德國一家雜誌譽為 21 世紀的哲學家,他們正在形塑我們做事的方式、我們的消費模式、我們的慾望(笑聲)(掌聲),各位不會喜歡的,而科技更改變了我們與上帝的關係(笑聲),我真不該踏進這塊泥淖,宗教與政治卡漫,如各位早有所聞是對怨偶,從 2005 年的某天開始,當一群丹麥時事漫畫家畫了一些引起全球激烈反應的卡漫,示威、伊斯蘭宗教法庭譴責頓時蔓延,時事漫畫激發了暴力,人們亡命於暴力,真令人作噁,人們因漫畫而斃命,我是說,我當時有種感覺,漫畫實際上是受到雙方的操弄,首先是丹麥報紙,他們想要表述一種伊斯蘭觀點,一位丹麥時事漫畫家告訴我,他是 24 名收到指派描繪伊斯蘭先知的其中一人,其中 12 人回絕該任務,各位知道嗎?他告訴我說:「沒人能指定我畫什麼,我不吃那一套」;但當然,也被另一方利用,那便是極端主義者與政客,他們一直想要激起爭議,各位心裡明白,我們瞭解到時事漫畫可用作武器,歷史是明證,納粹份子曾用來攻擊猶太人,現在猶如歷史重演,在聯合國,半數國家正在推動將冒犯宗教定為犯罪行為,他們稱之為誹謗宗教,另半卻也回擊,聲稱要捍衛言論自由,《文明衝突論》真實上演,而時事漫畫身夾其中?這促使我思考,各位可以看到,我在思考,就在我家廚房桌旁,既然已看到我家廚房,就容我介紹嬌妻(螢幕:上 Google 找不就結了!)(笑聲)。

 

 

2006 年,事件後的幾個月,我前往西非象牙海岸,一塊被分割的國土,切成兩半的國家,反抗軍在北邊,政府在南邊,首府阿必尚所在,中間是法軍,這圖看起來像顆大漢堡,沒有人想要當夾在中間的火腿,我到當地報導這事,以時事漫畫的方式,這也是我過去 15 年以來的工作,附帶一提,這只是副業,因此,我的報導風格明顯不同,這當然比編輯卡漫來得嚴肅,我還去了加薩走廊,而且是 2009 年戰火正炙時,所以,這真是卡漫版新聞,各位會愈來愈常聽到這詞,我認為這將是新聞業的未來,當然,我去了北邊見識反抗軍,他們是為自己權力奮戰的窮人,這場衝突的其一原因是種族,這在非洲極為常見,我還去會見 Dozo 人,Dozo 是傳統獵人,在西非,人們很怕他們,他們大力幫助反抗軍,據信,他們擁有神力可以隱身並躲開子彈,我去見 Dozo 族長,他告訴我關於他的神力,他說:「我可以當下把你砍頭,並讓你重生」,我說:「也許現在我們沒那個時間」(笑聲),「下次吧」!回到阿必尚,我獲選主導一場研討會,和當地的卡漫家合作,我想,Yes,在這樣的脈絡下,卡漫真能被當作武器用以打擊對手,我是說,象牙海岸的新聞界呈兩極發展,像是盧安達在大屠殺前的媒體,試想,時事漫畫家能做些什麼?有時,編輯會要其時事漫畫家畫些他們欲見的東西,時事漫畫家也要養家,對吧!我當時的想法極為簡單,我們聚集時事漫畫家,來自象牙海岸輿論的兩端,我們將他們從其工作的報社調離三天,要他們合作一個專案,處理影響其國家的議題,用卡漫的方式表達,沒錯,卡漫,展示出卡漫的正面能量,因那是強勁的溝通工具,無論是好是壞,卡漫可以跨越邊界,如各位已見,幽默感很有用,尤其是用來闡述嚴肅的議題,我以他們所達成果為榮,我是說,他們起先彼此充滿歧異,但那不是重點,但我並未要求他們畫美美的卡漫,第一天,他們甚至對彼此大吼大叫,但結果是他們合力出了本畫冊,回顧過去 13 年發生在象牙海岸的政治危機,概念成功呈現。我將相似的專案於 2009 年帶到黎巴嫩,今年一月則是在肯亞,黎巴嫩的成果不是一本畫冊,概念是相同的原則,在一個分裂的國家,將兩方的時事漫畫家聚在一起,並要他們合作做個專案,所以,在黎巴嫩,我們找到些報社編輯,讓他們出版八位來自兩方陣營的時事漫畫家,作品全放在同一版面上,闡述影響黎巴嫩的議題,像是宗教、政治及每日生活,結果有效,三天中,幾乎所有貝魯特的報紙都印出這些時事漫畫家,且是在同一版面,反政府、親政府、基督徒,當然,還有穆斯林、英語版等,應有盡有,專案圓滿達成。然後是肯亞,我們做的是突顯種族議題,那在非洲許多地方可像毒藥一般,我們製作影片,到訪 YouTube/KenyaTunes 即可觀看,在這裡大談言論自由很容易,但誠如各位所見,在鎮壓或分割的脈絡下可不容易。

 

 

同樣的,時事漫畫家能做些什麼?他要保住工作,嗯,我相信,在任何地方與脈絡下,他都至少能選擇不畫會幫助散播仇恨的卡漫,那也是我試圖向他們傳達的訊息,我認為,我們最終都總能選擇不幹壞事,但我們要支持這些[不清楚]、緊要、負責的聲音,要出現在非洲、黎巴嫩及各位所在城鄉的報紙,甚至是蘋果電腦行,今日,科技公司是全球最大的編輯團隊,他們決定啥太過唐突、太過於挑撥,而不宜觀賞,說實在地,那無關時事漫畫家的自由,而是各位的自由,對全球的獨裁者而言,好消息是,當時事漫畫家、記者及活動份子都噤聲時,感謝聆聽。

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

In a series of witty punchlines, Patrick Chappatte makes a poignant case for the power of the humble cartoon. His projects in Lebanon, West Africa and Gaza show how, in the right hands, the pencil can illuminate serious issues and bring the most unlikely people together.

About Patrick Chappatte

Using clean, simple pencil strokes, editorial cartoonist Patrick Chappatte wields globally literate and to-the-point humor on world events -- the tragic, the farcical and the absurd. Full bio and more links

Transcript

So yeah, I'm a newspaper cartoonist -- political cartoonist. I don't know if you've heard about it -- newspapers? It's a sort of paper-based reader. (Laughter) It's lighter than an iPad. It's a bit cheaper. You know what they say? They say the print media is dying. Who says that? Well, the media. But this is no news, right? You've read about it already.

(Laughter)

Ladies and gentlemen, the world has gotten smaller. I know it's a cliche, but look, look how small, how tiny it has gotten. And you know the reason why, of course. This is because of technology. Yeah. (Laughter) Any computer designers in the room? Yeah well, you guys are making my life miserable, because track pads used to be round, a nice round shape. That makes a good cartoon. But what are you going to do with a flat track pad, those square things? There's nothing I can do as a cartoonist. Well, I know the world is flat now. That's true. And the Internet has reached every corner of the world, the poorest, the remotest places. Every village in Africa now has a cyber cafe. (Laughter) Don't go asking for a Frappuccino there. So we are bridging the digital divide. The Third World is connected. We are connected. And what happens next? Well, you've got mail. Yeah. Well, the Internet has empowered us. It has empowered you, it has empowered me, and it has empowered some other guys as well.

(Laughter)

You know, these last two cartoons, I did them live during a conference in Hanoi. And they were not used to that in communist 2.0 Vietnam. (Laughter) So I was cartooning live on a wide screen -- it was quite a sensation -- and then this guy came to me. He was taking pictures of me and of my sketches, and I thought, "This is great, a Vietnamese fan." And as he came the second day, I thought, "Wow, that's really a cartoon lover." And on the third day, I finally understood, the guy was actually on duty. So by now, there must be a hundred pictures of me smiling with my sketches in the files of the Vietnamese police.

(Laughter)

No, but it's true: the Internet has changed the world. It has rocked the music industry. It has changed the way we consume music. For those of you old enough to remember, we used to have to go to the store to steal it. (Laughter) And it has changed the way your future employer will look at your application. So be careful with that Facebook account. Your momma told you, be careful. And technology has set us free. This is free WiFi. but yeah, it has. It has liberated us from the office desk. This is your life. Enjoy it. (Laughter) In short, technology, the internet, they have changed our lifestyle. Tech guru, like this man -- that a German magazine called the philosopher of the 21st century -- they are shaping the way we do things. They are shaping the way we consume. They are shaping our very desires. (Laughter) (Applause) You will not like it. And technology has even changed our relationship to God.

(Laughter)

Now I shouldn't get into this. Religion and political cartoons, as you may have heard, make a difficult couple, ever since that day in 2005, when a bunch of cartoonists in Denmark drew cartoons that had repercussions all over the world, demonstrations, fatwa. They provoked violence. People died in the violence. This was so sickening. People died because of cartoons. I mean -- I had the feeling at the time that cartoons had been used by both sides, actually. They were used first by a Danish newspaper, which wanted to make a point on Islam. A Danish cartoonist told me he was one of the 24 who received the assignment to draw the prophet. 12 of them refused. Did you know that? He told me, "Nobody has to tell me what I should draw. This is not how it works." And then, of course, they were used by extremists and politicians on the other side. They wanted to stir up controversy. You know the story. We know that cartoons can be used as weapons. History tells us, they've been used by the Nazis to attack the Jews. And here we are now. In the United Nations, half of the world is pushing to penalize the offense to religion -- they call it the defamation of religion -- while the other half of the world is fighting back in defense of freedom of speech. So the clash of civilizations is here, and cartoons are at the middle of it? This got me thinking. Now you see me thinking at my kitchen table. And since you're in my kitchen, please meet my wife.

(Laughter)

In 2006, a few months after, I went Ivory Coast -- Western Africa. Now, talk of a divided place. The country was cut in two. You had a rebellion in the north, the government in the south -- the capital, Abidjan -- and in the middle, the French army. This looks like a giant hamburger. You don't want to be the ham in the middle. I was there to report on that story in cartoons. I've been doing this for the last 15 years. It's my side job, if you want. So you see the style is different. This is more serious than maybe editorial cartooning. I went to places like Gaza during the war in 2009. So this is really journalism in cartoons. You'll hear more and more about it. This is the future of journalism, I think.

And of course, I went to see the rebels in the north. Those were poor guys fighting for their rights. There was an ethnic side to this conflict as very often in Africa. And I went to see the Dozo. The Dozo, they are the traditional hunters of West Africa. People fear them. They help the rebellion a lot. They are believed to have magical powers. They can disappear and escape bullets. I went to see a Dozo chief. He told me about his magical powers. He said, "I can chop your head off right away and bring you back to life." I said, "Well, maybe we don't have time for this right now." (Laughter) "Another time."

So back in Abidjan, I was given a chance to lead a workshop with local cartoonists there, and I thought, yes, in a context like this, cartoons can really be used as weapons against the other side. I mean, the press in Ivory Coast was bitterly divided. It was compared to the media in Rwanda before the genocide. So imagine. And what can a cartoonist do? Sometimes editors would tell their cartoonists to draw what they wanted to see, and the guy has to feed his family, right. So the idea was pretty simple. We brought together cartoonists from all sides in Ivory Coast. We took them away from their newspaper for three days. And I asked them to do a project together, tackling the issues affecting their country in cartoons, yes, in cartoons. Show the positive power of cartoons. It's a great tool of communication for bad or for good. And cartoons can cross boundaries, as you have seen. And humor is a good way, I think, to address serious issues. And I'm very proud of what they did. I mean, they didn't agree with each other -- that was not the point. And I didn't ask them to do nice cartoons. The first day, they were even shouting at each other. But they came up with a book, looking back at 13 years of political crisis in Ivory Coast.

So the idea was there. And I've been doing projects like this, in 2009 in Lebanon, this year, in Kenya, back in January. In Lebanon, it was not a book. The idea was to have -- the same principal, a divided country -- take cartoonists from all sides and let them do something together. So in Lebanon, we enrolled the newspaper editors, and we got them to publish eight cartoonists from all sides all together on the same page, addressing the issue affecting Lebanon, like religion in politics and everyday life. And it worked. For three days, almost all the newspapers of Beirut published all those cartoonists together -- anti-government, pro-government, Christian, Muslim, of course, English-speaking, well, you name it. So this was a great project. And then in Kenya, what we did was addressing the issue of ethnicity, which is a poison in a lot of places in Africa. And we did video clips. You can see them if you go to YouTube/KenyaTunes.

So, preaching for freedom of speech is easy here, but as you have seen in contexts of repression or division, again, what can a cartoonist do? He has to keep his job. Well I believe that in any context anywhere, he always has the choice at least not to do a cartoon that will feed hatred. And that's the message I try to convey to them. I think we all always have the choice in the end not to do the bad thing. But we need to support these [unclear], critical, responsible voices in Africa, in Lebanon, in your local newspaper, in the Apple store. Today, tech companies are the world's largest editors. They decide what is too offensive to too provocative for you to see. So really, it's not about the freedom of cartoonists; it's about your freedoms. And for dictators all over the world, the good news is when cartoonists, journalists and activists shut up.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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