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Ali Carr-Chellman 談用遊戲讓男生重拾學習興趣

Ali Carr-Chellman: Gaming to re-engage boys in learning

 

講者:Ali Carr-Chellman

2010年10月演講,2011年1月在TEDxPSU上線

 

翻譯:                劉契良

編輯:                洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:            趙弘

後制:                劉契良

字幕影片後制:        謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

 

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

 

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

在這場 TEDxPSU 演講中,Ali Carr-Chellman 精準地指出三條理由,說明為何男生會成群陸續地和學校漸行漸遠,定出讓他們「重新回頭」的大膽計劃,即將他們的文化「接到」教室來,新規則包括讓他們盡顯男孩特性,並設置寓教於樂的電玩。

 

關於 Ali Carr-Chellman

Ali Carr-Chellman 是位教學設計師與作者,她研究最有效的教育方法並期在學校帶出改變。

 

為何要聽她演講:

曾是位三年級教師,Ali Carr-Chellman 瞭解到傳統的小學教室不理想,部份原因是她不滿傳統學校缺乏創意、靈活性且不願改變。她現在是位教學設計師、作者及教育者,致力於研究如何在校園中製造改變與創意,讓教育更有效的推行到更多孩子身上。她在美國賓夕法尼亞州立大學教育學院中任教,主要指導博士生研究幫忙催生下一代教員,讓後者都能身懷具創意的研究點子與教法的絕技。Carr-Chellman 也負責教授線上課程,重點放在幫助實習教師學習如何改善自己的教學設計實作及教室環境。

 

她最近的研究專案包括「找回男孩」,研究利用電玩讓男生重回小學課程的方法。其他專案包括邀囚犯及遊民思考如何改革校園,並將這些「新」聲音帶到決策者的耳邊。

 

「哇噢!這真了不起,我在學校學3D動畫/打電玩,這是我人生中唯一感到自在且在行的事,我甚至感到自己很聰明!我們學校有多棒是永遠講不完的,發現自己對某事在行的感覺真美好」。

傻瓜 23 在 YouTube 上的留言

 

Ali Carr-Chellman 的英語網上資料

首頁: ed.psu.edu

 

[TED科技娛樂設計]
已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

「翻譯編輯:myoops.org

 我在此告訴各位,我們接觸男學童的方式不正確,而這對男學童們是個嚴重的問題,他們的文化未融入校園,我要與各位分享我們可以思考的克服之道,首先,我要以此為起頭,這是男生,這是女生,這可能就是刻板印象中的男生與女生,但如果我今天是要講明性別的本質,各位大可不用鳥我要講的內容,所以,我不打算麼做,壓根沒興趣,這是不同的男生與女生形象,重點是,並非所有的男生都能以死板的定義來界定,那些我們所認為的男女生形象,女生也並非全都能死板地定義在我們所認為的女生形象中,但實際上,大部份的男生確實傾向以某種方式表達,大部份的女生確實傾向以某種方式表達,但問題是,對於男生而言,他們生存的方式與擁抱的文化和現今的校園不太搭調,我們從何得知?「100 女孩專案」給出一些很棒的統計數據,舉例而言,若有 100 名女生休學,就會有 250 名男生休學,若有 100 名女生被退學,就會有 335 名男生被退學,若有 100 名女生需要特殊教育,男生的人數便是 217 名,每 100 名有學習障礙的女生,對應的是 276 名男生,當有 100 名女生被診斷出具有情緒焦躁的問題,男生的人數便是 324 名,順道一提,這些數據會更驚人,如果學生對象是黑人或是窮人,或是就讀於人數過多的學校,而且,男生相較於女生被診斷出患有 ADHD 的可能性高出四倍,ADHD 意指專注力失調及過動症,但還有另一個面向,很重要的是,我們要體認到,女人在校園中仍需要幫忙,她們的薪水仍明顯地偏低,就算是工作類型受到管控,女生仍持續栽在與數學和科學的長年奮戰中,這全是事實,但這不能阻止我們關注男生對讀寫能力的需要,特別是年齡介於 3 到 13 歲之間,所以,我們應要更加注意,事實上,我們只需以他們的立場來想,因為針對女性的倡議與專案,以目前現有的看來,無論是在科學、工程或數學的領域,成果都很令人滿意,這些改善了很多女孩所遇到的困境,所以,我們必需要開始思考如何幫幫男生,特別是在幼年時,甚至當他們較年長時,我們發現問題依舊存在。

 

 

當我們觀察大學學生組合,現時,獲大學學歷者有60% 是女性,這個轉變很巨大,事實上,有些大學管理者對此稍微感到不安,因為他們正朝 70% 的大關邁進,大學女生人數不斷上揚,這讓大學管理者十分緊張,因為,女生不願上沒有男生的學校,因此,我們才開始看到男性中心及男性研究的設立,思考如何重新接觸男性,以瞭解他們在大學的經驗,如果和校方談這個問題,他們的可能回答是,「喔,他們愛打電玩,整晚在線上狂賭,當然還要力戰《魔獸世界》,而這些都影響到他們的課業表現」,但各位知道嗎?電玩並非主因,而是症狀,他們長期被排斥,才走到今天這塊田地,我們來談為何他們一直遭到排斥,介於 3 到 13 歲的年紀,我相信,有三條理由是男生無法與今日校園文化取得協調的主因,第一,零容忍,我認識一名幼稚園教師,她兒子將全部玩具都「捐」給她,但當他這麼做時,她必需一件件地挑出所有的小塑膠玩具槍,理由是塑膠刀、劍和斧頭這類的玩具不能出現在幼稚園教室中,我們到底在怕這位小紳士會拿著他的槍幹出啥事來?我是說真的,但他是個活例,事實是,今日的操場不准打鬧,我並非在鼓吹霸凌,也並非在建議我們要讓槍枝與刀械進入校園,但當我們認為一位高中教室中的鷹級童軍,因為他在停車場車內鎖著的是一把小刀,因而要他休學,我認為我們的零容忍態度已走過頭,另一項過頭的零容忍事實是男生的寫作,今日多數的教室中不允許書寫任何關於暴力的內容,也不能寫任何有關電玩的內容,這些都是禁忌主題,男生回家後總抱怨說:「我痛恨寫作」,「為何痛恨寫作?寫作不好嗎」?「我必需寫她指示的東西」,「Okay,她要你寫些什麼」?「詩,我必需寫詩及我生活的點滴,我才不寫那些東西」,「好,那你想寫些什麼?關於什麼」?「我想寫電玩、升級,我想寫這個真正有趣的世界,我想寫颶風吹進屋,吹走所有窗戶,摧毀所有傢俱且殺死所有人」,「好,Okay」,如果跟一位教師說這則故事,他們會非常嚴肅地回答:「我們是否應將這個小孩送去見心理醫師」?答案是,不,他只是名小男生,小男孩寫這樣的內容不 Okay,在今日的教室中。

 

 

所以,第一個理由是零容忍政策讓男生感到被排斥,接著是男生的文化與校園文化不協調,男教師人數較少,沒有一位 15 歲以上成人知道此為何故,因為過去 10 年間,小學教師人數減了一半,比率從 14 % 降到 7%,這意謂著 93% 的教師,這些年輕的小學教師,全是女性,這有什麼問題?女性教師不錯呀!是的,完全正確,但男生的男性榜樣,那些告訴他們聰明也不錯的模範角色,沒錯,他們有老爸、牧師、幼童軍狼頭,但終究,每天六小時,一週五天,他們要待在教室中,而大部份的教室中,男人並不存在,所以,他們會認為這裡根本就不是男生該來的地方,這是女生的地盤,我幹不來,所以,我最好狂打電玩或做運動之類的,因為,我顯然不屬於這裡,男人不屬於這裡,這十分明顯,這也許是非常直接的因果關係,這一切就順勢而生,但間接地,缺少男性代表的文化,在教師休息室便會聽到這樣的對話,關於 Joey 和 Johnny 在操場幹架,「我們要怎麼處置這兩名男生」?這個問題的答案會因,對話者的不同而有所變化,對話者有男性教師嗎?有養育過男童的母親嗎?明顯地,這場對話會因對話者的角色而有不同的答案。

 

 

第三個男生與今日校園不協調的理由是,同胞們,幼稚園是老式的二年級,我們存在著嚴重的課程壓縮問題,三歲時,學生就必需能清楚地拼出自己的名字,否則就會被認為是發展遲緩,上一年級時,就應該能閱讀幾段文章,也許帶有圖片,但不一定,書的厚度約是 25 到 30 頁,如果學生無法辦到,我們就會考慮將該員編入初階閱讀加強班,如果去詢問加強班教師,他們會說,班上的男女生比率是四到五比一,對象是小學年級,這個問題的原由是因為男生接收到的訊息是「我必需永遠照老師的指示做」,教師的薪水是依「有教無類」和「追求卓越」法案,還有負責性與測驗之類的標準而定,所以,她必需要設法將所有的課程都教給男生,還有女生,而這套壓縮版課程對所有好動的孩子都是項折磨,結果是,她說:「拜託,坐下,安靜、遵照指示與規則,善用時間、專注,學學女生!」這是她會宣布的話,間接地,最後一句便是她所傳達的訊息,這成了一個嚴重的問題,原因何來?來自我們(笑聲),我們要我們寶貝六個月時就能閱讀,各位看過這則廣告嗎?我們想要住在 Lake Wobegon(美國明尼蘇達州一處虛幻小鎮),當地每個小孩的水準都高於水平,但這對我們的孩子是極不健康的做法,發展的不健全,對男孩更是件惡耗,我們該怎麼改善?我們必需設身處地地瞭解男生的文化,改變心態,對於在小學中接受男生的心態,確切來說,我們可從細項著手,我們可以設計較優的遊戲,今日所見的大部份教育遊戲充其量只有抽認卡,而那美其名是只能加強記憶練習,沒有深度及豐富的故事情節,相較於電玩之下,後者才是男生真正感興趣的遊戲,我們必需設計較優的遊戲,而且讓教師、父母、學校董事會及政治家們瞭解這點,要確認人們明瞭我們的教室需要更多男人,再仔細評估我們的零容忍政策,那有道理嗎?還必需思考如何解壓縮這套課程,如果我們辦得到的話,試圖讓男生回到他們覺得自在的場域來,這些對話都應立即展開。

 

 

目前就有些很棒的範例,關於學校,《紐約時報》最近才報導了一間學校,一名來自新校的遊戲設計師,讓該校化身成很酷的電玩校園,但僅有幾名孩子受惠,範圍不夠大,我們必需改變文化與感受,針對政治家、學校董事成員及父母所認知的接受方式,及我們今日校園能接受的方式,必需投資更多遊戲設計,因為好的遊戲,真正好的遊戲需要投資,《魔獸世界》的預算龐大,大部份的教育遊戲卻無預算,我們的研究起點是,我的同事 Mike Petner、Shawn Vashaw 和我自己,我們開始試圖觀察教師的態度,找出他們對遊戲的真正感受,他們的看法為何?我們發現,他們談論自己學校中的孩童,談到孩童討論電玩時使用相當貶抑且盤詰的語氣,他們會說:「噢,對,他們整天談遊戲,小戰鬥角色、小戰績或是寶物徽章,或任何獲得的戰功,整天談這些東西」,他們這麼講,好像那沒啥緊要,但如果那是你的文化,想看看,你可能有何感受?作為聽話端的角色總是非常不自在,當聽到這類話時,他們對任何事都會感到緊張,尤其是跟暴力扯上關係,因為零容忍政策,他們確信父母及管理者不會接受這類事件的發生,所以,我們真的必需思考教師的態度,找出改變態度的方法,讓教師更開放、更能接受教室中的男生文化,因為,如果我們最終不這麼做的話,我們會再聽到男生離開小學時說出以下的話語,「我猜,那是女生地盤,我幹不來,所以,我最好狂打電玩或做運動」,但如果我們改變並關注這一切,使男生重拾對學習的興趣,他們將會在離開小學時說:「我還蠻聰明的」!感謝聆聽。

(掌聲)

 

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

At TEDxPSU, Ali Carr-Chellman pinpoints three reasons boys are tuning out of school in droves, and lays out her bold plan to re-engage them: bringing their culture into the classroom, with new rules that let boys be boys, and video games that teach as well as entertain.

About Ali Carr-Chellman

Ali Carr-Chellman is an instructional designer and author who studies the most effective ways to teach kids and to make changes at school. Full bio and more links

Transcript

So I'm here to tell you that we have a problem with boys, and it's a serious problem with boys. Their culture isn't working in schools. And I'm going to share with you ways that we can think about overcoming that problem. First, I want to start by saying, this is a boy, and this is a girl. And this is probably stereotypically what you think of as a boy and a girl. If I essentialize gender for you today, then you can dismiss what I have to say. So I'm not going to do that; I'm not interested in doing that. This is a different kind of boy and a different kind of girl. So the point here is that not all boys exist within these rigid boundaries of what we think of as boys and girls. And not all girls exist within those rigid boundaries of what we think of as girls. But, in fact, most boys tend to be a certain way, and most girls tend to be a certain way. And the point is that, for boys, the way that they exist and the culture that they embrace isn't working well in schools now.

How do we know that? The 100 Girls Project tells us some really nice statistics. For example: For every 100 girls that are suspended from school, there are 250 boys that are suspended from school. For every 100 girls who are expelled from school, there are 335 boys who are expelled from school. For every 100 girls in special education, there are 217 boys. For every 100 girls with a learning disability, there are 276 boys. For every 100 girls with an emotional disturbance diagnosed, we have 324 boys. And by the way, all of these numbers are significantly higher if you happen to be black, if you happen to be poor, if you happen to exist in an overcrowded school. And if you are a boy, you're four times as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD -- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Now there is another side to this. And it is important that we recognize that women still need help in school, that salaries are still significantly lower, even when controlled for job types, and that girls have continued to struggle in math and science for years. That's all true. Nothing about that prevents us from paying attention to the literacy needs of our boys between ages three and 13. And so we should. In fact, what we ought to do is take a page from their playbook, because the initiatives and programs that have been set in place for women in science and engineering and mathematics are fantastic. They've done a lot of good for girls in these situations. And we ought to be thinking about how we can make that happen for boys too in their younger years.

Even in their older years, what we find is that there's still a problem. When we look at the universities, 60 percent of baccalaureate degrees are going to women now, which is a significant shift. And in fact, university administrators are a little uncomfortable about the idea that we may be getting close to 70 percent female population in universities. This makes university administrators very nervous, because girls don't want to go to schools that don't have boys. And so we're starting to see the establishment of men centers and men studies to think about how do we engage men in their experiences in the university. If you talk to faculty, they may say, "Ugh. Yeah, well, they're playing video games, and they're gambling online all night long, and they're playing World of Warcraft. And that's affecting their academic achievement." Guess what? Video games are not the cause. Video games are a symptom. They were turned off a long time before they got here.

So let's talk about why they got turned off when they were between the ages of three and 13. There are three reasons that I believe that boys are out of sync with the culture of schools today. The first is zero tolerance. Kindergarten teacher I know, her son donated all of his toys to her, and when he did, she had to go through and pull out all the little plastic guns. You can't have plastic knives and swords and axes and all that kind of thing in a kindergarten classroom. What is it that we're afraid that this young man is going to do with this gun? I mean, really. But here he stands as testament to the fact that you can't roughhouse on the playground today. Now I'm not advocating for bullies. I'm not suggesting that we need to be allowing guns and knives into school. But when we say that an Eagle Scout in a high school classroom who has a locked parked car in the parking lot and a penknife in it has to be suspended from school, I think we may have gone a little too far with zero tolerance.

Another way that zero tolerance lives itself out is in the writing of boys. In a lot of classrooms today you're not allowed to write about anything that's violent. You're not allowed to write about anything that has to do with video games -- these topics are banned. Boy comes home from school, and he says, "I hate writing." "Why do you hate writing, son? What's wrong with writing?" "Now I have to write what she tells me to write." "Okay, what is she telling you to write?" "Poems. I have to write poems. And little moments in my life. I don't want to write that stuff." "All right. Well what do you want to write? What do you want to write about?" "I want to write about video games. I want to write about leveling-up. I want to write about this really interesting world. I want to write about a tornado that comes into our house and blows all the windows out and ruins all the furniture and kills everybody." "All right. Okay." You tell a teacher that, and they'll ask you, in all seriousness, "Should we send this child to the psychologist?" And the answer is no, he's just a boy. He's just a little boy. It's not okay to write these kinds of things in classrooms today.

So that's the first reason: zero tolerance policies and the way they're lived out. The next reason that boys' cultures are out of sync with school cultures: there are fewer male teachers. Anybody who's over 15 doesn't know what this means, because in the last 10 years, the number of elementary school classroom teachers has been cut in half. We went from 14 percent to seven percent. That means that 93 percent of the teachers that our young men get in elementary classrooms are women. Now what's the problem with this? Women are great. Yep, absolutely. But male role models for boys that say it's all right to be smart -- they've got dads, they've got pastors, they've got Cub Scout leaders, but ultimately, six hours a day, five days a week, they're spending in a classroom. And most of those classrooms are not places where men exist. And so they say, I guess this really isn't a place for boys. This is a place for girls. And I'm not very good at this, so I guess I'd better go play video games or get into sports, or something like that, because I obviously don't belong here. Men don't belong here, that's pretty obvious.

So that may be a very direct way that we see it happen. But less directly, the lack of male presence in the culture -- you've got a teachers' lounge, and they're having a conversation about Joey and Johnny who beat each other up on the playground. "What are we going to do with these boys?" The answer to that question changes depending on who's sitting around that table. Are there men around that table? Are there moms who who've raised boys around that table? You'll see, the conversation changes depending upon who's sitting around the table.

Third reason that boys are out of sync with school today: kindergarten is the old second grade, folks. We have a serious compression of the curriculum happening out there. When you're three, you better be able to write your name legibly, or else we'll consider it a developmental delay. By the time you're in first grade, you should be able to read paragraphs of text with maybe a picture, maybe not, in a book of maybe 25 to 30 pages. If you don't, we're probably going to be putting you into a Title 1 special reading program. And if you ask Title 1 teachers, they'll tell you: they've got about four or five boys for every girl that's in their program, in the elementary grades.

The reason that this is a problem is because the message that boys are getting is "you need to do what the teacher asks you to do all the time." The teacher's salary depends on No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top and accountability and testing and all of this. So she has to figure out a way to get all these boys through this curriculum -- and girls. This compressed curriculum is bad for all active kids. And what happens is, she says, "Please, sit down, be quiet, do what you're told, follow the rules, manage your time, focus, be a girl." That's what she tells them. Indirectly, that's what she tells them. And so this is a very serious problem. Where is it coming from? It's coming from us. (Laughter) We want our babies to read when they are six months old. Have you seen the ads? We want to live in Lake Wobegon where every child is above average. But what this does to our children is really not healthy. It's not developmentally appropriate, and it's particularly bad for boys.

So what do we do? We need to meet them where they are. We need to put ourselves into boy culture. We need to change the mindset of acceptance in boys in elementary schools. More specifically, we can do some very specific things. We can design better games. Most of the educational games that are out there today are really flashcards. They're glorified drill and practice. They don't have the depth, the rich narrative that really engaging video games have, that the boys are really interested in. So we need to design better games. We need to talk to teachers and parents and school board members and politicians. We need to make sure that people see that we need more men in the classroom. We need to look carefully at our zero tolerance policies. Do they make sense? We need to think about how to uncompress this curriculum if we can, trying to bring boys back into a space that is comfortable for them. All of those conversations need to be happening.

There are some great examples out there of schools -- the New York Times just talked about a school recently. A game designer from the New School put together a wonderful video gaming school. But it only treats a few kids. And so this isn't very scalable. We have to change the culture and the feelings that politicians and school board members and parents have about the way we accept and what we accept in our schools today. We have to find more money for game design. Because good games, really good games, cost money, and World of Warcraft has quite a budget. Most of the educational games do not. Where we started: my colleagues -- Mike Petner, Shawn Vashaw, myself -- we started by trying to look at the teachers' attitudes and find out how do they really feel about gaming, what do they say about it. And we discovered that they talk about the kids in their school, who talk about gaming, in pretty demeaning ways. They say, "Oh, yeah. They're always talking about that stuff. They're talking about their little action figures and their little achievements or merit badges, or whatever it is that they get. And they're always talking about this stuff." And they say these things as if it's okay. But if it were your culture, think of how that might feel. It's very uncomfortable to be on the receiving end of that kind of language. They're nervous about anything that has anything to do with violence because of the zero tolerance policies. They are sure that parents and administrators will never accept anything.

So we really need to think about looking at teacher attitudes and finding ways to change the attitudes so that teachers are much more open and accepting of boy cultures in their classrooms. Because, ultimately, if we don't, then we're going to have boys who leave elementary school saying, "Well I guess that was just a place for girls; it wasn't for me. So I've got to do gaming, or I've got to do sports." If we change these things, if we pay attention to these things, and we re-engage boys in their learning, they will leave the elementary schools saying, "I'm smart."

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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