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陳一鳴談Google每日生涯中同理心美德的實踐

Chade-Meng Tan: Everyday compassion at Google

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:陳一鳴

2010年11月演講,2011年4月在TEDPrize@UN上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Google的「開心好人」陳一鳴談論公司如何在日常業務中實踐同理心的美德,以及其大膽的周邊計劃。

 

關於陳一鳴

身為Google最資深的工程師之一,陳一鳴現在是Google的「開心好人」,即這間創新的搜尋引擎公司個人成長課程領導者。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

陳一鳴是Google最資深的工程師之一。陳一鳴除了幫助Google建立第一個移動搜尋服務以外,還領導一個監看Google搜尋品質的團隊。致力於工程師職務八年後,他現在參與GoogleEDU工作,為個人成長團體的領導者。他進行的主要項目之一為「搜尋內在自我」-以內觀為基礎的情緒智商課程,他希望最終能以一種有意義的方式貢獻於世界和平。

 

除了任職Google以外,陳一鳴也是Tan Teo慈善基金會創始人及(開心好人)主席,這是一個致力於促進世界和平、自由和啟發的小基金會。他是史丹佛大學同理心、利他研究及教育(CCARE)中心的創始贊助人。亦為世界和平節的創始贊助人,及一些科技創業的顧問。

 

陳一鳴的英語網上資料

首頁:chademeng.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

陳一鳴談Google每日生涯中同理心美德的實踐

世界上最快樂的人看起來是什麼模樣?當然不像我,他看起來像這樣,他的名字是Matthew Ricard。那麼,要如何知道是否是世界上最快樂的人?結果證明,有一種方法可以測量大腦中的快樂,可藉由FMRI(功能性核磁共振造影)測量左額葉皮層與右額葉皮層的相對活性得知。Matthew的快樂測量值超乎標準,他是目前以科學方法測出最快樂的人,這引發了我們一個問題,當他做測量時,想的是什麼?或許是很調皮的事。(笑聲)。事實上,他當時在打坐,心中充滿同理心,以Matthew本身的經驗來說,同理心是最快樂的狀態。

 

閱讀Matthew的著作是在我生命中一個關鍵時刻,我的夢想是,在有生之年創造一個世界和平的環境,為了達到這個目的,需藉由在全球範圍內創造內在安寧與同理心的環境。學習Matthew的想法,讓我用一個新的角度看待我的工作。Matthew的大腦掃描顯示,同理心不是件苦差事,同理心是某種能創造快樂的東西,同理心很有趣,這令人振奮的洞察結果改變了整個局面。因為,如果同理心是件苦差事,沒人會去做,也許除了達賴喇嘛之類的人。但如果同理心很有趣,每個人都會打算這麼做,因此,創造一個全球的同理心環境,我們需要做的就是將同理心重塑為某種有趣的東西。

 

但有趣是不夠的,如果同理心也有利可圖呢?如果同理心也有助於事業發展呢?然後,每個老闆,世上每個經營者,都希望能獲得同理心,像這樣,這將創造世界和平的環境。所以,我開始關注在商業領域中同理心會是什麼情況,幸運的是,我不需遠求,因為我要尋找的就在眼前。在Google,我的公司。

 

我知道世界上還有其他公司富有同理心,但Google是我熟悉的地方,因為我在那裡已有十年了,所以我將Google作為研究個案。Google是一家建立於理想主義的公司,這是一家因理想主義而成功的公司,也許正因為如此,同理心自然而普遍地存在於整個公司。在Google,企業同理心的展現幾乎始終遵循相同模式,這是種有趣的模式,從一個Google人小團體開始,他們主動做一些事,通常不需向上級請示,只是勇往直前的進行,然後其他Google人加入,這個團體越變越大,有時,它變得夠大而成為公司的團體。所以,換句話說,幾乎總是從下而上開始。

 

我給你們看一些例子。第一個例子,年度最大的社區活動,來自世界各地的Google人貢獻自己的勞力給當地社區,由三名僱員發起及組織,然後成為公司活動,因為規模變得太大了。另一個例子,三位Google人,一位廚師,一位工程師,最有趣的是,一位按摩治療師,他們三個瞭解到一個印度地區有200,000位居民,卻連一個醫療設施也沒有,因此,他們怎麼做?他們只是埋首進行,開始募捐,籌集足夠資金後建設這家醫院,這是首座以這種方式為200,000人建立的醫院。海地地震期間,幾位工程師和產品經理自發性合作,徹夜做出能夠幫助地震災民找尋親人的工具。同理心的表現也可在我們國際辦公室找到。

 

例如在中國,一位中階員工在中國發起最大的社會行動,有1000多所中國學校參與,著手於一些議題,如教育、貧困、健康照護和環境。因為有這麼多跟Google有關的社會行動,公司決定成立社會責任團隊,只是為了支持這些努力。這個想法同樣的來自基層,來自兩位Google人,他們自行寫下工作概要,自願負責這項工作。我覺得這很迷人,社會責任團隊不是某些大型企業策略的一部份,只是兩個人說,「讓我們做這件事」,然後公司說,「好」,因此,這證明了Google是一間富有同理心的公司,因為Google發現同理心是有趣的。

 

但同樣的,有趣並不足夠,其中也有真正的商業利益,是什麼?同理心的第一個益處是,它創造了高效能的企業領導人。這是什麼意思?同理心有三個組成部份,有情感部份,即「我對你的感覺」;還有認知部份,即「我了解你」;還有一個動機部分,即「我想幫助你」。那麼,這跟企業領導有什麼關係?根據一項非常全面的研究,由Jim Collins提出,寫在《Good to Great》一書中(繁體譯本:《從A到A+》),必需要有一種非常特殊的領導者,才能使一間公司從優秀躍升為卓越,他稱其為「第五級領導者」。這些領導者除了非常有能力,還擁有兩個重要特質,就是謙虛和雄心。這些領導者有著對大眾福祉的遠大雄心,也因為他們對大眾福祉懷有雄心,他們覺得沒必要膨脹他們的自我。根據研究,這些特質塑造出最佳的商業領袖。如果以同理心的脈絡來看這些特質,我們發現,同理心中的認知和情感部份,理解人們、能感同身受、克制自我,放下身段,我稱這些為內在過度自我迷戀,因此創造出謙虛的表現。

 

同理心的動機部份創造出對大眾福祉的雄心,換句話說,同理心是培養第五級領導者的方式,這是第一個吸引人的商業利益。同理心第二個吸引人的益處是創造一個鼓舞人心的工作團隊,員工們互相激勵,為大眾福祉努力,它創造一個朝氣蓬勃、充滿活力的社群,人們欣賞並尊重彼此。我的意思是,你早晨來上班,和三個人一起工作,他們突然站起來,決定在印度建一間醫院,你怎能不因他們而受到鼓舞?那是你自己的同事呢!因此,這種互相激勵、促進合作、主動性和創造性,讓我們成為一間高效能的公司。

 

所以,說了這麼多,釀造同理心的秘方是什麼?以商業領域來說?根據我們的經驗,有三種成分,第一種成分,為了大眾福祉,創造一種熱情關懷的文化,總是想著你的公司和工作要如何貢獻於大眾福祉?或者,你如何進一步貢獻於大眾福祉?這種為大眾福祉服務的意識是相當自我激勵的想法,它創造了肥沃的土壤,讓同理心成長茁壯,這是第一種。

 

第二種成分是自主權,因此,在Google有很大的自主權,我們最受歡迎的一位經理開玩笑說,「Google是一個囚犯經營的收容所。」他認為自己是囚犯之一。如果你已經擁有一種同理心與理想主義的文化,就放手讓你的員工自由發揮,他們會做正確的事,以最富同理心的方式。

 

第三種成份是著重於內在發展和個人成長,例如Google的領導培訓相當注重內在素質,如自我意識、自我控制、同理心和設身處地,因為我們相信領導由性格開始,我們甚至設立一個為期七週的情緒智商課程,我們開玩笑地稱之為「搜尋內在自我」,它不像聽起來這麼淘氣。所以,我受訓為工程師,但也是這個課程的創建者和導師之一,我覺得很有趣,因為這間公司竟委託一位工程師教導情緒智商,什麼樣的公司啊!(笑聲)

 

因此,「搜尋內在自我」要如何進行?有三個步驟,第一步驟是注意力訓練,注意力是所有高級認知和情感能力的基礎,因此,任何情緒智商的訓練課程必須從注意力訓練開始。這個想法是,藉由注意力訓練,創造一個同時具有冷靜和清晰特質的心智,因而創造出情緒智商的基礎。第二步驟接續第一步驟。

 

第二個步驟是培養自我認知和自我控制。因此,使用第一步驟中增強的注意力,我們在認知和情感過程中創造了一個高解析度的觀點,這是什麼意思?這意味著能夠觀察我們的思緒及情感過程,以高清晰度、客觀性及第三者的觀點,一旦你能做到這一點,就能創造出能夠自我控制的自我意識。

 

第三步驟接續第二步驟,即創造新的心智習慣,這是什麼意思?想像一下,每當你遇到任何一個人,不論何時,只要你遇到某人,你習慣性、本能的第一個想法就是「我希望你快樂」。想像一下,你能做到這一點,有這樣的習慣,這個心智習慣,可以在工作中改變一切,因為這個善意會不自覺地讓其他人感受到,它創造了信任,而信任創造了很多好的工作關係,這也創造了工作場所中的同理心環境。我們希望有一天能釋出「搜尋內在自我」的開放源碼,讓企業界中的每個人至少能以它為參考。

 

最後,我想以開場時同一個話題做結束,就是快樂。我想引用這個人–穿僧袍的人,不是另一個傢伙-達賴喇嘛,他說,「如果你希望別人快樂,就力行同理心;如果你希望快樂,就力行同理心。」我發現確實如此,無論在個人層面還是企業層面。同時,我希望這樣的同理心對你來說也是既有趣又頗有助益的。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Google's "Jolly Good Fellow," Chade-Meng Tan, talks about how the company practices compassion in its everyday business -- and its bold side projects.

About Chade-Meng Tan

One of Google's earliest engineers, Chade-Meng Tan is now Google's Jolly Good Fellow -- the head of personal growth at the groundbreaking search company. Full bio and more links

Transcript

So what does the happiest man in the world look like? He certainly doesn't look like me. He looks like this. His name is Matthieu Ricard. So how do you get to be the happiest man in the world? Well it turns out there is a way to measure happiness in the brain. And you do that by measuring the relative activation of the left prefrontal cortex in the FMRI, versus the right prefrontal cortex. And Matthieu's happiness measure is off the charts. He's by far the happiest man ever measured by science. Which leads us to a question: What was he thinking when he was being measured? Perhaps something very naughty. (Laughter) Actually, he was meditating on compassion. Matthieu's own experience is that compassion is the happiest state ever.

Reading about Matthieu was one of the pivotal moments of my life. My dream is to create the conditions for world peace in my lifetime -- and to do that by creating the conditions for inner peace and compassion on a global scale. And learning about Matthieu gave me a new angle to look at my work. Matthieu's brain scan shows that compassion is not a chore. Compassion is something that creates happiness. Compassion is fun. And that mind-blowing insight changes the entire game. Because, if compassion was a chore, nobody's going to do it -- except maybe the Dalai Lama or something. But if compassion was fun, everybody's going to do it. Therefore, to create the conditions for global compassion, all we have to do is to reframe compassion as something that is fun.

But fun is not enough. What if compassion is also profitable? What if compassion is also good for business? Then, every boss, every manager in the world, will want to have compassion -- like this. That would create the conditions for world peace. So, I started paying attention to what compassion looks like in a business setting. Fortunately, I didn't have to look very far. Because what I was looking for was right in front of my eyes -- in Google, my company.

I know there are other compassionate companies in the world, but Google is the place I'm familiar with because I've been there for 10 years, so I'll use Google as the case study. Google is a company born of idealism. It's a company that thrives on idealism. And maybe because of that, compassion is organic and widespread company-wide. In Google, expressions of corporate compassion almost always follow the same pattern. It's sort of a funny pattern. It starts with a small group of Googlers taking the initiative to do something. And they don't usually ask for permission; they just go ahead and do it, and other Googlers join in, and it just gets bigger and bigger. And sometimes it gets big enough to become official. So in other words, it almost always starts from the bottom up.

And let me give you some examples. The first example is the largest annual community event -- where Googlers from around the world donate their labor to their local communities -- was initiated and organized by three employees before it became official -- because it just became too big. Another example, three Googlers -- a chef, an engineer and, most funny, a massage therapist -- three of them, they learned about a region in India where 200,000 people live without a single medical facility. So what do they do? They just go ahead and start a fundraiser. And they raise enough money to build this hospital -- the first hospital of its kind for 200,000 people. During the Haiti earthquake, a number of engineers and product managers spontaneously came together and stayed overnight to build a tool to allow earthquake victims to find their loved ones. And expressions of compassion are also found in our international offices.

In China for example, one mid-level employee initiated the largest social action competition in China involving more than 1,000 schools in China -- working on issues such as education, poverty, health care and the environment. There is so much organic social action all around Google, that the company decided to form a social responsibility team just to support these efforts. And this idea, again, came from the grassroots, from two Googlers who wrote their own job descriptions and volunteered themselves for the job. And I found it fascinating that the social responsibility team was not formed as part of some grand corporate strategy. It was like two persons saying, "Let's do this," and the company said, "Yes." So it turns out, that Google is a compassionate company, because Googlers found compassion to be fun.

But again, fun is not enough. There are also real business benefits. So what are they? The first benefit of compassion is that it creates highly effective business leaders. What does that mean? There are three components of compassion. There is the affective component, which is, "I feel for you." There is the cognitive component, which is, "I understand you." And there is a motivational component, which is, "I want to help you." So what has this got to do with business leadership? According to a very comprehensive study led by Jim Collins, and documented in the book "Good to Great," it takes a very special kind of leader to bring a company from goodness to greatness. And he calls them "level five leaders." These are leaders who, in addition to being highly capable, possess two important qualities, and they are humility and ambition. These are leaders who are highly ambitious for the greater good. And because they're ambitious for a greater good, they feel no need to inflate their own egos. And they, according to the research, make the best business leaders. And if you look at these qualities in the context of compassion, we find that the cognitive and and affective components of compassion -- understanding people and empathizing with people -- inhibits, tones down, what I call the excessive self-obsession that's in us -- therefore creating the conditions for humility.

The motivational component of compassion creates ambition for greater good. In other words, compassion is the way to grow level 5 leaders. And this is the first compelling business benefit. The second compelling benefit of compassion is it creates an inspiring workforce. Employees mutually inspire each other towards greater good. It creates a vibrant, energetic community where people admire and respect each other. I mean, you come to work in the morning, and you work with three guys who just up and decide to build a hospital in India. It's like how can you not be inspired by those people -- your own coworkers? So this mutual inspiration promotes collaboration, initiative and creativity. It makes us a highly effective company.

So, having said all that, what is the secret formula for brewing compassion in the corporate setting? In our experience, there are three ingredients. The first ingredient is to create a culture of passionate concern for the greater good. So always think, how is your company and your job serving the greater good? Or, how can you further serve the greater good? This awareness of serving the greater good is very self-inspiring and it creates fertile ground for compassion to grow in. That's one.

The second ingredient is autonomy. So in Google, there's a lot of autonomy. And one of our most popular managers, jokes that, this is what he says, "Google is a place where the inmates run the asylum." And he considers himself one of the inmates. If you already have a culture of compassion and idealism, and you let your people roam free, they will do the right thing in the most compassionate way.

The third ingredient is to focus on inner development and personal growth. Leadership training in Google, for example, places a lot of emphasis on the inner qualities, such as self-awareness, self-mastery, empathy and compassion, because we believe that leadership begins with character. We even created a seven-week curriculum on emotion intelligence, which we jokingly call "Searching Inside Yourself." It's less naughty than it sounds. So I'm an engineer by training, but I'm one of the creators and instructors of this course, which I find kind of funny, because this is a company that trusts an engineer to teach emotion intelligence. What a company.

(Laughter)

So "Search Inside Yourself" -- how does it work? It works in three steps. The first step is attention training. Attention is the basis of all higher cognitive and emotional abilities. Therefore, any curriculum for training emotion intelligence has to begin with attention training. The idea here is to train attention to create a quality of mind that is calm and clear at the same time. And this creates the foundation for emotion intelligence. The second step follows the first step.

The second step is developing self-knowledge and self-mastery. So using the supercharged attention from step one, we create a high-resolution perception into the cognitive and emotive processes. What does that mean? It means being able to observe our thoughtstream and the process of emotion with high clarity, objectivity and from a third-person perspective. And once you can do that, you create the kind of self-knowledge that enables self-mastery.

The third step, following the second step, is to create new mental habits. What does that mean? Imagine this. Imagine whenever you meet any other person, any time you meet your person, your habitual, instinctive first thought is, "I want you to be happy. I want you to be happy." Imagine you can do that. Having this habit, this mental habit, changes everything at work. Because this good will is unconsciously picked up by other people, and it creates trust, and trust creates a lot of good working relationships. And this also creates the conditions for compassion in the workplace. Someday, we hope to open-source "Search Inside Yourself" so that everybody in the corporate world will at least be able to use it as a reference.

And in closing, I want to end the same place I started, with happiness. I want to quote this guy -- the guy in robes, not the other guy -- the Dalai Lama, who said, "If you want others to be happy, practice compassion. If you want to be happy, practice compassion." I found this to be true, both on the individual level and at a corporate level. And I hope that compassion will be both fun and profitable for you too.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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