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Arvind Gupta 談將垃圾變成可供學習的玩具

Arvind Gupta: Turning trash into toys for learning

 

Photo of three lions
hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Arvind Gupta

2010年12月演講,2011年4月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

在INK Conference中,Arvind Gupta分享簡單卻驚人的計劃-將垃圾轉變成充滿娛樂效果、設計精美的玩具,讓孩子們可以在學習科學和設計的基本原理中建立自我。

 

關於Arvind Gupta

科學教育家Arvind Gupta使用簡單的玩具教學。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Arvind Gupta是印度的玩具發明家及兒童科學教育推廣者。他用垃圾和日常用品創造簡單的玩具,並以一場令人難忘的親手示範表演說明了科學和設計原理。他任職於印度Pune的兒童科學中心。

 

他著有許多書籍,有英文、北印度語及其他印度語言版本,包括《小玩具》,《由廢棄物學習科學》,以及《科學的技巧及驚喜:Arvind Gupta的壓箱寶》。他的低成本科學和科技教育設備經由聯合國教科文組織(UNESCO)製作成可供下載的PDF說明檔案。他的許多玩具設計說明已攝錄成一分鐘的影片

 

Arvind Gupta的英語網上資料

首頁:ArvindGuptaToys.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Arvind Gupta 談將垃圾變成可供學習的玩具

我叫Arvind Gupta,是一位玩具製作者,過去30年來我一直在製作玩具。70年代初,我還在上大學,那是一段非常革命性的時期,可以這麼說,是一個政治動亂期,學生走上巴黎街頭起義反抗權威;美國因反越戰運動、民權運動而動盪不安;在印度,我們有納薩爾巴里運動,即農民武裝運動,但你們知道,當社會處於政治動盪時期,會釋放出大量的能量,印度的民族運動證明了這一點。很多人辭去高薪職位,投身於民族運動。70年代初,印度最偉大的計畫之一,是在鄉村學校中振興基礎科學。

 

有個叫Anil Sadgopal的人,在加州理工學院取得博士學位,並返國在印度最先進的研究機構,TIFR,擔任分子生物學家。31歲的她,無法將她所做的那種研究,跟一般人的生活聯繫起來,於是,她設計並開辦了鄉村科學計畫,很多人因此深受鼓舞。這個70年代初的口號是,「接近人群,參與他們的生活,愛他們,從他們所知開始,建立在他們所擁有的基礎之上。」這多少是種定義型的口號。

 

嗯,我花了一年時間,我加入Telco,製造TATA卡車,在相當接近Pune的地方。我在那裡工作了兩年,我意識到,我不是適合造卡車的人。人們常常不知道自己想要做什麼,但知道你不想做什麼就算很好了。所以我休息了一年,然後加入這個鄉村科學計畫,這是一個轉捩點。這是個非常小的村莊,每週一次的集市,那裡的人,每周只有一次,把所有貨品拿出來擺,所以我說,「我要在這裡待一年。」所以我把在路邊擺攤賣的東西每一種買一樣,我發現了一個東西,是這個黑色橡膠。

 

這就是所謂的氣嘴管,當你給自行車打氣時就會用到。而當中一些模型-你拿起一段氣嘴管,將兩根火柴放在裡面,可製造出一個活動連結物。這是氣嘴管組成的連結物,從教導角度開始,銳角、直角、鈍角、平角,這就像它們本身組成的小連結物。如果你拿三個,讓它們連成一圈,可以組成一個三角形;使用四個,可組成一個四邊形;可以組成五邊形、六邊形,可以組成所有種類的多邊形,它們擁有一些很美妙的特性,例如,看這個六邊形,它就像一隻變形蟲,不斷改變它的外形,你可以把這裡拉出,就變成一個矩形,把它推向一邊,就變一個平行四邊形,但這非常不固定,例如,看這個五邊形,把這邊拉出,它變成船狀的梯形,將它推出,它變成房子的形狀,這樣就變成一個等腰三角形,同樣的,非常不固定。這個四邊形看起來非常方正,將它輕輕一推,就變成菱形、風箏形。但如果給孩子一個三角形,他就變不出什麼花樣。

 

為什麼要使用三角形?因為三角形是唯一的剛性結構,我們不能造一座四邊形的橋,因為當火車駛來時,它會開始晃動,一般人都知道這點,因為如果你到一個印度村莊去,他們可能沒唸過工學院,但沒人會建一個像這樣的屋頂,因為如果他們將磚瓦放在上面,它將會被壓垮。他們總是建造三角形的屋頂,這是人類的科學。

 

如果在這裡戳一個洞,放入第三根火柴,就會得到一個T形連結。如果我將這三根腿柱插進這個三角形的三個頂點,就能組成一個四面體。所以,你可以組成這所有的3D結構,你可以組成像這樣的四面體,一旦做出了這些,就能組成一間小房子。將這個放在上面,你可以將四個、六個連接在一起,只需要一大堆這種小零件。現在,這是-你將六個連接在一起,組成一個二十面體,你可以隨意玩弄它,這變成一間圓頂小屋。這是1978年的時候,當時我是一位24歲的年輕工程師,我認為這比製造卡車好多了。(掌聲)事實上,如果你放入四個圓球,可以模擬甲烷的分子結構,CH4,四個氫原子即四面體的四個頂點,這個代表小小的碳原子。

 

從那時起,我只覺得自己相當榮幸,能走遍我祖國的2000所學校,鄉村學校、公立學校、市立學校、常春藤盟校,大多都邀請過我。每當我到一間學校去,見到孩子們眼裡閃耀著光芒,我看到了希望,看到他們臉上的快樂。孩子們想要製作東西,想要親自動手。

 

像這個,我們做了很多種唧筒,這是一個小唧筒,可以用來給氣球充氣,這是真正的唧筒,真的可以給氣球充氣。我們有一個口號:孩子們對玩具最好的玩法,就是弄壞它。因此,你所做的就是,這是一個富有激發性的聲明,這個舊自行車內胎和這個舊塑膠[不清楚],這個油口蓋可以很恰當地放入舊自行車內胎,這就是製作閥門的方法。放上一個小膠帶,這是單向通道,嗯,我們做了很多種唧筒,這是另一種,你拿一根吸管,只要將一根小木籤插入,插在中央,讓它分成兩半,現在,你要做的是將這兩條腿彎曲成一個三角形,在周圍纏上一些膠帶,就變成一個泵。現在,如果你用這個泵,它就像一個很棒的噴頭,像一個離心機,如果你旋轉某個東西,它會向外飛出。

 

(掌聲)

 

根據這個-如果你[不清楚],她會用扇葉樹頭櫚葉來做這個東西。我們的許多民間玩具蘊含很美妙的科學原理,如果你旋轉某個東西,它會向外飛出,如果我用雙手轉,就會看見這個有趣的飛人先生。好的,這是一個用紙做的玩具,很神奇,上面有四張圖片,可以看到昆蟲、青蛙、蛇、老鷹、蝴蝶,青蛙、蛇、老鷹,這是一張你可以用來跳舞的紙,於1928年由一位哈佛大學的數學家設計,他叫做Arthur StoneMartin Gardner,在他許多著作中都有提到,但孩子們從中得到很多樂趣,他們可以學習到食物鏈,昆蟲被青蛙吃,青蛙被蛇吃,蛇被老鷹吃,這張紙可以,如果你有整張的複印紙,A4大小的紙,你可以在市立學校、公立學校,一張紙、一根比例尺和一支鉛筆,不用膠水,不用剪刀,三分鐘內就可以折出這個,你能用它來做什麼只受限於你的想像而已。如果用一張較小的紙,就做出較小折曲式圖形,用較大的紙,就能做出較大的圖形。

 

這是一支鉛筆,上面刻有一些溝槽,在這裡放一個小扇葉,這是個有百年歷史的玩具,有六篇關於這個的重要研究論文,這裡也有一些溝槽,你們可以看到,如果我用一個簧片-如果我摩擦它,會產生非常神奇的效果,有六篇關於這個的重要研究論文,事實上,費曼幼年時對這個非常著迷,他寫了一篇關於這個的論文,做這個不需要三十億美元的強子對撞機,每個孩子都玩得到,也都會樂在其中。如果你想放上一個色盤,七種顏色全都會混在一起,這就是牛頓在大約400年前提到的,白光是由七種顏色混成,只要旋轉這個就可以知道。

 

這是一根吸管,我們做的是,只要將兩端用膠帶密封,剪掉右下角和底端的左下角,所以對角會有洞,這裡有一個小洞,這是一種吹管,我只要把這個放進這裡,這裡有一個洞,我把它蓋住,花很少的錢就可以做,孩子們會覺得非常有趣。

 

我們所做的是製造一個非常簡單的電動馬達,這是地球上最簡單的馬達,其中最昂貴的東西就是裡面的電池,如果有個電池,做這個只要花五分錢,這是一個舊自行車內胎加上一根寬橡皮筋,兩個安全別針,這是一個永久磁鐵,當電流通過線圈,這變成一個電磁鐵,就是這兩個磁鐵的交互作用使這個馬達旋轉,我們做了三萬個。

 

老師們教導科學很多年,只是講述並模糊了科學的定義,當老師們動手做,孩子們動手做,你可以看見他們眼中的光芒,他們因瞭解科學而興奮不已,這樣的科學不是有錢人的遊戲,在一個民主國家,科學必須延伸到最受限、最邊緣化的兒童,這項計劃開始於16所學校,並擴展到1500所公立學校,超過10萬名兒童用這種方式學習科學,我們只是試著看到可能性。

 

請看,這是利樂包,從環境的角度來看這所有的材料,它有六層-三層塑膠、三層鋁,全被密封在一起,它們融合在一起,你無法將它們分開,只能做成像這樣一個小網狀結構,將它們折疊並黏在一起,做成一個二十面體。因此,一些垃圾,一些讓所有海鳥噎住的東西,你可以將其回收,做成一個非常有趣-在科學中所有模型都可用像這樣的東西製作。

 

這是一根小吸管,你要做的就只是剪掉這裡兩個角,它會變成像是小鱷魚的嘴,將它放在你嘴裡,吹氣(鳴聲)有人說,這是個讓孩子開心、老師羨慕的東西,你無法看見聲音如何產生,因為這東西在我嘴裡振動,我現在將這個放在外面,不是吹氣,而是將空氣吸入。(鳴聲)因此,不需用線圈的振動模糊了聲音產生的觀念。另一種方式則是你不斷地吹,不斷吹出聲音,然後不斷地剪掉,它會產生非常棒的效果。(鳴聲)(掌聲)當你剪成非常小的一段,(鳴聲)這是孩子們教的,你也可以試試。

 

在我繼續講述前,有件值得分享的事,這是一個對盲童深具意義的觸板,這是魔鬼粘,這是我的畫板,這是我的畫筆,這基本上是一個膠卷盒,這基本上像是漁夫用的線,釣魚線,這是毛線,如果我轉這個把手,所有毛線都會被捲進去,盲童可以在這上面畫畫,毛線會黏在魔鬼粘上。我們國家有12萬個盲童,(掌聲)他們生活在黑暗的世界中,這對他們來說是個福音,那裡有個工廠使我們兒童變盲,不提供他們食物、維生素A,但這已成為他們的福音,沒有專利權,任何人都可以製作。

 

這非常簡單。你們可以看到,這是發電機,一個手搖發電機,這是兩個磁鐵,這是一個大滑輪,以橡膠當做兩片舊CD的夾層製成,加上小滑輪和兩個強力磁鐵,這個纖維,形成連接著一個LED的線圈,如果我旋轉這個滑輪,小滑輪會轉得快多了,將會產生一個旋轉的磁場,當然,磁力線會被截過,就會產生力量,你們可以看到,這個LED將會發光,因此,這是一個小手搖發電機。

 

嗯,這是,同樣的,只是一個環,有著鋼製螺絲帽的鋼環,你可以做的就是,如果你轉動它,它們會繼續前進,想像一群孩子站成一圈,只是等待著鋼圈傳到他們手上,他們絕對會開心的玩著這個。

 

最後,我們還可以做的是,用大量的舊報紙做帽子,這配得上Sachin Tendulkar(板球明星),是一頂很棒的板球帽。當你初次見到尼赫魯和甘地,這是尼赫魯帽-只用了半張報紙,我們用報紙做了很多玩具,這是其中之一,這是-你們可以看到,這是一隻振翅的鳥,所有的舊報紙,我們都可以剪成這樣的小方形,如果你將這些鳥當中的一隻-日本孩子做這種鳥有很多年歷史了,你們可以看到,這是一個小扇尾鳥玩具。

 

最後,我用一個小故事結束,故事名稱為「船長帽的故事」。這是一艘航海船的船長,航行得非常緩慢,船上有大量乘客,他們感到無聊,因此船長邀他們到甲板上,「穿上你們五顏六色的衣服,唱歌跳舞,我會提供你們好吃好喝的。」船長每天都戴著一頂帽子,穿上盛裝,第一天是一頂巨大的傘狀帽,就像船長帽。那天晚上,當乘客睡覺時,他將它再摺一次,第二天,他會戴起消防員的帽子,後面有個小突起,就像一頂設計師帽,因為它能保護脊椎。而第二天晚上,他用同一頂帽子,將它再摺一次,到了第三天,這將是一頂探險帽,就像探險家的帽子。第三個晚上,他將它再摺兩次,這是一頂非常著名的帽子,如果你看過任何一部寶萊塢電影,這就是警察戴的,叫做zapalu帽,它已一躍而成我們的國際榮耀。

 

我們可別忘了他是這艘船的船長,所以這是一條船,到了故事結尾,每個人都非常享受這段旅途,他們正唱著歌、跳著舞,突然間,一陣暴風和巨浪襲來,船只能隨著波浪上下起伏。一陣大浪襲來,拍打在船頭,將它打落;另一陣大浪襲來,拍打在船尾,將它打落;第三陣大浪襲來,淹沒了船橋,將它打落;船沉了,船長失去了一切,只剩下一件救生衣。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

At the INK Conference, Arvind Gupta shares simple yet stunning plans for turning trash into seriously entertaining, well-designed toys that kids can build themselves -- while learning basic principles of science and design.

About Arvind Gupta

Science educator Arvind Gupta uses simple toys to teach. Full bio and more links

Transcript

My name is Arvind Gupta, and I'm a toymaker. I've been making toys for the last 30 years. The early 70s, I was in college. It was a very revolutionary time. It was a political ferment, so to say -- students out in the streets of Paris, revolting against authority. America was jolted by the anti-Vietnam movement, the Civil Rights movement. In India, we had the Naxalite movement, the [unclear] movement. But you know, when there is a political churning of society, it unleashes a lot of energy. The National Movement of India was testimony to that. Lots of people resigned from well-paid jobs and jumped into the National Movement. Now in the early 70s, one of the great programs in India was to revitalize primary science in village schools.

There was a person, Anil Sadgopal, did a Ph.D. from Caltech and returned back as a molecular biologist in India's cutting-edge research institute, the TIFR. At 31, he was not able to relate the kind of [unclear] research, which she was doing with the lives of the ordinary people. So she designed and went and started a village science program. Many people were inspired by this. The slogan of the early 70s was "Go to the people. Live with them, love them. Start from what they know. Build on what they have." This was kind of the defining slogan.

Well I took one year. I joined Telco, made TATA trucks, pretty close to Pune. I worked there for two years, and I realized that I was not born to make trucks. Often one doesn't know what one wants to do, but it's good enough to know what you don't want to do. So I took one year off, and I went to this village science program. And it was a turning point. It was a very small village -- a weekly bazaar where people, just once in a week, they put in all the vats. So I said, "I'm going to spend a year over here." So I just bought one specimen of everything which was sold on the roadside. And one thing which I found was this black rubber.

This is called a cycle valve tube. When you pump in air in a bicycle, you use a bit of this. And some of these models -- so you take a bit of this cycle valve tube, you can put two matchsticks inside this, and you make a flexible joint. It's a joint of tubes. You start by teaching angles -- an acute angle, a right angle, an obtuse angle, a straight angle. It's like its own little coupling. If you have three of them, and you loop them together, well you make a triangle. With four, you make a square, you make a pentagon, you make a hexagon, you make all these kind of polygons. And they have some wonderful properties. If you look at the hexagon, for instance, it's like an amoeba, which is constantly changing its own profile. You can just pull this out, this becomes a rectangle. You give it a push, it becomes a parallelogram. But this is very shaky. Look at the pentagon, for instance, pull this out -- it becomes a boat shape trapezium. Push it and it becomes house shaped. This becomes an isosceles triangle -- again, very shaky. This square might look very square and prim. Give it a little push -- this becomes a rhombus. It becomes kite-shaped. But give a child a triangle, he can't do a thing to it.

Why use triangles? Because triangles are the only rigid structures. We can't make a bridge with squares, because the train would come, it would start doing a jig. Ordinary people know about this, because if you go to a village in India, they might not have gone to engineering college, but no one makes a roof placed like this. Because if they put tiles on top, it's just going to crash. They always make a triangular roof. Now this is people science.

And if you were to just poke a hole over here and put a third matchstick, you'll get a T joint. And if I were to poke all the three legs of this in the three vertices of this triangle, I would make a tetrahedron. So you make all these 3D shapes. You make a tetrahedron like this. And once you make these, you make a little house. Put this on top. You can make a joint of four. You can make a joint of six. You just need a ton. Now this was -- you make a joint of six, you make an icosahedron. You can play around with it. This makes an igloo. Now this is in 1978. I was a 24 year-old young engineer. And I thought this was so much better than making trucks. (Applause) If you, as a matter of fact, put four marbles inside, you simulate the molecular structure of methane, CH4. Four atoms of hydrogen, the four points of the tetrahedron, which means the little carbon atom.

Well since then, I just thought that I've been really privileged to go to over 2,000 schools in my country -- village schools, government schools, municipal schools, ivy league schools -- I've been invited by most of them. Every time I go to a school, I see a gleam in the eyes of the children. I see hope. I see happiness in their faces. Children want to make things. Children want to do things.

Now this, we make lots and lots of pumps. Now this is a little pump with which you could inflate a balloon. It's a real pump. You could actually pop the balloon. And we have a slogan that the best thing a child can do with a toy is to break it. So all you do is -- it's a very kind of provocative statement -- this old bicycle tube and this old plastic [unclear] This filling cap will go very snugly into an old bicycle tube. And this is how you make a valve. You put a little sticky tape. This is one way traffic. Well we make lots and lots of pumps. And this is the other one -- that you just take a straw, and you just put a stick inside, you make two half-cuts. Now this is what you do, is you bend both these legs into a triangle, and you just wrap some tape around. And this is the pump. And now, if you have this pump, it's like a great, great sprinkler. It's like a centrifuge. If you spin something, it tends to fly out.

(Applause)

Well in terms of -- if you're [unclear], she would make this with the palmyra leaf. Many of our folk toys have great science principles. If you spin something, it tends to fly out. If I do it with both hands, you can see this fun Mr. Flying Man. Right. This is a toy which is made from paper. It's amazing. There are four pictures. You see insects, you see frogs, snakes, eagles, butterflies, frogs, snakes, eagles. Here's a paper which you could [unclear] -- designed by a mathematician at Harvard in 1928, Arthur Stone, documented by Martin Gardner in many of his many books. But this is great fun for children. They all study about the food chain. The insects are eaten by the frogs; the frogs are eaten by the snakes; the snakes are eaten by the eagles. And this can be, if you had a whole photocopy paper, A4 size paper -- you could be in a municipal school, you could be in a government school -- a paper, a scale and a pencil, no glue, no scissors. In three minutes, you just fold this up. And what you could use it for is just limited by your imagination. If you take a smaller paper, you make a smaller flexigon. With a bigger one, you make a bigger one.

Now this is a pencil with a few slots over here. And you put a little fan here. And this is a hundred year-old toy. There have been six major research papers on this. There's some grooves over here, you can see. And if I take a reed -- if I rub this, something very amazing happens. Six major research papers on this. As a matter of fact, Feynman, as a child, was very fascinated by this. He wrote a paper on this. And you don't need a three billion-dollar Hadron collider for doing this. This is there for every child, and every child can enjoy this. If you want to put a colored disk, well all these seven colors coalesce. And this is what Newton talked about 400 years back, that white light's made of seven colors, just by spinning this around.

This is a straw. What we've done, we've just sealed both the ends with tape, nipped the right corner and the bottom left corner, so there's holes in the opposite corners, there's a little hole over here. This is a kind of a blowing straw. I just put this inside this. There's a hole here, and I shut this. And this costs very little money to make -- great fun for children to do.

What we do is make a very simple electric motor. Now this is the simplest motor on Earth. The most expensive thing is the battery inside this. If you have a battery, it costs five cents to make it. This is an old bicycle tube, which gives you a broad rubber band, two safety pins. This is a permanent magnet. Whenever current flows through the coil, this becomes an electromagnet. It's the interaction of both these magnets which makes this motor spin. We made 30,000.

Teachers you have been teaching science for donkey years, they just muck up the definition and they spit it out. When teachers make it, children make it. You can see a gleam in their eye. They get a thrill of what science is all about. And this science is not a rich man's game. In a democratic country, science must reach to our most oppressed, to the most marginalized children. This program started with 16 schools and spread to 1,500 government schools. Over 100,000 children learn science this way. And we're just trying to see possibilities.

Look, this is the tetrapak -- awful materials from the point of view of the environment. There are six layers -- three layers of plastic, aluminum -- which are are sealed together. They are fused together, so you can't separate them. Now you can just make a little network like this and fold them and stick them together and make an icosahedron. So something which is trash, which is choking all the seabirds, you could just recycle this into a very, very joyous -- all the platonic solids in science can be made with things like this.

This is a little straw, and what you do is you just nip two corners here, and this becomes like a baby crocodile's mouth. You put this in your mouth, and you blow. (Honk) It's a child's delight, a teacher's envy, as they say. You're not able to see how the sound is produced, because the thing which is vibrating goes inside my mouth. I'm going to keep this outside, to blow out. I'm going to suck in air. (Honk) So no one actually needs to muck up the production of sound with wire vibrations. The other that is you keep blowing at it, keep making the sound, and you keep cutting it. And something very, very nice happens. (Honk) (Applause) And when you get a very small one -- (Honk) This is what the kids teach you. You can also do this.

Well before I go any further, this is something worth sharing. This is a touching slate meant for blind children. This is strips of Velcro, this is my drawing slate, and this is my drawing pen, which is basically a film box. It's basically like a fisherman's line, a fishing line. And this is wool over here. If I crank the handle, all the wool goes inside. And what a blind child can do is to just draw this. Wool sticks on Velcro. There are 12 million blind children in our country -- (Applause) who live in a world of darkness. And this has come as a great boon to them. There's a factory out there making our children blind, not able to provide them with food, not able to provide them with vitamin A. But this has come as a great boon for them. There are no patents. Anyone can make it.

This is very, very simple. You can see, this is the generator. It's a crank generator. These are two magnets. This is a large pulley made by sandwiching rubber between two old CDs. Small pulley and two strong magnets. And this fiber turns a wire attached an LED. If I spin this pulley, the small one's going to spin much faster. There will be a spinning magnetic field. Lines, of course, would be cut, the force will be generated. And you can see, this LED is going to glow. So this is a small crank generator.

Well, this is, again, it's just a ring, a steel ring with steel nuts. And what you can do is just, if you give it a twirl, well they just keep going on. And imagine a bunch of kids standing in a circle and just waiting for the steel ring to be passed on. And they'd be absolutely joyous playing with this.

Well in the end, what we can also do, we use a lot of old newspapers to make caps. This is worthy of Sachin Tendulkar. It's a great cricket cap. When first you see Nehru and Gandhi, this is the Nehru cap -- just half a newspaper. We make lots of toys with newspaper, and this is one of them. And this is -- you can see -- this is a flapping bird. All of our old newspapers, we cut them into little squares. And if you have one of these birds -- children in Japan have been making this bird for many, many years. And you can see, this is a little fantail bird.

Well in the end, I'll just end with a story. This is called "The Captain's Hat Story." The captain was a captain of a sea-going ship. It goes very slowly. And there were lots of passengers on the ship, and they were getting bored, so the captain invited them on the deck. "Wear all your colorful clothes and sing and dance, and I'll provide you with good food and drinks." And the captain would wear a cap everyday and join in the regalia. The first day, it was a huge umbrella cap, like a captain's cap. That night, when the passengers would be sleeping, he would give it one more fold, and the second day, he would be wearing a fireman's cap -- with a little shoot just like a designer cap, because it protects the spinal cord. And the second night, he would take the same cap and give it another fold. And the third day, it would be a shikari cap -- just like an adventurer's cap. And the third night, he would give it two more folds -- and this is a very, very famous cap, if you've seen any for our Bollywood films, this is what the policeman wears, it's called a zapalu cap. It's been catapulted to international glory.

And we must not forget that he was the captain of the ship. So that's a ship. And now the end. Everyone was enjoying the journey very much. They were singing and dancing. Suddenly there was a storm and huge waves. And all the ship can do is to dance and pitch along with the waves. A huge wave comes and slaps the front and knocks it down. And another one comes and slaps the aft and knocks it down. And there's a third one over here. This swallows the bridge and knocks it down. And the ship sinks, and the captain has lost everything, but for a life jacket.

Thank you so much.

(Applause)
 


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