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Johanna Blakley談社群媒體和性別界線的終結

Johanna Blakley: Social media and the end of gender

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Johanna Blakley

2010年12月演講,2011年2月在TEDWomen上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:劉契良

簡繁轉換:趙弘

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

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閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

媒體研究者Johanna Blakley說,媒體和廣告公司仍使用一成不變的舊式人口統計資料來瞭解觀眾,但越來越難在網路上追踪他們的資訊。隨著社群媒體發展超越傳統媒體,女性用戶人數超越男性,Blakley解釋媒體的未來景象將發生何種變化。

 

關於Johanna Blakley

Johanna Blakley研究大眾媒體和娛樂產業對我們世界的影響。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

身為諾曼李爾中心(美國南加大專研媒體智庫)副主任,Johanna Blakley花很多時間探索我們的娛樂如何與政治、商業和社會習慣產生相互影響。她對創新知識產權令人驚訝的影響特別感興趣,並召開會議,討論關於時尚與技術創意所有權及創意內容所有權缺乏現象等議題。

 

Blakley曾在各式各樣的媒體平台任職,例如:大型網站製作、規劃博弈研究、協調電影節事務及從事娛樂和政治方面的消費者研究。她從中汲取了大量經驗,亦於南加大授課,並協助發展其公共外交的碩士課程。

 

Johanna Blakley的英語網上資料

網站: Norman Lear Center

網站: Johanna Blakley's homepage

.

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Johanna Blakley談社群媒體和性別界線的終結

我今天要提出一個論點,或許聽起來有點瘋狂-社群媒體和性別界線的終結,讓我來說明其中關聯。我今天要討論的是,我們都知道及喜愛,或由喜愛到痛恨的社群媒體應用,確實能幫助我們免於陷入一些荒謬的假設,即我們的社會與性別有關。我認為社群媒體事實上將幫助我們去除某些愚蠢和貶抑的刻板印象,我們在與性別有關的媒體和廣告中可以見到。

 

如果你沒有注意到,我們的媒體風氣通常提供了一面非常扭曲的鏡子-對於我們的生活和性別,我認為這將會改變。現在大多數媒體公司、電視、廣播、出版業、遊戲,舉凡你想得到的,他們都使用非常僵化的區分方法瞭解它們的觀眾。這是舊式的人口統計資料,他們想出這些非常局限性的標籤來定義我們。瘋狂的是,媒體公司相信,如果你屬於特定人口統計類別,那麼你在某些方面是可以預測的。你會有特定的品味,喜歡特定事物。這造成的奇怪結果是,我們大多數流行文化,事實上是基於這些我們人口統計資料的假設。

 

年齡統計:18至49歲的人口採樣對這個國家所有大眾媒體節目來說有巨大的影響力。自60年代以來,當時嬰兒潮一代的人還年輕,現在他們已超出人口採樣年齡,但情況依然如此。權威的評等公司,像尼爾森,甚至不考慮超過54歲的電視節目觀眾。在我們的媒體環境中,彷佛他們不存在。如果你像我一樣看《廣告狂人》,這是美國一個受歡迎的電視節目,米勒博士研究所謂的消費心態。最先是在60年代提出,並建立這些複雜的消費者心態評估。但消費心態對媒體業務確實沒有巨大影響,它事實上只是基本人口統計資料。

 

我在南加大的諾曼李爾中心,過去七、八年間我們做了很多研究,在人口統計方面,以及它如何影響國內外的媒體和娛樂產業。過去三年中,我們一直專研社群媒體,看看有什麼變化。我們已發現一些很有趣的事:所有參與社群媒體網路的人屬於同一個舊式人口統計類別,媒體公司和廣告商用這個資料瞭解他們,但現在這些類別代表的意義比以前更少,因為使用線上網路工具對我們來說,更容易跳脫一些我們的人口統計框架。我們能相當自由的與人們交流,並在網路上重新定義自我,我們在網路上太容易就可假報年齡。我們還可以基於特定的興趣與人們交流,不需要媒體公司幫助我們做到這一點。

 

所以,傳統的媒體公司當然對這些網路社群非常密切注意,他們知道這是未來的廣大觀眾,他們需要弄明白。但他們做起來困難重重,因為他們仍試圖利用人口統計資料瞭解他們,因為這仍然決定了廣告價格。當他們監控你的點選流向時,你知道他們會這麼做,他們確實很難搞清楚你的年齡、性別及收入。他們可以根據一些資料做推測,但他們得到更多資訊,關於你在網路上做什麼、你喜歡什麼、對什麼感興趣,對他們來說,比找出你是誰更容易。即使這仍令人毛骨悚然,你的喜好被監控這件事還是有它的好處。突然間,我們的喜好受到尊重,達前所未有的程度,之前它是被假設的。

 

因此,你在網路上看到人們的聚集方式,不是圍繞著年齡、性別和收入,而是圍繞著他們愛好的事物、喜歡的東西。如果你想想看,共同的興趣和價值觀是比人口統計類別強多了的人類凝聚力,我寧願知道你是否喜歡《吸血鬼獵人巴菲》,而不是你的年紀,這將告訴我更多關於你的實質情況。

 

對於社群媒體,我們還發現一些其他現象,確實令人相當吃驚。事實證明,女性是真正推動社群媒體革命的人。如果看統計資料,這是全球統計資料,在使用社群網路技術方面,每一個年齡組中,女性確實多於男性。如果你看一下他們花在這些網站上的時間量,他們確實主宰社群媒體空間。這是一個對舊式媒體有巨大影響的空間,問題是,什麼樣的影響將出現在我們的文化上?對女性來說將有何意義?如果情況是,社群媒體主導傳統媒體,而女性主導社群媒體,這是否意味著女性將接管全球媒體?突然之間,我們會看到更多女性人物出現在卡通動畫、遊戲和電視節目中嗎?下一部大預算電影會是文藝愛情片嗎?是否有可能,突然間我們的媒體景象將成為一個女權主義的景象?

 

嗯,其實我不認為將會如此。我認為媒體公司將雇用更多的女性,因為他們意識到,這對他們的業務很重要。我認為女性也將繼續主宰社群媒體領域。但我認為,女性事實上將會-這還真諷刺,負責驅動,直達通俗類事物的核心,像文藝愛情片以及所有其他類型的體裁。假設特定人口族群喜歡特定事物,西班牙裔喜歡特定事物,年輕人喜歡特定事物,這是將其過於簡化了。我們看到的未來娛樂媒體,將是非常資訊驅動化的,將會以資訊為基礎。我們可由網路社群的喜好確知,確實是由女性驅動這個行為。

 

你可能會問,為什麼這很重要?知道什麼能娛樂人們?我為什麼要知道這個?當然,傳統媒體公司和廣告商需要知道這一點,但我的論點是,如果你想瞭解地球村,這可能是一個好想法,就是弄清楚他們熱衷於什麼?什麼能娛樂他們?他們空閒時選擇做什麼?這對瞭解人們非常重要。我職業生涯的大部分時間都在研究媒體和娛樂,還有其對人們生活的影響。我這麼做,不僅是因為它很有趣,事實上,它還真有趣,也是因為我們的研究一再顯示,娛樂和遊戲對人們的生活有巨大影響。例如,他們的政治信念還有健康。因此,如果你有興趣瞭解世界,觀察人們如何取悅自己,這是非常好的開始方式。

 

想像一個這樣的媒體氛圍,不是由片面的刻板印象,像性別和其他人類特性主導,你能想像那是什麼景象?我等不及想看看那是什麼景象。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Media and advertising companies still use the same old demographics to understand audiences, but they're becoming increasingly harder to track online, says media researcher Johanna Blakley. As social media outgrows traditional media, and women users outnumber men, Blakley explains what changes are in store for the future of media.

About Johanna Blakley

Johanna Blakley studies the impact of mass media and entertainment on our world. Full bio and more links

Transcript

I'm going to make an argument today that may seem a little bit crazy: social media and the end of gender. Let me connect the dots. I'm going to argue today that the social media applications that we all know and love, or love to hate, are actually going to help free us from some of the absurd assumptions that we have as a society about gender. I think that social media is actually going to help us dismantle some of the silly and demeaning stereotypes that we see in media and advertising about gender.

If you hadn't noticed, our media climate generally provides a very distorted mirror of our lives and of our gender. And I think that's going to change. Now most media companies -- television, radio, publishing, games, you name it -- they use very rigid segmentation methods in order to understand their audiences. It's old-school demographics. They come up with these very restrictive labels to define us. Now the crazy thing is that media companies believe that if you fall within a certain demographic category then you are predictable in certain ways. You have certain taste, that you like certain things. And so the bizarre result of this is that most of our popular culture is actually based on these presumptions about our demographics.

Age demographics: The 18 to 49 demo, has had a huge impact on all mass media programming in this country since the 1960s, when the baby boomers were still young. Now they've aged out of that demographic, but it's still the case that powerful ratings companies like Nielson don't even take into account viewers of television shows over age 54. In our media environment, it's as if they don't even exist. Now if you watch "Mad Men" like I do -- it's a popular TV show in the States -- Dr. Faye Miller does something called psychographics, which first came about in the 1960s, where you create these complex psychological profiles of consumers. But psychographics really haven't had a huge impact on the media business. It's really just been basic demographics.

So I'm at the Norman Lear Center at USC. And we've done a lot of research over the last seven, eight years on demographics and how they affect media and entertainment in this country and abroad. And in the last three years we've been looking specifically at social media to see what has changed. And we've discovered some very interesting things. All the people who participate in social media networks belong to the same old demographic categories that media companies and advertisers have used in order to understand them. But those categories mean even less now than they did before. Because with online networking tools, it's much easier for us to escape some of our demographic boxes. We're able to connect with people quite freely and to redefine ourselves online. And we can lie about our age online too pretty easily. We can also connect with people based on our very specific interests. We don't need a media company to help do this for us.

So the traditional media companies, of course, are paying very close attention to these online communities. They know this is the mass audience of the future. They need to figure it out. But they're having a hard time doing it because they're still trying to use demographics in order to understand them, because that's how ad rates are still determined. When they're monitoring your clickstream -- and you know they are -- they have a really hard time figuring out your age, your gender and your income. They can make some educated guesses. But they get a lot more information about what you do online, what you like, what interests you. That's easier for them to find out than who you are. And even though that's still creepy, there is an upside to having your taste monitored. Suddenly our taste is being respected in a way that it hasn't been before. It had been presumed before.

So when you look online at the way people aggregate, they don't aggregate around age, gender and income. They aggregate around the things they love, the things that they like. And if you think about it, shared interests and values are a far more powerful aggregator of human beings than demographic categories. I'd much rather know whether you like "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" rather than how old you are. That would tell me something more substantial about you.

Now there's something else that we've discovered about social media that's actually quite surprising. It turns out that women are really driving the social media revolution. If you look at the statistics -- these are worldwide statistics -- in every single age category, women actually outnumber men in their use of social networking technologies. And then if you look at the amount of time that they spend on these sites, they truly dominate the social media space, which is a space that's having a huge impact on old media. The question is, what sort of impact is this going to have on our culture, and what's it going to mean for women? If the case is that social media is dominating old media and women are dominating social media, then does that mean that women are going to take over global media? Are we suddenly going to see a lot more female characters in cartoons and in games and on TV shows? Will the next big-budget blockbuster movies actually be chick flicks? Could this be possible, that suddenly our media landscape will become a feminist landscape?

Well, I actually don't think that's going to be the case. I think that media companies are going to hire a lot more women, because they realize this is important for their business. And I think that women are also going to continue to dominate the social media sphere. But I think women are actually going to be -- ironically enough -- responsible for driving a stake through the heart of cheesy genre categories like the chick flick and all these other genre categories that presume that certain demographic groups like certain things, that Hispanics like certain things, that young people like certain things. This is far too simplistic. The future entertainment media that we're going to see is going to be very data-driven, and it's going to be based on the information that we ascertain from taste communities online, where women are really driving the action.

So you may be asking, well why is it important that I know what entertains people? Why should I know this? Of course, old media companies and advertisers need to know this. But my argument is that, if you want to understand the global village, it's probably a good idea that you figure out what they're passionate about, what amuses them, what they choose to do in their free time. This is a very important thing to know about people. I've spent most of my professional life researching media and entertainment and its impact on people's lives. And I do it, not just because it's fun -- though actually, it is really fun -- but also because our research has shown over and over again that entertainment and play have a huge impact on people's lives -- for instance, on their political beliefs and on their health. And so, if you have any interest in understanding the world, looking at how people amuse themselves is a really good way to start.

So imagine a media atmosphere that isn't dominated by lame stereotypes about gender and other demographic characteristics. Can you even imagine what that looks like? I can't wait to find out what it looks like.

Thank you so much.

(Applause)
 


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