MyOOPS開放式課程
請加入會員以使用更多個人化功能
來自全球頂尖大學的開放式課程,現在由世界各國的數千名義工志工為您翻譯成中文。請免費享用!
課程來源:TED
     

 

Julian Treasure 談噓!保持聽力健康的八個步驟

Julian Treasure: Shh! Sound health in 8 steps

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Julian Treasure

2010年7月演講,2010年9月在TEDGlobal 2010上線

 

翻譯:TED

編輯:朱學恆、洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Julian Treasure說,日益喧囂的世界正逐步啃噬我們的心靈健康,甚至危害我們的生命。他提出了八個步驟幫助我們緩解「聲音的侵襲」(從買副廉價耳塞開始),並修復我們與聲音之間的關係。

 

關於Julian Treasure

Julian Treasure研究聲音,並建議企業使用聲音的最佳方法。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Julian Treasure是Sound Agency主席,這是一間建議全球企業(包括辦公室、零售商、旅館)如何使用聲音的公司。他要求我們注意周遭的聲音。它如何使我們感到:富生產力、壓力、活力、渴求?

 

Treasure是《聲音企業》一書作者,經營一個同名的部落格,省思關於聽覺方面的事(並提供一個很棒且每日記錄的TEDGlobal 2009書面記錄)。80年代初期,Treasure是Transmitters這個深具影響力樂團的鼓手。

 

Julian Treasure的英語網上資料

Julian Treasure's blog: Sound Business

Book: Sound Business

Company: The Sound Agency

Twitter: @juliantreasure

Interesting: birdsongradio.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Julian Treasure 談噓!保持聽力健康的八個步驟

印度人說:「Nada brahma」,翻譯過來就是:「有聲世界」。在某方面來說,這很正確,因為萬物都會振動。事實上,你們坐在位子上的此時此刻依然在振動,你們身體的每一個部位都以不同頻率振動著,所以你們本身就是一組和弦,每個人都是一組獨立的和弦,或許健康的定義之一,就是這組和弦完全處於和諧狀態。人耳聽不見這組和弦,人耳確實能聽見不可思議的聲音,你的耳朵可以聽見十個八度音階,順帶一提,我們只會注意到一個八度音階。人耳永遠是打開的,不能自由開闔,甚至當你睡覺時,耳朵依然在運作。你能聽到的最小聲音,僅能讓你的鼓膜振動個4原子的直徑而已,你能聽到的最大聲音則是最小聲音的兆倍以上。

 

耳朵的功用不僅在於聽聲音,還有傾聽他人的話語。傾聽是一種主動的行為,而聽聲音是被動的,所以傾聽是我們必須費心進行的事,這就是我們與聲音的關係,但卻從未有人教過我們這個技巧。例如,你是否考慮過傾聽也有不同的姿勢、方位?我來舉二個例子。縮小範圍式傾聽是「有目標的傾聽」,將不相關的談話內容全都去除,只留下相關的。男性一般是採取縮小範圍式傾聽,所以當某位男性說,「我有個問題。」另一位男性會說,「解決方法是這樣,謝謝,下一位。」這就是我們談話的方式,男性同胞們,對吧?

 

另一方面是擴大範圍式傾聽,即「參與」傾聽,而非「有目標的傾聽」。傾聽者心中沒設定什麼目標,只是享受傾聽的過程。女性一般採取擴大範圍式傾聽,看看這二位女性,她們眼神接觸,面向對方,可能二人同時都在講話。(笑聲)男性同胞們,如果你們在這場演講中沒有其他收穫,至少試試擴大範圍式傾聽,這有助於改善你的人際關係。

 

傾聽的問題在於,我們聽到的許多聲音都是噪音,時時刻刻環繞著我們。根據歐盟的說法,像這樣的噪音會使歐洲人的健康與生活品質降低25%,約2%的歐洲人口,也就是1600萬,因為像這樣的噪音而干擾睡眠。噪音一年導致了二十萬歐洲人死亡,這確實是個嚴重的問題。

 

當你小時候,聽到不想聽的噪音時,會把手指塞進耳朵裡,自己哼歌。現在,你也可以做類似的動作,看起來還更酷些,就像用這種東西。但廣泛使用耳機的壞處是,會帶來三個相當嚴重的健康問題。第一個是Murray Schafer (作曲家)稱之為「音景分裂」的嚴重健康問題,也就是聽覺和視覺的錯置,所以生活中就多了些不存在於我們身邊的人的聲音。我認為長期處於音景分裂狀態下是相當不健康的。

 

濫用耳機造成的第二個問題就是音樂的壓縮。我們將音樂壓縮,以便裝進我們口袋裡的裝置中,這麼做得付出一些代價。聽聽看這個,這是一段未經壓縮的音樂。(音樂)現在再來聽聽同一段音樂,其中98%的內容因壓縮而被移除。(音樂)我真的希望你們當中有人能聽出這二者的差別,這就是壓縮音樂的代價。它會讓你疲倦、煩躁,必須藉由想像來彌補這些空白,你必須去想像這些聲音,長期下來對你的健康不利。

 

戴耳機會引發的第三個問題是:耳聾,即噪音引起的聽覺障礙。目前已有一千萬個美國人因各種原因而有這種聽覺障礙,但真正讓我們擔心的是,有16%的美國青少年,大約每六個青少年中就有一人,因濫用耳機而產生這種噪音引起的聽覺障礙。美國某間大學所做的一項研究顯示,有61%的大學新鮮人因濫用耳機而使聽覺受損,我們可能培養出全都有聽覺障礙的下一代,這確實是嚴重的問題。

 

我告訴你們三個保護聽力的簡單方法,請務必轉告你們的孩子。專業的聽力保護器很棒,我經常戴著。如果你打算使用耳機,請購買你能力範圍內品質最好的耳機,因為耳機品質好表示你不需將音量開得太大,如果別人大聲跟你說話你都聽不見,表示耳機音量開太大了。第三點,如果處於充滿噪音的環境中,不妨用手指塞住耳朵,或乾脆走開,請用這些方法保護你的耳朵。

 

讓我們遠離噪音,見見一些我鼓勵你們去見的朋友,W,W,B,就是風、水和鳥類。這些是隨機的大自然之聲,由許多單一的隨機聲音所組成,每一種都非常健康,每一種都是伴隨著人類演化至今的聲音。到戶外尋找這些聲音,它們對你有好處。這種聲音-也是。靜默是一種美感,伊利莎白時代的人們形容語言是一種裝飾過的沈默。我建議各位先試著遠離靜默,設計像藝術品般的音景,有前景、背景以及完美比例。設計聲音很有趣,如果你自己做不來,不妨請專業人士幫忙。聲音設計是未來的趨勢,我認為這是能讓我們改變存在於世界上之聲音的方法。

 

我很快地為各位介紹八種方法,八種藉由聲音改善健康的方法。第一,超音波。大家都很熟悉,這是一種物理療法,現在也被用來治療癌症。碎石術:藉由高強度的音頻將結石震碎,每年拯救眾多病患免於開刀之苦。聲音療癒法是很棒的療法,人類已使用數千年了,我建議各位仔細瞭解一下,此療法達成一些很棒的成效,可用於治療自閉症、痴呆及其他症狀。當然還有音樂,光聽音樂就對你的健康有益,只要是出於善意、愛意所創作出的音樂都很有益。一般來說,宗教音樂或莫札特的作品都很棒,各式各樣的音樂對人體健康都很有幫助。

 

還有四種聲音療法是需要各位主動參與的。第一是用心地傾聽,希望各位在演講結束後就身體力行,這對你生命來說是個全新的境界,達到那個境界是很棒的事。第二,發出一些聲音、製造聲響。聲音是我們每個人都會演奏的樂器,但多少人受過發聲訓練?接受訓練,學習唱歌,學習演奏樂器。音樂家擁有較大的大腦-確實如此。也可以嘗試跟大家一起這麼做,這是治療音景分裂的最佳良藥。跟一群人一起演奏或歌唱,只要你喜歡的類型都可以。讓我們管理週遭的聲音,當然,還得要保護自己的耳朵。在家中或工作場所設計出美妙的聲音背景,若有人用之前我給你們聽的那種噪音攻擊你時,要學會出聲制止。

 

我要告訴各位七件現在就可以做的事(1用心聆聽2保護耳朵3保持靜默4訓練發聲5演奏音樂6設計音景7出聲制止),來改善你的聽力健康。我的願景是一個充滿美妙聲音的世界。如果我們都開始做這些事,就能朝這個方向大步邁進。所以,我建議各位採取這些行動。

 

我要再播放一些鳥鳴聲,這對你的健康很有幫助,希望各位的聽力都健康。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Julian Treasure says our increasingly noisy world is gnawing away at our mental health -- even costing lives. He lays out an 8-step plan to soften this sonic assault (starting with those cheap earbuds) and restore our relationship with sound.

About the Speaker

Julian Treasure studies sound and advises businesses on how best to use it. Full bio and more links

Transcript

The Hindus say, "Nada brahma," one translation of which is, "The world is sound." And, in a way, that's true, because everything is vibrating. In fact, all of you as you sit here right now are vibrating. Every part of your body is vibrating at different frequencies. So you are, in fact, a chord, each of you an individual chord. One definition of health may be that that chord is in complete harmony. Your ears can't hear that chord. They can actually hear amazing things. Your ears can hear 10 octaves. Incidentally, we see just one octave. Your ears are always on. You have no earlids. They work even when you sleep. The smallest sound you can perceive moves your eardrum just four atomic diameters. The loudest sound you can hear is a trillion times more powerful than that.

Ears are made not for hearing, but for listening. Listening is an active skill. Whereas hearing is passive, listening is something that we have to work at. It's a relationship with sound. And yet it's a skill that none of us are taught. For example, have you ever considered that there are listening positions, places you can listen from? Here are two of them. Reductive listening is listening "for." It reduces everything down to what's relevant, and it discards everything that's not relevant. Men typically listen reductively. So he's saying, "I've got this problem." He's saying, "Here's your solution. Thanks very much. Next." That's the way we talk, right guys?

Expansive listening, on the other hand, is listening "with," not listening "for." It's got no destination in mind. It's just enjoying the journey. Women typically listen expansively. If you look at these two, eye contact, facing each other, possibly both talking at the same time. (Laughter) Men, if you get nothing else out of this talk, practice expansive listening, and you can transform your relationships.

The trouble with listening is that so much of what we hear is noise, surrounding us all the time. Noise like this, according to the European Union, is reducing the health and the quality of life of 25 percent of the population of Europe. Two percent of the population of Europe -- that's 16 million people -- are having their sleep devastated by noise like that. Noise kills 200,000 people a year in Europe. It's a really big problem.

Now, when you were little, if you had noise, and you didn't want to hear it, you'd stick your fingers in your ears and hum. These days, you can do a similar thing, it just looks a bit cooler. It looks a bit like this. The trouble with widespread headphone use is it brings three really big health issues. The first really big health issue is a word that Murray Schafer coined: "schizophonia." It's a dislocation between what you see and what you hear. So, we're inviting into our lives the voices of people who are not present with us. I think there's something deeply unhealthy about living all the time in schizophonia.

The second problem that comes with headphone abuse is compression. We squash music to fit it into our pocket. and there is a cost attached to this. Listen to this. This is an uncompressed piece of music. (Music) And now the same piece of music with 98 percent of the data removed. (Music) I do hope that some of you at least can hear the difference between those two. There is a cost of compression. It makes you tired and irritable to have to make up all of that data. You're having to imagine it. It's not good for you in the long run.

The third problem with headphones is this: deafness -- noise-induced hearing disorder. 10 million Americans already have this for one reason or another, but really worryingly, 16 percent, roughly one in six, of American teenagers suffer from noise-induced hearing disorder as a result of headphone abuse. One study at an American university found that 61 percent of college freshmen had damaged hearing as a result of headphone abuse. We may be raising an entire generation of deaf people. Now that's a really serious problem.

I'll give you three quick tips to protect your ears, and pass these on to your children, please. Professional hearing protectors are great; I use them all the time. If you're going to use headphones, buy the best ones you can afford, because quality means you don't have to have it so loud. If you can't hear somebody talking to you in a loud voice, it's too loud. And thirdly, if you're in bad sound, it's fine to put your fingers in your ears or just move away from it. Protect you ears in that way.

Let's move away from bad sound and look at some friends that I urge you to seek out. WWB: Wind, water, birds -- stochastic natural sounds composed of lots of individual random events, all of it very healthy, all of it sound that we evolved to over the years. Seek those sounds out; they're good for you, and so it this. Silence is beautiful. The Elizabethans described language as decorated silence. I urge you to move away from silence with intention and to design soundscapes just like works of art. Have a foreground, a background, all in beautiful proportion. It's fun to get into designing with sound. If you can't do it yourself, get a professional to do it for you. Sound design is the future, and I think it's the way we're going to change the way the world sounds.

I'm going to just run quickly through eight modalities, eight ways sound can improve health. First, ultrasound: we're very familiar with it from physical therapy. It's also now being used to treat cancer. Lithotripsy -- saving thousands of people a year from the scalpel by pulverizing stones with high-intensity sound. Sound healing is a wonderful modality. It's been around for thousands of years. I do urge you to explore this. There are great things being done there, treating now autism, dementia and other conditions. And music, of course. Just listening to music is good for you, if it's music that's made with good intention, made with love, generally. Devotional music, good. Mozart, good. There are all sorts of types of music that are very healthy.

And four modalities where you need to take some action and get involved. First of all, listen consciously. I hope that that after this talk you'll be doing that. It's a whole new dimension to your life, and it's wonderful to have that dimension. Secondly, get in touch with making some sound. Create sound. The voice is the instrument we all play, and yet how many of us are trained in using our voice? Get trained. Learn to sing. Learn to play an instrument. Musicians have bigger brains -- it's true. You can do this in groups as well. It's a fantastic antidote to schizophonia, to make music and sound in a group of people, whichever style you enjoy particularly. And let's take a stewarding role for the sound around us. Protect your ears? Yes, absolutely. Design soundscapes to be beautiful around you at home and at work. And let's start to speak up when people are assailing us with the noise that I played you early on.

So I'm going to leave you with seven things you can do right now to improve your health with sound. My vision is of a world that sounds beautiful, and if we all start doing these things, we will take a very big step in that direction. So I urge you to take that path.

I'm leaving you with a little more birdsong, which is very good for you. I wish you sound health.

(Applause)


留下您對本課程的評論
標題:
您目前為非會員,留言名稱將顯示「匿名非會員」
只能進行20字留言

留言內容:

驗證碼請輸入2 + 5 =

標籤

現有標籤:1
新增標籤:


有關本課程的討論

目前暫無評論,快來留言吧!

Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。
協助推廣單位: