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Carlo Ratti 談能感知及回應的建築

Carlo Ratti: Architecture that senses and responds

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Carlo Ratti

2011年3月演講,2011年5月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

麻省理工學院的Carlo Ratti與他在SENSEable城市實驗室的團隊,藉由感測我們所創造的資訊來製造很酷的東西。他由被動的資訊集合-如我們打的電話,扔掉的垃圾-創造出城市生活的驚人視覺景觀。他和他的團隊由流動的水、飛行的光,並藉由感測器捕捉的簡單姿勢,創造出令人目眩的互動環境。

 

關於Carlo Ratti

Carlo Ratti領導麻省理工學院的SENSEable城市實驗室,藉由研究感測器及電子產品與環境建築產生關聯的方式來探索「城市即時面貌」。他正於新加坡開辦一個研究中心,是麻省理工學院率先領導之未來城市變遷項目的一部份。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Carlo Ratti是土木工程師及建築師,任教於麻省理工學院,並領導SENSEable城市實驗室。這個實驗室研究城市的環境建設-從街道網格到管線鋪設及垃圾運輸系統-使用已轉變我們對城市描述和理解方式的新型感測器和手持電子產品。

 

顛覆了這個過程的其他項目-利用感測器收集的資料實際創建令人目眩的新環境。例如數位水展覽館,水流能對遊客產生反應而分開,讓他們進入參觀。一個為2012年倫敦奧運所做的新項目,將一個看台似的建築轉變成一朵閃耀著互動藝術的雲。

 

欲暸解更多本演講中提及之項目資訊,請拜訪SENSEable @ TED >>

 

Carlo Ratti的英語網上資料

首頁:SENSEable City

其他:SENSEable @ TED

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Carlo Ratti 談能感知及回應的建築

大家午安,我給你們看一些東西。(笑聲)想想這個像素,一個飛行像素,這就是我們實驗室所說的感知設計,讓我談談關於這方面的事。如果你看這張圖片-我原籍是義大利,每個在義大利長大的男孩臥室牆上都掛著這張圖片,但我向你們展示這個的原因是,過去幾年,一級方程式賽車中發生了一些很有趣的事。之前有一段時間,如果你想贏得一級方程式賽車,你準備一筆錢,把這筆錢下注在一位好賽車手和一輛好車上,如果這輛車和這位賽車手夠好,你就贏得了比賽。現在,如果你想贏得比賽,你事實上也需要一些像這樣的東西,某種即時監看汽車的裝置,上面有幾千個感測器,來蒐集車的資料,將這些資料傳到系統中,然後處理,用以在蒐集資料的同時做出決定及改變,並將此結果傳回車上,這就是工程領域中所謂的即時控制系統。基本上,它是由兩個部分組成的系統,即感測和驅動部份。

 

有趣的是,現今即時控制系統開始進入我們的生活,我們的城市在過去幾年裡遍佈著網路與電子產品,電腦逐漸成為開放空間中的裝置,隨著電腦成為開放空間中的裝置,它們開始以不同方式反應,以便於感知和驅動。如果我們著眼於城市,這確實相當重要,這只是題外話,我想提一下,城市只佔地殼厚度的百分之二,但擁有百分之五十的世界人口,消耗百分之七十五的能源,並產生高達百分之八十的二氧化碳排放量。因此,如果我們能在城市中做些改變,這確實相當重要。除了城市,所有這些感測和驅動已進入我們的日常用品中。

 

這是來自Paola Antonelli正在策畫的展覽,今年夏季晚些時候在紐約現代藝術博物館舉行,名稱是「跟我說話」。我們的物品、我們的環境已開始向我們回應,在某種意義上,幾乎像是周遭的每個原子都逐漸變成感測器和驅動器,從根本上改變了我們人類和環境的互動,在某種意義上,幾乎像是米開朗基羅的舊時夢想,你知道,當米開朗基羅雕刻摩西,據說結束時,他拿起鐵鎚丟向摩西-事實上,你在底下仍可以看到一塊小鐵片,並喊道:「Perche non parli?你為什麼不說話?」今天,第一次的,我們的環境已開始對我們回應。我會展示幾個例子,同樣以我們對環境的感知和驅動這個概念。

 

我們開始感知吧!我想與大家分享的第一個項目,事實上是我們實驗室所做的第一批項目之一,這是四年半前在義大利,我們在那裡所做的,其實是用當時已被部署在全世界的一種新型網路,即手機網路,使用網路中由營運公司搜集的匿名和總體訊息,用以瞭解城市是如何運作的。那是一個幸運的夏天,在2006年,當時義大利在世界杯足球賽獲勝,你們有些人可能還記得,是義大利和法國的比賽,席丹在最後擊出一記頭槌,反正最後是義大利贏了。

 

(笑聲)

 

現在看看那天發生的事,只是透過監測發生在網路上的活動。你看到的這個是城市,可以看到羅馬競技場在中間;台伯河;這是早晨;在比賽前;上端可以看見時間軸;下午早些時候;散佈四處的人們打電話和移動;比賽開始-一片沉寂;法國得分;義大利得分;半場結束時人們打個簡短的電話,去洗手間。下半場;正常結束時間;第一次延長賽,第二次;席丹頂進頭槌的瞬間,義大利獲勝,好耶!(笑聲)(掌聲)嗯,那天晚上大家都去市中心慶祝,你可以看到這個大高峰。第二天,大家都去市中心迎接獲勝隊伍和總理,然後每個人都往下移動,你看到的影像是在一個叫Circo Massimo的地方,那是從羅馬時代開始,人們前去慶祝舉行大宴會的地方;你看到一天結束時的尖峰。好吧,這只是一個我們今天如何感知城市的例子,用一種我們僅在幾年前還無法做到的方式。

 

另一個簡單的、關於感知的例子,不是關於人,而是關於我們使用和消費的東西。今天,我們知道所有關於我們物品來自何處的資訊,這張地圖顯示出,所有組成Mac電腦的零件如何集合在一起,但我們對於物品的去向所知甚少,因此,在這個項目中,我們事實上開發了一些小標籤,追蹤垃圾在系統中的移動。所以,我們實際上由一些自願者開始,他們在西雅圖幫助我們,就在一年以前,在他們所扔掉的東西上掛標籤,不同類型的東西,如你們在這裡所見,他們最後會扔掉的東西,然後我們將一個小芯片,小標籤掛在垃圾上,然後開始追蹤它,以下是我們剛剛得到的結果。

 

(音樂)

 

從西雅圖,一星期後。藉由這些我們所知的資訊,在這個系統中有許多缺乏效率的地方,我們事實上可以用少得多的能量做同樣的事。這個資料之前沒有公開過,但其中有許多運輸上的浪費及多此一舉的事發生,但我們相信的另一件事是,事實上,如果我們看見我們每天扔掉的杯子沒有消失,它仍在地球上某個地方,我們每天扔掉的塑膠瓶仍然留在那裡,如果我們向人們展示這個,還可以促進一些行為的改變,這就是做這個項目的理由。

 

我麻省理工學院的同事Assaf Biderman,能告訴你們更多關於感知以及許多其他能用感知進行的美好事物,但我要進行到一開始所討論的第二部分,即驅動我們環境的部份。第一個項目是我們幾年前在西班牙的Zaragoza做的,它由市長所提出的一個問題開始。他對我們說,西班牙和南歐有一個美好的傳統,就是將水裝置在公共空間及建築中,問題是:要如何在其中加上新的科技?其中一個想法是由麻省理工在一間工作室開發的。想像這個管道上有閥門、電磁閥、控制鈕,將它開啟和關閉,可以創造出像是以水做像素的水幕,當這些像素落下時,可以在上面書寫,來顯示圖形、影像、文字,你甚至可以接近它,它會開啟讓你跳進去,如你在這張圖片上所見。

 

然後,我們將這個提議給Belloch市長,他非常喜歡,我們被委任在世博會入口設計一座建築物,我們稱其為數位水展覽館。整棟建築都是水做的,沒有門窗,但當你走近它時它會開啟,讓你進入。(音樂)屋頂也覆蓋著水,如果有一點風,如果你希望減少飛濺,事實上可以降低屋頂,或可以關閉這棟建築,整棟建築將會完全消失,像這樣。你知道,那些日子我總是想像,到了冬季時,當他們把屋頂降下來,去過那裡的人們會說,「他們拆了這棟建築。」不,他們沒有拆除它,只是當它下降時這棟建築幾乎消失無蹤。這是這棟建築物運行中的情形,你可以看到人們疑惑著裡面發生了什麼事,這是我自己試著不被打濕,測試打開水幕的感測器。

 

嗯,我該告訴你們有天晚上發生了什麼事。當所有感測器停止運作,但事實上那個夜晚甚至更有趣。所有Zaragoza當地的孩子來到這棟建築物中,因為參與這棟建築的方式變得相當不同。現在這棟建築不再會開啟、讓你進去,但建築物仍能藉由水來製造裂縫和孔洞,你可以跳過去而不被沾濕。

 

(影片)(人群吵雜聲)

 

這對我們來說非常有趣,因為身為建築師、工程師、設計師,我們總是想著別人會怎麼使用我們設計的東西,但實際情況總是令人難以預料,這就是我們製造能用以與人們互動的物品美妙之處。

 

這是這棟建築的圖片,其中有物理像素,以水製成的像素,以及在其上的投影,正是這個引發我們思考以下我將向你們展示的項目。這是,想像這些像素真的開始飛行,想像你可以用這些在空中移動的小直升機,每一個都帶著以變化燈光形成的小像素,幾乎像是可以在空間中移動的雲,請看影片。

 

(音樂)

 

所以,想像一架直升機,就像我們之前看過的,彼此一起同步移動,形成像這樣的雲,可形成一種活動的螢幕或顯示幕,像這樣,二維空間規則排列的影像,或規則排列,但在三維空間的影像,改變的是光,而不是像素的位置。你可以嘗試不同的類型,想像你的螢幕可以用不同的比例或大小,顯示不同類型的解析度,整個將成為一片3D像素雲,可以接近並穿越它,從許多方向來觀看。這是真正的Flyfire,經控制下降,形成跟之前一樣的V形,當你將燈打開,事實上看到的是這個,跟我們之前看到的一樣。想像一下,其中每一個都可以由人控制,可以讓每一個像素擁有來自人們的輸入值,來自人們的移動之類的。

 

我想首次在這裡向你們展示一些東西,我們與當今頂尖的芭蕾舞者之一Roberto Bolle合作,他是紐約大都會劇院及米蘭La Scala劇院的明星,實際捕捉他三維方向的動作,將其用於Flyfire的動作輸入值。你可以看到Roberto正跳著舞,在左側的像素中,可以看到其捕捉了不同解析度的動作,3D掃描和動作捕捉都是即時進行,所以你可以重建整個動作,可以從頭到尾將它重現,只要我們擁有這些像素,就可以操作它們,操作色彩和動作,重力和旋轉,因此,我們想用這個作為Flyfire的一個可能輸入值。

 

我想向你們展示我們進行中的最新項目,是我們正為倫敦奧運會所進行的工作,我們稱之為「雲」。這裡的想法是,想像一下,同樣的,我們可以讓人們參與一些事,並改變我們的環境,幾乎是以我們所謂的「浮雲」傳達,就像建穀倉一樣,但我們建的是雲。想像一下,你可以讓每個人為一個像素做點小貢獻,我認為過去幾十年已發生的顯著改變是,過去幾十年中,我們從物理世界過渡到數位世界,一切都被數位化,如知識,並使其藉由網路而獲得。

 

今天,歐巴馬的競選已首次向我們展示這一點,我們可以從數位世界,從網路的自我組織力量,回到物理世界。這可以是,在我們的案例中,我們想用它設計並做出一個符號,代表某些建立在城市中的東西,但明天它也可以用以解決今天來臨的挑戰。思考一下氣候變化或二氧化碳排放量,我們如何從數位世界回到物理世界。這個想法是,我們可以真正使人們一起參與這件事,集體的。

 

這雲層是一片片的雲,同樣的由像素組成,跟真正的雲組成方式相同,是由粒子組成的雲,這些粒子是水,我們的雲是像素雲。這是倫敦的物理結構,但以像素覆蓋,你可以在其中移動,擁有不同種類的體驗,你可以真正從下方看見,共享重要的時刻,為了2012年奧運會及將來,真正使用它作為一種與社群聯繫的方式,無論是天空裡的物理雲,還是某種你可以爬上它頂端的裝置,像是倫敦的新山頂,你可以進入它的內部,是夜晚中一種新的數位燈塔,但最重要的是,對任何爬上頂端的人來說,是一種新的體驗。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

With his team at SENSEable City Lab, MIT's Carlo Ratti makes cool things by sensing the data we create. He pulls from passive data sets -- like the calls we make, the garbage we throw away -- to create surprising visualizations of city life. And he and his team create dazzling interactive environments from moving water and flying light, powered by simple gestures caught through sensors.

About Carlo Ratti

Carlo Ratti directs the MIT SENSEable City Lab, which explores the "real-time city" by studying the way sensors and electronics relate to the built environment. He's opening a research center in… Full bio and more links

Transcript

Good afternoon, everybody. I've got something to show you. (Laughter) Think about this as a pixel, a flying pixel. This is what we call, in our lab, sensible design. Let me tell you a bit about it. Now if you take this picture -- I'm Italian originally, and every boy in Italy grows up with this picture on the wall of his bedroom. But the reason I'm showing you this is that something very interesting happened in Formula 1 racing over the past couple of decades. Now some time ago, if you wanted to win a Formula 1 race, you take a budget, and you bet your budget on a good driver and a good car. And if the car and the driver were good enough, then you'd win the race. Now today, if you want to win the race, actually you need also something like this -- something that monitors the car in real time, has a few thousand sensors collecting information from the car, transmitting this information into the system, and then processing it and using it in order to go back to the car with decisions and changing things in real time as information is collected. This is what, in engineering terms, you would call a real time control system. And basically, it's a system made of two components -- a sensing and an actuating component.

What is interesting today is that real time control systems are starting to enter our lives. Our cities, over the past few years, just have been blanketed with networks, electronics. They're becoming like computers in open air. And, as computers in open air, they're starting to respond in a different way to be able to be sensed and to be actuated. If we fix cities, actually it's a big deal. Just as an aside, I wanted to mention, cities are only two percent of the Earth's crust, but they are 50 percent of the world's population. They are 75 percent of the energy consumption -- up to 80 percent of CO2 emissions. So if we're able to do something with cities, that's a big deal. Beyond cities, all of this sensing and actuating is entering our everyday objects.

That's from an exhibition Paola Antonelli is organizing at MoMA later this year, during the summer. It's called "Talk to Me." Well our objects, our environment, is starting to talk back to us. In a certain sense, it's almost as if every atom out there were becoming both a sensor and an actuator. And that is radically changing the interaction we have as humans with the environment out there. In a certain sense, it's almost as in the old dream of Michelangelo ... you know, when Michelangelo sculpted the Moses, at the end it said that he took the hammer, threw it at the Moses -- actually you can still see a small chip underneath -- and said, shouted, "Perché non parli? Why don't you talk?" Well today, for the first time, our environment is starting to talk back to us. And I'll show just a few examples -- again, with this idea of our sensing our environment and actuating.

Let's starting with sensing. Well the first project I wanted to share with you is actually one of the first projects by our lab. It was four and a half years ago in Italy. And what we did there was actually use a new type of network at the time that had been deployed all across the world -- that's a cellphone network -- and use anonymous and aggregated information from that network, that's collected anyway by the operator in order to understand how the city works. The summer was a lucky summer -- 2006. It's when Italy won the soccer World Cup. Some of you might remember, it was Italy and France playing, and then Zidane at the end, the headbutt. And anyway, Italy won at the end.

(Laughter)

Now look at what happened that day just by monitoring activity happening on the network. Here you see the city. You see the Colosseum in the middle, the river Tiber. It's morning, before the match. You see the timeline on the top. Early afternoon, people here and there making calls and moving. The match begins -- silence. France scores. Italy scores. Halftime, people make a quick call and go to the bathroom. Second half. End of normal time. First overtime, second. Zidane, the headbutt in a moment. Italy wins. Yeah. (Laughter) (Applause) Well, that night, everybody went to celebrate in the center. You saw the big peak. The following day, everybody went to the center to meet the winning team and the prime minister at the time. And then everybody moved down. You see the image of the place called Circo Massimo, where, since Roman times, people go to celebrate -- to have a big party, and you see the peak at the end of the day. Well, that's just one example of how we can sense the city today, in a way that we couldn't have done just a few years ago.

Another quick example about sensing: it's not about people, but about things we use and consume. Well today, we know everything about where our objects come from. This is a map that shows you all the chips that form a Mac computer, how they came together. But we know very little about where things go. So in this project, we actually developed some small tags to track trash as it moves through the system. So we actually started with a number of volunteers who helped us in Seattle, just over a year ago, to tag what they were throwing away -- different types of things, as you can see here -- things they would throw away anyway. Then we put a little chip, little tag, onto the trash and then started following it. Here are the results we just obtained.

(Music)

From Seattle ... after one week. With this information we realized there's a lot of inefficiencies in the system. We can actually do the same thing with much less energy. This data was not available before. But there's a lot of wasted transportation and convoluted things happening. But the other thing is that we believe that if we see everyday that the cup we're throwing away, it doesn't disappear, it's still somewhere on the planet. And the plastic bottle we're throwing away everyday still stays there. And if we show that to people, then we can also promote some behavioral change. So that was the reason for the project.

My colleague at MIT, Assaf Biderman, he could tell you much more about sensing and many other wonderful things we can do with sensing, but I wanted to go to the second part we discussed at the beginning, and that's actuating our environment. And the first project is something we did a couple of years ago in Zaragoza, Spain. It started with a question by the mayor of the city, who came to us saying that Spain and Southern Europe have a beautiful tradition of using water in public space, in architecture. And the question was: How could technology, new technology, be added to that? And one of the ideas that was developed at MIT in a workshop was, imagine this pipe, and you've got valves, solenoid valves, tabs, opening and closing. You create like a water curtain with pixels made of water. If those pixels fall, you can write on it, you can show patterns, images, text. And you can even approach it, and it will open up to let you jump through, as you see in this image.

Well, we presented this to Mayor Belloch. He liked it very much. And we got a commission to design a building at the entrance of the expo. We called it Digital Water Pavilion. The whole building is made of water. There's no doors or windows, but when you approach it, it will open up to let you in. (Music) The roof also is covered with water. And if there's a bit of wind, if you want to minimize splashing, you can actually lower the roof. Or you could close the building, and the whole architecture will disappear, like in this case. You know, these days, you always get images during the winter when they take the roof down of people who have been there and said, "They demolished the building." No, they didn't demolish it, just when it goes down, the architecture almost disappears. Here's the building working. You see the person puzzled about what was going on inside. And here was myself trying not to get wet, testing the sensors that open the water.

Well I should tell you now what happened one night when all of the sensors stopped working. But actually that night, it was even more fun. All the kids from Zaragoza came to the building, because the way of engaging with the building became something different. Not anymore a building that would open up to let you in, but a building that would still make cuts and holes through the water, and you had to jump without getting wet.

(Video) (Crowd Noise)

And that, for us, was very interesting, because, as architects, as engineers, as designers, we always think about how people will use the things we design. But then reality's always unpredictable. And that's the beauty of doing things that are used and interact with people.

Here is an image then of the building with the physical pixels, the pixels made of water, and then projections on them. And this is what led us to think about the following project I'll show you now. That's, imagine those pixels could actually start flying. Imagine you could have small helicopters that move in the air, and then each of them with a small pixel in changing lights -- almost as a cloud that can move in space. Here is the video.

(Music)

So imagine one helicopter, like the one we saw before, moving with others, in synchrony. So you can have this cloud. You can have a kind of flexible screen or display, like this -- a regular configuration in two dimensions. Or in regular, but in three dimensions, where the thing that changes is the light, not the pixels' position. You can play with a different type. Imagine your screen could just appear in different scales or sizes, different types of resolution. But then the whole thing can be just a 3D cloud of pixels that you can approach and move through it and see from many, many directions. Here is the real Flyfire control and going down to form the regular V as before. When you turn on the light, actually you see this. So the same as we saw before. And imagine each of them then controlled by people. You can have each pixel having an input that comes from people, from people's movement, or so and so.

I want to show you something here for the first time. We've been working with Roberto Bolle, one of today's top ballet dancers -- the étoile at Metropolitan in New York and La Scala in Milan -- and actually captured his movement in 3D in order to use it as an input for Flyfire. And here you can see Roberto dancing. You see on the left the pixels, the different resolutions being captured. It's both 3D scanning in real time and motion capture. So you can reconstruct a whole movement. You can go all the way through. But then, once we have the pixels, then you can play with them and play with color and movement and gravity and rotation. So we want to use this as one of the possible inputs for Flyfire.

I wanted to show you the last project we are working on. It's something we're working on for the London Olympics. It's called The Cloud. And the idea here is, imagine, again, we can involve people in doing something and changing our environment -- almost to impart what we call cloud raising -- like barn raising, but with a cloud. Imagine you can have everybody make a small donation for one pixel. And I think what is remarkable that has happened over the past couple of years is that, over the past couple of decades, we went from the physical world to the digital one. This has been digitizing everything, knowledge, and making that accessible through the Internet.

Now today, for the first time -- and the Obama campaign showed us this -- we can go from the digital world, from the self-organizing power of networks, to the physical one. This can be, in our case, we want to use it for designing and doing a symbol. That means something built in a city. But tomorrow it can be, in order to tackle today's approaching challenges -- think about climate change or CO2 emissions -- how we can go from the digital world to the physical one. So the idea that we can actually involve people in doing this thing together, collectively.

The cloud is a cloud, again, made of pixels, in the same way as the real cloud is a cloud made of particles. And those particles are water, where our cloud is a cloud of pixels. It's a physical structure in London, but covered with pixels. You can move inside, have different types of experiences. You can actually see from underneath, sharing the main moments for the Olympics in 2012 and beyond, and really using it as a way to connect with the community. So both the physical cloud in the sky and something you can go to the top [of], like London's new mountaintop. You can enter inside it. And a kind of new digital beacon for the night -- but most importantly, a new type of experience for anybody who will go to the top.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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