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Stanley McChrystal 談聆聽、學習…繼而領導

Stanley McChrystal: Listen, learn ... then lead

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Stanley McChrystal

2011年3月演講,2011年4月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

四星上將Stanley McChrystal分享他數十年軍旅生涯中學習到的領導技巧。如何在眾多不同年齡和才能的人群間建立共同目標感?藉由聆聽和學習-並面對失敗的可能性。

 

關於Stanley McChrystal

Stanley McChrystal將軍為前美軍司令及駐阿富汗國際部隊指揮官。身為四星上將的他,因在戰爭中創造融合了情報和作戰的改革而聲譽卓著。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

憑藉卓越的功績,Stanley McChrystal將軍因在戰爭中創造融合了情報和作戰的改革而為人稱道。身為四星上將的他,是前美軍司令及駐阿富汗國際部隊指揮官,以及聯合特種作戰司令部(JSOC)前領導人,負責監管軍中最精銳的部隊。McChrystal領導JSOC期間,因2003年12月逮捕海珊及2006年6月獵殺伊拉克基地組織領袖扎卡維而聲譽卓著。McChrystal為前美國陸軍特種部隊成員,因坦率而著稱。

McChrystal於西點軍校畢業後,被任命為步兵軍官,他職業生涯大部分期間擔任特別行動和空降步兵單位指揮。波斯灣戰爭中,McChrystal任職於聯合特種作戰特遣隊,之後擔任第75游騎兵團指揮。他於1997年在哈佛大學甘迺迪政府學院完成一年的學術研究,2000年任職於外交關係協會。2002年,他被任命為阿富汗軍事行動司令。兩年後,McChrystal被任命在全國電視轉播上講述五角大樓對伊拉克軍事行動的簡報。2003年至2008年,McChrystal指揮JSOC,並負責領導打擊全球恐怖主義的全國軍事部署。2009年6月,他統率所有駐阿富汗的國際部隊。根據McChrystal對阿富汗戰況的評估,歐巴馬總統增兵3萬部隊至阿富汗。McChrystal於2010年8月退役。

 

「美國最偉大的戰士之一。」

-國防部長Robert Gates

 

Stanley McChrystal的英語網上資料

首頁:jackson.yale.edu

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Stanley McChrystal 談聆聽、學習…繼而領導

十年前,一個星期二早晨,我到北卡羅萊納州的Fort Bragg跳傘,就如同我從二十七年前成為一名傘兵以來做過的多次例行訓練。我們提早抵達機場,因為在軍隊裡一向得提早到達。做一些常規的複習訓練,然後裝上降落傘,在一位夥伴的幫助下,你背起軍用T10跳傘,非常仔細地穿好套帶,特別是腿帶,因為它穿在你雙腿之間,然後背上副傘,再來是沉重的背包,接著,一位跳傘指揮官出現,他是一位經驗豐富的跳傘任務士官,他檢查你的裝備,抓起可調整的套帶,將每一個套帶束緊,你的胸部被束緊,當然,肩膀也被壓垮。他束的極緊,連你的聲音都會提高幾個八度。然後你坐下,稍等一會兒,因為這是軍隊。你準備上飛機,站了起來,登上飛機。你會像這樣蹣跚的上飛機-在一列隊伍中。你在飛機兩側的帆布椅上坐下,等待稍長一段時間,因為空軍就是這樣教導陸軍如何等待。

 

然後飛機起飛,現在實在夠痛苦了,我認為這正是這樣設計的,痛苦的足以讓你想跳下,你不是真的想跳,但你想離開。所以,你上了飛機,一路飛行,20分鐘後,跳傘指揮官開始給你命令。他們給你20分鐘-這是預警時間,你坐在那裡,然後,他們給你十分鐘,當然,你對一切口令都得作出反應,這是要提高每個人的信心,顯示你並不害怕。然後他們下令,「準備」,然後說,「外側人員,起立」,如果你是外側人員,現在就得起立;如果你是內側人員,也得起立。然後你做掛鉤動作,將固定開傘索鉤上。在這一刻,你想著,「嘿,你知道嗎?我可能就要跳下了,這當下由不得我不跳了。」你經過再次檢查,然後他們打開機門。

 

這是九月一個星期二上午,外面天氣相當不錯,宜人的空氣流入,跳傘指揮官開始檢查機門,當跳傘時間到的時候,綠色指示燈亮起,跳傘指揮官說,「跳」,第一個人跳下,你還在隊伍中,你有點蹣跚地走向機門。說跳並不適當,你其實是跌出去的,你跌出機門外,陷入了氣流中。首先要做的是讓身體呈緊縮姿勢,頭抵在胸前,雙臂張開,放在你的副傘上。會這麼做,是因為二十七年前一位空降部隊中士教我這麼做,我不知道這是否有差別,但他說的似乎有道理,而我並不打算親自驗證他的假設是錯的。然後你等待降落傘打開的衝擊,如果你沒感受到傘開的衝擊,你就沒有降落傘,就會有一連串新問題,但通常都有;傘通常會張開。當然,如果你的腿帶放置不正確,這時候你會感受到另一種小小刺激,砰!

 

然後你環顧四周,你下方的士兵說,「狀況不錯」,現在你準備面對不可避免的事,你將墜落地面。你無法多做拖延,你也實在無法決定將落在哪裡,因為他們假設你能控制方向,但你是被丟下來的。所以你環顧四周,觀察將要著陸的地點,試著讓自己做好準備。當接近地面時,你將背包放低,放在身體較下方處,這樣著陸時它就不會壓在你上方。你準備進行著陸降落,現在,陸軍教你五點著陸動作,你的腳趾、小腿、大腿、臀部和背肌,像這樣優雅地輕輕著陸,扭身翻滾,這樣就不會受傷。在30多年跳傘生涯中,我從沒做過一次。(笑聲)。我總是像西瓜掉出三樓窗口一樣著陸。(笑聲)

 

當我一著陸,做的第一件事就是檢查是否傷到任何重要部位。我搖搖頭,問自己一貫的問題,「為什麼我沒從事銀行業?」(笑聲)然後我環顧四周,接著我會看到另一個傘兵,一個年輕男孩或女孩,他們會掏出他們的M - 4卡賓槍,拿起他們的裝備,他們會盡力做到一切我們教他們的事。我意識到,如果他們必須投入戰鬥,他們會做我們教他們的事,追隨領導者;我意識到,如果他們退出戰鬥,這也是因為我們的領導,我再次沉迷於自己所做所為的重要性。

 

所以現在我進行星期二上午的跳傘,但這不是尋常的一次跳傘,那是2001年9月11日,我們從機場起飛時,美國一片祥和,當我們降落在空降區時,一切都改變了。我們在理論上思考這些年輕士兵投入戰鬥的可能性,現在變得非常、非常真實,領導似乎很重要,但情況發生了變化。我當時是一名46歲的准將,我一向成功,但情況變化太大,我不得不作出一些重大的改變,但那天上午我並不知道這些。

 

我聽著領導者的傳統故事長大,Robert E. Lee,蓋茨堡戰役的John Buford,我成長過程也有領導者個人典範伴隨,就是我在越南的父親。我從小就相信,士兵們堅強又聰明,勇敢又忠誠,不會撒謊、欺騙、偷竊或棄同袍不顧,我至今仍相信真正的領導者就是這樣。但在職業生涯的前25年中,我有一大堆不同的經歷。

 

我的第一個營區指揮官,我在他營上任職十八個月,他與McChrystal少尉唯一的談話,是在25英里行軍路程的18英里處,他訓了我大約40秒,我不確定這是否算真正的互動。但多年後,當時我是一位連長,我前往國家訓練中心,我們進行了一個軍事行動,我的伙伴們發動了一次黎明攻擊,你知道,典型的黎明攻擊,一整夜準備著,移動到進攻出發線,我有個裝甲部隊在那裡。我們前進,然後被殲滅,我的意思是,瞬間被殲滅,敵人不費吹灰之力就辦到了。戰鬥結束後,他們帶來這個行動劇院,進行所謂的「行動總檢討」,教導你錯在哪裡,多少是對領導者的羞辱。他們架起一個大螢幕,讓你從頭到尾觀賞一遍,「...你沒做到這一點、還有這一點,等等。」我走了出去,感到自己一無是處,然後我看著營長,因為我讓他失望了。我走上前向他道歉,他說,「Stanley,我認為你做的很好。」就這麼一句話,他鼓舞了我,讓我振作起來,讓我知道,領導者可以讓你失敗,但不能讓你成為一個失敗者。

 

當9月11日來臨,46歲的准將McChrystal看見一個全新的世界。首先,情況顯而易見,你們很熟悉,環境改變了,速度、調查,現今一切事物的靈敏度都如此之快,有時它發展的比人們能抽出時間真正反思的速度還快,但我們所做的一切是在不同的脈絡下,更重要的是,我領導的軍隊散佈在二十多個國家,無法聚集所有主要領導者在同一個房間做決定,正視他們的眼睛,建立他們的信心,並獲得他們的信任。我現在領導的是散佈各處的軍隊,我不得不使用其他科技,我必須採用視訊電話會議、聊天室,使用電子郵件、電話,使用我能用的一切,不僅是為了溝通,也是為了領導。一個22歲,僅依據我在千里之外所下指示而行動的人,必須以信任跟我溝通,我必須信任他們,反之亦然。我也必須建立他們的信念,對我來說,這是一種新型領導。

 

我們有一個行動,必須由多個地點互相配合,一個新的機會來臨,沒時間將大家聚集在一起,因此,我們必須整合複雜的情報,必須安排好行動的能力,這很敏感,我們必須建立起指揮鏈,說服他們這是正確的做法,一切都以電子媒介進行。我們失敗了,任務沒有達成,所以現在我們必須做的是,我必須伸出手來,試圖重建軍隊的信任,重建他們的信心,我和他們以及他們和我,我們的長官和我們,還有軍隊,都無力安撫這一切,這是全新的需求。

 

此外,人們已改變。你們可能認為我率領的軍隊都是有著大拳頭、目光堅毅的突擊隊,帶著新型武器,事實上,我率領的大多軍隊看起來跟你們完全一樣,有男的、女的、年輕的、老的,不僅來自軍隊,來自不同組織,其中許多僅在握手中有過交談,因此,不再是發號施令,現在你得建立共識,你正構建著一個共同目標意識,也許最大的變化就是理解世代差異,古往今來,這已改變許多。在一次阿富汗行動中,我跟一排游騎兵團員蹲在一起,在那個行動中,一位排中的中士失去了大約一半的手臂,他在塔利班的手榴彈落到武裝小隊後將它扔回敵人陣營。我們談到這次行動,最後,我做了經常對像這樣的部隊做的事,我問道,「9/11時你在哪裡?」一位年輕的游騎兵團員在我們後方,因在阿富汗寒風吹拂中戰鬥而頭髮糾結、臉色泛紅。他說,「長官,我那時六年級。」這提醒了我,我們作戰中的軍隊,必須有共同目標和共同意識,但他還有不同經歷。在許多情況下,在數位媒體領域,使用不同字彙,使用完全不同的技能,比我和許多其他高層領導者所知更多。然而,我們需要擁有這種共同意識。

 

這也產生了一些我稱之為專業知識倒置的現象,因為我們下屬這一代已有如此多的改變,在科技和戰術上,諸如此類的東西。突然間,我們一直在做的事不再是軍隊所做的了。那麼,一位領導者如何保有他的可信度和合理性,當他們從未做過他們所領導的人正在做的事?這是一種全新的領導權挑戰,迫使我變得更加透明、更加願意聆聽、更加願意反過來向下屬請益。然而,同樣的,你們並不是全都在同一個房間。另一方面,這影響也出現在你和你的領導者身上,這個影響是累積的,你不會每次都將你的電池換新或充電。

 

有天晚上,我在伊拉克,站在螢幕前,跟一位資深軍官一起,觀看我們一個部隊與敵人交火,我想起他兒子在我們軍隊裡,我說,「約翰,你兒子在哪?他還好嗎?」他說,「長官,他很好,謝謝關心。」我說,「他現在在哪兒?」他指著螢幕說,「他在這場戰鬥中。」想想目睹你的兄弟、父親、女兒、兒子、妻子在一場實況戰鬥中,你卻幫不上任何忙;想想一直對這種情形心知肚明,這是領導者身上一種新的累積壓力。

 

你必須注意並關懷彼此,也許我學到最多的是人與人的關係,我知道這是將軍隊團結在一起的力量。我大部分職業生涯成長於游騎兵團,每天清晨,在游騎兵團,每一個游騎兵-共有2000多個,都得複誦六節游騎兵信條,你或許知道其中一條,內容是,「我永遠不會讓一個倒下的戰友落入敵人手中。」這不是一個無意識的頌辭,不是一首詩,這是一個承諾。每一位游騎兵對彼此的承諾,無論發生什麼事,無論付出多少代價,如果你需要我,我會在你身邊。每一位游騎兵從其他每一位游騎兵口中都得到相同的承諾,想想看,這多麼強大,可能比婚姻的誓言更強大。他們實踐這句話,因而賦予它特殊力量。因此,這種維繫他們的組織關係相當驚人。

 

我學習到,人與人之間的關係比以往任何時候更加重要。2007年,我們身處阿富汗一個艱難的行動中,我的一位老朋友,我職業生涯中,多年來在不同時刻跟他有交集,我是他們一個孩子的教父,他給我一張裝在信封裡的紙條,引用Sherman寫給Grant的話,上面寫著,「我知道,如果有一天我處於困境時,只要你活著,一定會來。」擁有這樣的關係,對我來說,成為我職業生涯中許多時刻的關鍵。

 

我學習到,在這個環境下,你必須付出這些,因為這是艱辛的,這是我的旅程,我希望這不是結束。我開始相信,一位好領導者並不是因為他們總是對的,而是因為他們願意學習和信任,這不是件容易的事,不像電動腹肌訓練機,每月花十五分鐘,就擁有洗衣板般的腹肌。(笑聲)這並不總是公平,你可能被擊倒,還有受傷,留下傷疤,但如果你是一位領導者,你所倚靠的人會幫助你站起來;如果你是一位領導者,倚靠你的人需要你頂天立地。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Four-star general Stanley McChrystal shares what he learned about leadership over his decades in the military. How can you build a sense of shared purpose among people of many ages and skill sets? By listening and learning -- and addressing the possibility of failure.

About Stanley McChrystal

General Stanley McChrystal is the former commander of U.S. and International forces in Afghanistan. A four-star general, he is credited for creating a revolution in warfare that fuses intelligence… Full bio and more links

Transcript

10 years ago, on a Tuesday morning, I conducted a parachute jump at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. It was a routine training jump like many more I'd done since I became a paratrooper 27 years before. We went down to the airfield early because this is the Army and you always go early. You do some routine refresher training, and then you go to put on your parachute and a buddy helps you. And you put on the T10 parachute. And you're very careful how you put the straps, particularly the leg straps because they go between your legs. And then you put on your reserve, and then you put on your heavy rucksack. And then a jumpmaster comes, and he's an experienced NCO in parachute operations. He checks you out, he grabs your adjusting straps, and he tightens everything so that your chest is crushed, your shoulders are crushed down, and, of course, he's tightened so your voice goes up a couple octaves as well. Then you sit down, and you wait a little while, because this is the Army. Then you load the aircraft, and then you stand up and you get on, and you kind of lumber to the aircraft like this -- in a line of people -- and you sit down on canvas seats on either side of the aircraft. And you wait a little bit longer, because this is the Air Force teaching the Army how to wait.

Then you take off. And it's painful enough now -- and I think it's designed this way -- it's painful enough so you want to jump. You don't really want to jump, but you want out. So you get in the aircraft, you're flying along, and at 20 minutes out, these jumpmasters start giving you commands. They give 20 minutes -- that's a time warning. You sit there, okay. Then they give you 10 minutes. And of course, you're responding with all of these. And that's to boost everybody's confidence, to show that you're not scared. Then they give you, "get ready." Then they go, "Outboard personnel, stand up." If you're an outboard personnel, now you stand up. If you're an inboard personnel, stand up. And then you hook up, and you hook up your static line. And at that point, you think, "Hey, guess what? I'm probably going to jump. There's no way to get out of this at this point." You go through some additional checks, and then they open the door.

And this was that Tuesday morning in September, and it was pretty nice outside. So nice air comes flowing in. The jumpmasters start to check the door. And then when it's time to go, a green light goes and the jumpmaster goes, "Go." The first guy goes, and you're just in line, and you just kind of lumber to the door. Jump is a misnomer; you fall. You fall outside the door, you're caught in the slipstream. The first thing you do is lock into a tight body position -- head down in your chest, your arms extended, put over your reserve parachute. You do that because, 27 years before, an airborne sergeant had taught me to do that. I have no idea whether it makes any difference, but he seemed to make sense, and I wasn't going to test the hypothesis that he'd be wrong. And then you wait for the opening shock for your parachute to open. If you don't get an opening shock, you don't get a parachute -- you've got a whole new problem set. But typically you do; typically it opens. And of course, if your leg straps aren't set right, at that point you get another little thrill. Boom.

So then you look around, your under academy is saying, "This is good." Now you prepare for the inevitable. You are going to hit the ground. You can't delay that much. And you really can't decide where you hit very much, because they pretend you can steer, but you're being delivered. So you look around, where you're going to land, you try to make yourself ready. And then as you get close, you lower your rucksack below you on a lowering line, so it's not on you when you land, and you prepare to do a parachute landing fall. Now the Army teaches you to do five points of performance -- the toes of your feet, your calves, your thighs, your buttocks and your push-up muscles. It's this elegant little land, twist and roll. And that's not going to hurt. In 30-some years of jumping, I never did one. (Laughter) I always landed like a watermelon out of a third floor window.

(Laughter)

And as soon as I hit, the first thing I did is I'd see if I'd broken anything that I needed. I'd shake my head, and I'd ask myself the eternal question: "Why didn't I go into banking?" (Laughter) And I'd look around, and then I'd see another paratrooper, a young guy or girl, and they'd have pulled out their M-4 carbine and they'd be picking up their equipment. They'd be doing everything that we had taught them. And I realized that, if they had to go into combat, they would do what we had taught them and they would follow leaders. And I realized that, if they came out of combat, it would be because we led them well. And I was hooked again on the importance of what I did.

So now I do that Tuesday morning jump, but it's not any jump -- that was September 11th 2001. And when we took off from the airfield, America was at peace. When we landed on the drop-zone, everything had changed. And what we thought about the possibility of those young soldiers going into combat as being theoretical was now very, very real -- and leadership seemed important. But things had changed -- I was a 46 year-old brigadier general. I'd been successful, but things changed so much that I was going to have to make some significant changes -- and on that morning, I didn't know it.

I was raised with traditional stories of leadership: Robert E. Lee, John Buford at Gettysburg. And I also was raised with personal examples of leadership. This was my father in Vietnam. And I was raised to believe that soldiers were strong and wise and brave and faithful -- they didn't lie, cheat, steal or abandon their comrades. And I still believe real leaders are like that. But in my first 25 years of career, I had a bunch of different experiences.

One of my first battalion commanders, I worked in his battalion for 18 months and the only conversation he ever had with Lt. McChrystal was at mile 18 of a 25-mile road march, and he chewed my ass for about 40 seconds. And I'm not sure that was real interaction. But then a couple of years later, when I was a company commander, I went out to the national training center. And we did an operation, and my company did a dawn attack -- you know, the classic dawn attack: you prepare all night, move to the line of departure. And I had an armored organization at that point. We move forward, and we get wiped out -- I mean, wiped out immediately. The enemy didn't break a sweat doing it. And after the battle, they bring this mobile theater and they do what they call an "after action review" to teach you what you've done wrong. Sort of leadership by humiliation. They put a big screen up, and they take you through everything. " ... And then you didn't do this, and you didn't do this, etc." I walked out feeling as low as a snake's belly in a wagon rut. And I saw my battalion commander, because I had let him down. And I went up to apologize to him, and he said, "Stanley, I thought you did great." And in one sentence, he lifted me, put me back on my feet, and taught me that leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure.

When 9/11 came, 46 year-old Brig. Gen. McChrystal sees a whole new world. First, the things that are obvious, that you're familiar with: the environment changed -- the speed, the scrutiny, the sensitivity of everything now is so fast, sometimes it evolves faster than people have time to really reflect on it. But everything we do is in a different context. More importantly, the force that I led was spread over more than 20 countries. And instead of being able to get all the key leaders for a decision together in a single room and look them in the eye and build their confidence and get trust from them, I'm now leading a force that's dispersed, and I've got to use other techniques. I've got to use video teleconferences, I've got to use chat, I've got to use email, I've got to use phone calls -- I've got to use everything I can, not just for communication, but for leadership. A 22 year-old individual operating alone thousands of miles from me has got to communicate to me with confidence. I have to have trust in them and vice versa. And I also have to build their faith. And that's a new kind of leadership for me.

We had one operation where we had to coordinate it from multiple locations. An emerging opportunity came -- didn't have time to get everybody together. So we had to get complex intelligence together, we had to line up the ability to act. It was sensitive, we had to go up the chain of command, convince them that this was the right thing to do, and do all of this on electronic medium. We failed. The mission didn't work. And so now what we had to do, is I had to reach out to try to rebuild the trust of that force, rebuild their confidence -- me and them and them and me and our seniors and us as a force -- all without the ability to put a hand on a shoulder. Entirely new requirement.

Also, the people had changed. You probably think that the force that I led was all steely-eyed commandos with big knuckle fists carrying exotic weapons. In reality, much of the force I led looked exactly like you. It was men, women, young, old -- not just from military; from different organizations, many of them detailed to us just from a handshake. And so instead of giving orders, you're now building consensus and you're building a sense of shared purpose. Probably the biggest change was understanding that the generational difference, the ages, had changed so much. I went down to be with a Ranger platoon on an operation in Afghanistan, and on that operation, a sergeant in the platoon had lost about half his arm throwing a Taliban hand grenade back at the enemy after it had landed in his fire team. We talked about the operation, and then at the end I did what I often do with a force like that. I asked, "Where were you on 9/11?" And one young Ranger in the back -- his hair tussled and his face red and windblown from being in combat in the cold Afghan wind -- he said, "Sir, I was in the sixth grade." And it reminded me that we're operating a force that must have shared purpose and shared consciousness, and yet he has different experiences, in many cases a different vocabulary, a completely different skill set in terms of digital media than I do and many of the other senior leaders. And yet, we need to have that shared sense.

It also produced something which I call an inversion of expertise, because we had so many changes at the lower levels in technology and tactics and whatnot, that suddenly the things that we grew up doing wasn't what the force was doing anymore. So how does a leader stay credible and legitimate when they haven't done what the people you're leading are doing? And it's a brand new leadership challenge. And it forced me to become a lot more transparent, a lot more willing to listen, a lot more willing to be reverse-mentored from lower. And yet, again, you're not all in one room. Then another thing. There's an effect on you and on your leaders. There's an impact, it's cumulative. You don't reset, or recharge, your battery every time.

I stood in front of a screen one night in Iraq with one of my senior officers and we watched a fire fight from one of our forces. And I remembered his son was in our force. And I said, "John, where's your son? And how is he?" And he said, "Sir, he's fine. Thanks for asking." I said, "Where is he now?" And he pointed at the screen, he said, "He's in that fire fight." Think about watching your brother, father, daughter, son, wife in a fire fight in realtime and you can't do anything about it. Think about knowing that over time. And it's a new cumulative pressure on leaders.

And you have to watch and take care of each other. I probably learned the most about relationships. I learned they are the sinew which hold the force together. I grew up much of my career in the Ranger regiment. And every morning in the Ranger regiment, every Ranger -- and there are more than 2,000 of them -- says a six-stanza Ranger creed. You may know one line of it, it says, "I'll never leave a fallen comrade to fall into the hands of the enemy." And it's not a mindless mantra, and it's not a poem. It's a promise. Every Ranger promises every other Ranger now matter what happens, no matter what it costs me, if you need me, I'm coming. And every Ranger gets that same promise from every other Ranger. Think about it. It's extraordinarily powerful. It's probably more powerful than marriage vows. And they've lived up to it, which gives it special power. And so the organizational relationship that bonds them is just amazing.

And I learned personal relationships were more important than ever. We were in a difficult operation in Afghanistan in 2007, and an old friend of mine, that I had spent many years at various points of my career with -- godfather to one of their kids -- he sent me a note, just in an envelope, that had a quote from Sherman to Grant that said, "I knew if I ever got in a tight spot, that you would come, if alive." And having that kind of relationship, for me, turned out to be critical at many points in my career.

And I learned that you have to give that in this environment, because it's tough. That was my journey. I hope it's not over. I came to believe that a leader isn't good because they're right; they're good because they're willing to learn and to trust. This isn't easy stuff. It's not like that electronic abs machine where, 15 minutes a month, you get washboard abs. (Laughter) And it isn't always fair. You can get knocked down, and it hurts and it leaves scars. But if you're a leader, the people you've counted on will help you up. And if you're a leader, the people who count on you need you on your feet.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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