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課程來源:TED
     

 

Rogier van der Heide 談為何光需要黑暗

Rogier van der Heide: Why light needs darkness

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Rogier van der Heide

2010年10月演講,2011年3月在TEDxAmsterdam上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

照明設計師Rogier van der Heide提供一個看待世界的美妙新方式-藉由對光(和黑暗)的重視。並以經典建築為例,闡述一個對於我們周遭光的展現具深刻思考的觀點。

 

關於Rogier van der Heide

Rogier van der Heide藉由光創造出建築空間。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

燈光設計師Rogier van der Heide創造(並監督)迷人且鼓舞人心的3D燈光設計,融合了光、影像投射、建築和產品設計,創造一種難忘且真實的體驗。他為國際公認的卓越建築照明設計專家之一。現任飛利浦照明公司首席設計師,在此之前,他是Arup燈光設計公司總監及全球燈光設計業務負責人。

 

Rogier van der Heide是施華洛世奇水晶宮委任的五位國際設計師之一,其創作及裝置作品於今年米蘭家具展登場。

 

Rogier van der Heide的英語網上資料

首頁:rogiervanderheide.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Rogier van der Heide 談為何光需要黑暗

螢幕上有一段美麗的語句,寫著,「光創造了氛圍,光製造出空間感,光也是結構的表達」,嗯,不是我寫的,是出自於著名建築師Le Corbusier,你可以從這裡看出他所言之意。他美麗的建築物之一-廊香教堂,他在那裡創造這些光,他能做到這一點,只因為這裡也有黑暗,我認為,這就是這場18分鐘演講的精髓。有益於我們健康和福祉的良好照明,必定得有適當的黑暗。

 

這是我們一般照明辦公室的方式,我們有規範和標準,告訴我們照明應該有多少勒克斯(照明單位),並具有相當的一致性。這是我們如何創造均勻的照明,從一面牆到其他面牆,使用常規的格柵燈,這完全不同於我剛才向你們展示的,來自Le Corbusier的作品。如果我們將這些規則和標準應用於羅馬的萬神殿,它永遠不會看起來像這樣,因為這美麗的光完全自行環繞著這棟建築,它們能夠出現,只因為在同一棟建築物中也存在著黑暗。Santiago Calatrava所說的多少有相同意思,他說,「我在我的建築物中製造光是為了舒適。」他並不是指五道菜晚餐相較於一道菜晚餐的舒適,他真正的意思是建築物讓人們所感受到的舒適質感,他指的是,你可以看到天空,也可以體驗到陽光。他創造了這些美妙的建築物,在那裡你可以看到天空、可以體驗到陽光,在建築環境中給我們一個更好的生活,只因為光的適切性在於它的亮度,也在於它的陰影。

 

當然,所有一切都歸因於太陽。這個太陽的形象或許呈現出太陽是某種邪惡和侵略性的東西,但我們不應忘記,這個星球上所有能源事實上都來自於太陽,而光僅僅是這些能量的一種表現。太陽可產生動力,造成色彩變化,太陽可美化我們的環境,像這棟建築,亞特蘭大的高等藝術博物館,由來自義大利的Renzo Piano和Arup Lighting創建,一個傑出的燈光設計師團隊,創造了光度上非常微妙的調控,越過整個空間,透過這些屋頂上美麗的窗口,對戶外的陽光做出回應。因此,以間接的方式,你可以看到太陽,他們所做的就是創造一個整體的建築元素,增進了環繞博物館中遊客的空間品質,他們創造了這個遮蓋物,你可以在這裡看到,它事實上遮蔽了太陽,卻讓來自天空的良好光線可以射入。在這裡你可以看到他們如何精心製作一個漂亮的設計程序,用物理模型,還有定量及定性方法得到最終的答案,使其真正與建築整合,形成全面的整體功能。過程中,他們允許自己犯一些錯,正如你在這裡看到的,有一些光直接照在地板上,但他們可以很容易地找出它的來源。他們讓這棟建築物中的人們真正享受陽光,享受太陽好的部份。

 

享受陽光當然可以用許多不同方式,可以像這樣,也許像這樣,這比較奇特,但這是在1963年觀賞太陽的日蝕,在美國,太陽只是一個在上方的亮點,所以這些人找到一個非常有趣的解決方法。這是一張很能說明我心中所想的圖片,太陽的美麗動態,將這些帶入建築中,為我們的建築環境創造了品質,真正提升了我們的生活。這跟黑暗有關,當然,就像它跟亮度有關一樣,否則你無法看到這些動態。

 

相對於我在演講開始時展示過的第一間辦公室,這是一間著名的辦公室,White Group,他們做綠色能源諮詢,或類似的東西,他們確實言行一致,因為這間辦公室一盞電燈也沒有,它只有一面極大的玻璃窗,有助於讓陽光照進來,深入這個空間,創造室內美好的環境品質,及一個很棒的動態區域。因此,它可以是這邊非常暗,讓你工作;也可以是那邊非常亮,讓你工作,但事實上,人眼可以非常適應所有這些不同的光照條件,一起創造一種環境,它永遠不會枯燥,永遠不會乏味,幫助我們增進生活品質。

 

我還沒向你們簡短介紹這個人,這是Richard Kelly,生於100年前,這就是為什麼我現在要介紹他,因為這算是個週年紀念。在1930年代,Richard Kelly是第一個真正描述現代化照明設計方法的人,他所創造的三個詞彙,就是「焦點照明」、「環境照明」與「戲劇化照明」,闡述非常明顯不同的、在建築上與光有關的理念,將其整合在一起,創造出這個美麗的體驗。

 

首先以焦點照明開始,他的意思是這樣。光指出了空間中的方向,幫助你徜徉於此空間;或像這樣,這是他所做的照明設計,用於通用汽車的展示間。當你進入那個空間,你會覺得,「哇!這真是令人印象深刻。」正因為這個焦點,這個中央的巨大光源。對我來說,這是來自劇院的靈感,我稍後會回頭說明這一點。這是照在藝術家身上的聚光燈,幫助你集中焦點,也像是陽光破雲而出,照亮了一塊土地,在較暗的環境下將它凸顯出來。或是在當今的零售店、購物環境中,照亮商品,並創造視覺重點,幫助你瀏覽。

 

環境照明則相當不同,Richard Kelly將它視為某種無限的、沒有任何焦點的東西,某種將所有細節融合成無限的東西。我認為這是一種非常舒適的光,確實能幫助我們放鬆及沉思。它可以像這樣,倫敦國家科學博物館,這藍光以一種大姿態包圍所有展覽和畫廊。

 

最後是Kelly的戲劇化照明,這確實是香港天際線的戲劇化展示,或歌劇院的吊燈,或這裡的劇院。它是一種裝飾,像是蛋糕上的糖衣,是某種附加於建築環境中的有趣東西。這三種截然不同的元素共同構成一個照明環境,幫助我們擁有更好的感覺。我們只有從黑暗中才能創造出這些,我會進一步解釋這一點。我想這正是Richard Kelly,左邊這位,向Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe解釋的東西。在他們背後是西格拉姆大樓,後來變成現代照明設計的一個標誌。

 

這段時期,出現一些早期對光療法的嘗試,你可以看到這張來自美國醫學圖書館的照片,人們置身太陽下幫助身體復原,這情況跟我今天要告訴你們的,光對健康方面的影響有點不同。當今的現代醫學對光已有真正瞭解,大約是以生化的方式來看,這個想法是,當我們觀看事物時,黃色的光對我們最有幫助,我們對其最敏感,但我們的生理時鐘,就是協助喚醒我們、使我們入睡或警覺及放鬆等等的生理節奏,藍光對其較具引發作用。藉由調節我們環境中的藍光,可以幫助人們放鬆或提高警覺、入睡或保持清醒。這是一種方法,也許在不久的將來,光可以幫助醫院使人們更快好起來、更快地復原;也許在飛機上,我們可以用這種方法克服時差;也許在學校裡,我們可以幫助孩子學得更好,因為他們能更專注於學業,你能想像,這一點可做更多的應用,但我想進一步談談光與黑暗的結合,成為我們生活中一項特質。

 

當然,光也能用於社會互動,讓我們與周圍所有人建立關係。這是我們聚集的地方,我們需要與彼此交流的時候,這與這個星球息息相關。但當你在夜間觀看這個星球,它看起來像這樣,我認為這是我今天演講中最令人震驚的畫面,因為這裡所有的光都射向天際,永遠不會回到地面上原本該去的地方,這絕不是造福人類,只是破壞了黑暗。以全球範圍來看,它看起來像這樣,我是指,這相當驚人,你在這裡看到的,有多少光射向天際,且永遠不會回到地面。如果我們看看地球原本該有的模樣,會是類似這樣非常鼓舞人心的景像。黑暗能讓我們想像與沉思,並幫助我們與萬事萬物建立關係。

 

但世界不斷變化,城市化對一切事物而言是很大的驅動力。我兩個星期前在廣州拍攝這張照片,我意識到,10年前這裡沒有像這樣的建築物,它只是一個很小的城市,城市化的步伐是令人難以置信且巨大的。我們必須了解這些主要問題,人們如何穿越這些新的城市空間?如何分享他們的文化?如何處理可動性之類的事?光對此又有什麼幫助?因為新科技的發展,它們似乎處於一個非常有意思的位置,對解決城市化的影響有所貢獻,並為我們提供更好的環境。

 

並不是很久以前,我們的照明只是由這類燈具提供,當然,我們有金屬鹵素燈和螢光燈之類的東西,現在我們有LED。你看到的這個最新型的,你可以看到它有多麼小,這為我們提供了一個獨特的機會,因為這極小的尺寸,讓我們能確實將光置於任何需要的地方,事實上,我們也可將它從任何不需要的地方移開,我們就使其保持黑暗。我認為這是一個非常有趣的規畫,是一種照明建築環境的新方式,以我們的福祉考量來說。但問題是,我想向你們解釋一下這如何實際運作,但我一根手指就可以放上四個,所以你無法真正看到它們,所以我要求我們實驗室找個方法。他們說,「好,我們有辦法。」他們為我製造了世界上最大的LED,特別為阿姆斯特丹TED演講做的。

 

就是這個,這跟你們在螢幕上看到的是一樣的,只是大了200倍,我很快會讓你們看看它是如何運作的,我現在開始解釋。現今製造的每個LED都是發藍光,這看起來令人不是很愉快、舒適,因此我們將LED 蓋上一個磷光蓋,磷會被藍光激發,讓光變成白色,看起來溫和宜人。當你將這個鏡片加蓋於其上,就可以將光束縛,發送到任何你需要的地方,不會漏出任何一點光到天空或任何其他地方。所以,你可以保有黑暗,並造出光來。我只是想向你們展示這些,讓你們明白這是如何運作的,謝謝。

 

我們可以進一步討論,我們必須重新思考照亮城市的方法,我們必須再次思考那些與光有關的預設做法。為什麼高速公路永遠是亮著的?真的有必要嗎?我們可能有更多的選擇性,創造更好的環境,也從黑暗中得益嗎?我們能使用更柔和的光嗎?像這裡-事實上是相當低照明度的光,我們能讓人們更喜愛我們創造的照明設計,讓他們真正想與它產生聯繫,像這樣?或者,我們可以創造能鼓舞人心,並使人們樂於徜徉其中的簡單雕塑嗎?我們能保有黑暗嗎?因為現今要在地球上找到一個像這樣的地方確實非常、非常具有挑戰性,要找到像這樣的星空更是困難,甚至在海洋中,我們也創造了大量的光,我們事實上可以避免這麼做,使動物的生命也能享有更大的福祉。據了解,以候鳥來說,牠們因這些海上平台而迷失方向,我們發現,當我們把這些燈換成綠色,這些鳥類就能找到正確方向,牠們不再受到干擾,再一次證明,光譜敏感度在這裡是非常重要的。

 

以這些例子來說,我認為我們應該開始讓光從黑暗中顯現出來,將黑暗當作畫布,如視覺藝術家們所做的,像Edward Hopper的這幅畫,我認為這幅畫有中藏有很多懸念,當我看到它時,我開始思考,這些人是誰?他們來自哪裡?他們要去哪裡?剛剛發生了什麼?接下來五分鐘會發生什麼?所有這些故事和一切懸念的體現,只因為黑暗和光。Edward Hopper是真正的行家,藉由光與黑暗來創造故事發展,我們可以從中學習,創造出更有趣的和鼓舞人心的建築環境。我們可以在像這樣的商業空間中進行,你也可以到外面去享受宇宙中最偉大的表演,這當然是宇宙本身。所以,我讓你們觀賞這奇妙、豐富的天空景象,從城市開始,在那裡你只能看到一、兩顆星星,其它一無所有,一路延伸到農村環境,在這裡你可以享受星座和星星偉大而美妙的精彩表演。

 

在建築中的運作方式亦相同,藉由設計光的同時亦可欣賞黑暗,創造出更有趣的環境,真正提升了我們的生活品質。這是最著名的例子,安藤忠雄的光之教堂,但我也認為,Peter Zumthor的溫泉會館,在那裡,光與黑暗非常溫柔的結合,改變了彼此,定義了這個空間,或Richard McCormack的倫敦南部地鐵站,在那裡你能真正看到天空,即使你身處地底。

 

最後我想指出,這些靈感很多來自於劇院,我覺得非常美妙,我們今天第一次在劇院體驗TEDx演講,我認為我們真的該好好感謝這個劇院,沒有這間劇院,這些配景圖不會如此鼓舞人心。我認為,劇院是一個藉由光來真正提升我們生活的地方。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Lighting architect Rogier van der Heide offers a beautiful new way to look at the world -- by paying attention to light (and to darkness). Examples from classic buildings illustrate a deeply thought-out vision of the play of light around us.

About Rogier van der Heide

Rogier van der Heide creates architectural spaces with light. Full bio and more links

Transcript

There's a beautiful statement on the screen that says, "Light creates ambiance, light makes the feel of a space, and light is also the expression of structure." Well that was not by me. That was, of course, by Le Corbusier, the famous architect. And here you can see what he meant in one of his beautiful buildings -- the chapel Notre Dame du Haut Ronchamp -- where he creates this light that he could only make because there's also dark. And I think that is the quintessence of this 18-minute talk -- that there is no good lighting that is healthy and for our well-being without proper darkness.

So this is how we normally would light our offices. We have codes and standards that tell us that the lights should be so much lux and of great uniformity. This is how we create uniform lighting from one wall to the other in a regular grid of lamps. And that is quite different from what I just showed you from Le Corbusier. If we would apply these codes and standards to the Pantheon in Rome, it would never have looked like this, because this beautiful light feature that goes around there all by itself can only appear because there is also darkness in that same building. And the same is more or less what Santiago Calatrava said when he said, "Light, I make it in my buildings for comfort." And he didn't mean the comfort of a five-course dinner as opposed to a one-course meal, but he really meant the comfort of the quality of the building for the people. He meant that you can see the sky and that you can experience the sun. And he created these gorgeous buildings where you can see the sky, and where you can experience the sun, that give us a better life in the built environment, just because of the relevance of light in its brightness and also in its shadows.

What it all boils down to is, of course, the sun. And this image of the sun may suggest that the sun is something evil and aggressive. But we should not forget that all energy on this planet actually comes from the sun. And light is only a manifestation of that energy. The sun is for dynamics, for color changes, the sun is for beauty in our environment, like in this building -- the High Museum in Atlanta, which has been created by Renzo Piano from Italy, together with Arup Lighting, a brilliant team of lighting designers, who created a very subtle modulation of light across the space, responding to what the sun does outside, just because of all these beautiful openings in the roof. So in an indirect way, you can see the sun. And what they did is they created an integral building element to improve the quality of the space that surrounds the visitors of the museum. They created this shade that you can see here, which actually covers the sun, but opens up to the good light from the sky. And here you can see how they really crafted a beautiful design process with physical models with quantitative, as well as qualitative, methods to come to a final solution that is truly integrated and completely holistic with the architecture. They allowed themselves a few mistakes along the way. As you can see here, there's some direct light on the floor, but they could easily figure out where that comes from. And they allow people in that building to really enjoy the sun, the good part of the sun.

And enjoying the sun can be in many different ways, of course. It can be just like this, or maybe like this, which is rather peculiar, but this is in 1963 -- the viewing of a sun eclipse in the United States. And it's just a bit bright up there, so these people have found a very intriguing solution. This is, I think, a very illustrative image of what I try to say -- that the beautiful dynamics of sun, bringing these into the building, creates a quality of our built environment that truly enhances our lives. And this is all about darkness as much as it is about lightness, of course, because otherwise you don't see these dynamics.

As opposed to the first office that I showed you in the beginning of the talk, this is a well-known office, which is the White Group. They are in green energy consulting, or something like that. And they really practice what they preach, because this office doesn't have any electric lighting at all. It has only on one side this big, big glass window that helps to let the sunlight enter deep into the space and create a beautiful quality there and a great dynamic range. So it can be very dim over there, and you do your work, and it can be very bright over there, and you do your work. But actually the human eye turns out to be remarkably adaptable to all these different light conditions that together create an environment that is never boring and that is never dull, and therefore helps us to enhance our lives.

I really owe a short introduction of this man to you. This is Richard Kelly who was born 100 years ago, which is the reason I bring him up now, because it's kind of an anniversary year. In the 1930s, Richard Kelly was the first person to really describe a methodology of modern lighting design. And he coined three terms, which are "focal glow," "ambient luminescence" and "play of brilliants" through very distinctly different ideas about light in architecture that all together make up this beautiful experience.

So you begin with focal glow. He meant something like this -- where the light gives direction to the space and helps you to get around. Or something like this, which is the lighting design he did for General Motors, for the car showroom. And you enter that space, and you feel like, "Wow! This is so impressive," just because of this focal point, this huge light source in the middle. To me it is something from theatre, and I will get back to that a little bit later. It's the spotlight on the artist that helps you to focus. It could also be the sunlight that breaks through the clouds and lights up a patch of the land, highlighting it compared to the dim environment. Or it can be in today's retail, in the shopping environment -- lighting the merchandise and creating accents that help you to get around.

Ambient luminescence is something very different. Richard Kelly saw it as something infinite, something without any focus, something where all details actually dissolve in infinity. And I see it as a very comfortable kind of light that really helps us to relax and to contemplate. It could also be something like this: the National Museum of Science in London, where this blue is embracing all the exhibitions and galleries in one large gesture.

And then finally, Kelly's play of brilliants attitude. That really some play of the skyline of Hong Kong, or perhaps the chandelier in the opera house, or in the theater here, which is a decoration, the icing on the cake, something playful, something that is just an addition to the architectural environment, I would say. These three distinct elements, together make a lighting environment that helps us to feel better. And we can only create these out of darkness. And I will explain that further. And I guess that is something that Richard Kelly, here on the left, was explaining to Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe. And behind them, you that Seagram Building that later turned into an icon of modern lighting design.

Those times, there were some early attempts also for light therapy already. You can see here a photo from the United States Library of Medicine, where people are put in the sun to get better. It's a little bit of a different story, this health aspect of light, than what I'm telling you today. In today's modern medicine, there is a real understanding of light in an almost biochemical way. And there is the idea that, when we look at things, it is the yellow light that helps us the most, that we are the most sensitive for. But our circadian rhythms, which are the rhythms that help us to wake and sleep and be alert and relaxed and so forth and so on, they are much more triggered by blue light. And by modulating the amount of blue in our environment, we can help people to relax, or to be alert, to fall asleep, or to stay awake. And that is how, maybe in the near future, light can help hospitals to make people better sooner, recover them quicker. Maybe in the airplane, we can overcome jet lag like that. Perhaps in school, we can help children to learn better because they concentrate more on their work. And you can imagine a lot more applications. But I would like to talk further about the combination of light and darkness as a quality in our life.

So light is, of course, for social interaction also -- to create relationships with all the features around us. It is the place where we gather around when we have to say something to each other. And it is all about this planet. But when you look at this planet at night, it looks like this. And I think this is the most shocking image in my talk today. Because all this light here goes up to the sky. It never reaches the ground where it was meant for. It never is to the benefit of people. It only spoils the darkness. So at a global scale, it looks like this. And, I mean, that is quite amazing, what you see here -- how much light goes up into the sky and never reaches the ground. Because if we look at the Earth the way it should be, it would be something like this very inspiring image where darkness is for our imagination and for contemplation and to help us to relate to everything.

The world is changing though, and urbanization is a big driver of everything. I took this photo two weeks ago in Guangzhou, and I realized that 10 years ago, there was nothing like this of these buildings. It was just a much smaller city, and the pace of urbanization is incredible and enormous. And we have to understand these main questions: How do people move through these new urban spaces? How do they share their culture? How do we tackle things like mobility? And how can light help there? Because the new technologies, they seem to be in a really interesting position to contribute to the solutions of urbanization and to provide us with better environments.

It's not that long ago that our lighting was just done with these kinds of lamps. And of course, we had the metal halide lamps and florescent lamps and things like that. Now we have LED, but here you see the latest one, and you see how incredibly small it is. And this is exactly what offers us a unique opportunity, because this tiny, tiny size allows us to put the light wherever we really need it. And we can actually leave it out where it's not needed at all and where we can preserve darkness. So that is a really interesting proposition, I think, and a new way of lighting the architectural environment with our well-being in mind. The problem is though that I want to explain to you how this really works -- but I can have four of these on my finger, so you would not to be able to really see them. So I asked our laboratory to do something about it, and they said, "Well, we can do something." They created for me the biggest LED in the world especially for TEDx in Amsterdam.

So here it is. It's the same thing as you can see over there -- just 200 times bigger. And I will very quickly show you how it works. So just to explain. Now, every LED that is made these days gives blue light. Now this is not very pleasant and comfortable. And for that reason, we cover the LED with a phosphor cap. And the phosphor is excited by the blue and makes the light white and warm and pleasant. And then when you add the lens to that, you can bundle the light and send it to wherever you need it without any need to spill any light to the sky or anywhere else. So you can preserve the darkness and make the light. I just wanted to show that to you so you understand how this works. Thank you.

We can go further. So we have to rethink the way we light our cities. We have to think again about light as a default solution. Why are all these motorways permanently lit? Is it really needed? Can we maybe be much more selective and create better environments that also benefit from darkness? Can we be more gentle with light? Like here -- this is a very low light level actually. Can we engage people more in the lighting projects that we create, so they really want to connect with it, like here? Or can we create simply sculptures that are very inspiring to be in and to be around? And can we preserve the darkness? Because to find a place like this today on Earth is really very, very challenging. And to find a starry sky like this is even more difficult. Even in the oceans, we are creating a lot of light that we could actually ban also for animal life to have a much greater well-being. And it's known that migrating birds, for example, get very disoriented because of these offshore platforms. And we discovered that, when we make those lights green, the birds, they actually go the right way. They are not disturbed anymore. And it turns out once again that spectral sensitivity is very important here.

In all of these examples, I think, we should start making the light out of darkness, and use the darkness as a canvas -- like the visual artists do, like Edward Hopper in this painting. I think that there is a lot of suspense in this painting. I think, when I see it, I start to think, who are those people? Where have they come from? Where are they going? What just happened? What will be happening in the next five minutes? And it only embodies all these stories and all this suspense because of the darkness and the light. Edward Hopper was a real master in creating the narration by working with light and dark. And we can learn from that and create more interesting and inspiring architectural environments. We can do that in commercial spaces like this. And you can still also go outside and enjoy the greatest show in the universe, which is, of course, the universe itself. So I give you this wonderful, informative image of the sky, ranging from the inner city, where you may see one or two stars and nothing else, all the way to the rural environments, where you can enjoy this great and gorgeous and beautiful performance of the constellations and the stars.

In architecture it works just the same. By appreciating the darkness when you design the light, you create much more interesting environments that truly enhance our lives. This is the most well-known example, Tadao Ando's Church of Light. But I also think of Peter Zumthor's spa in Vals, where light and dark, in very gentle combinations, alter each other to define the space. Or Richard McCormack's Southern tube station in London, where you can really see the sky, even though you are under the ground.

And finally I want to point out that a lot of this inspiration comes from theatre. And I think it's fantastic that we are today experiencing TEDx in the theater for the first time, because I think we really owe to the theatre a big thanks. It wouldn't be such an inspiring scenography without the theatre. And I think the theatre is a place where we truly enhance life with light.

Thank you very much.

(Applause)
 


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