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Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy 談自殺炸彈客學校

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy: Inside a school for suicide bombers

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy

2010年2月演講,2010年5月在TED2010上線

 

翻譯:TED

編輯:朱學恆、洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

紀錄片導演Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy研究一個可怕的問題:塔利班如何說服孩子成為自殺炸彈客?她放映了訓練營的宣傳影片及她與其中年輕成員的訪談內容,這是一部令人震撼的影片。

 

關於Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy是紀錄片導演,也是「巴基斯坦公民檔案」組織的創辦者,致力於保存巴基斯坦的歷史。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy是電影製片人和記者,曾為美國和英國主要電視網製作過十四部影片。她製作的影片包括《塔利班的孩子們》(與Dan Edge合作),《迷惘的一代》(關於伊拉克流亡者)和《揭開阿富汗神秘面紗》。這份工作使她的足跡踏遍世界各地進行影片拍攝,並與難民、婦女權益團體和人權鬥士合作共事。藉由將他們的聲音帶到外界,她經常有助於使他們在當地社會裡引起關鍵性變化。

 

Obaid-Chinoy協助成立了「巴基斯坦公民檔案」,這是一個非營利性的志願組織,旨在促進及推動社會各界關心巴基斯坦的文化和歷史。「公民檔案」組織接觸過數千名兒童,教導他們獨立思考的能力,並灌輸他們應對自己的歷史和身份感到自豪這個觀念。

 

Obaid-Chinoy是TED2010會員

 

「藉著將面臨著特殊挑戰的普通老百姓聲音帶到世界各地的電視螢幕上,我希望能每次都能在某個社會中產生影響而造成改變。」

-Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy,《商業周刊》

 

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy的英語網上資料

Home: Sharmeen Obaid Films

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy 談自殺炸彈客學校

今天,我要透過完全不同的鏡頭,帶領各位看看成為自殺炸彈客的孩子們。在2009年,巴基斯坦境內有500個炸彈爆炸,我花了一整年時間,訪問這些即將被訓練成自殺炸彈客的孩子們,並訪問塔利班負責招募這些孩子的人,試著瞭解塔利班如何將這些孩子變成活動炸彈,這些孩子們又為何自願參與這危險的工作。

 

我請各位先看我最近拍攝的紀錄片,《塔利班的孩子們》其中一個片段。

 

(歌唱聲)

 

塔利班現在經營自己的學校,他們將目標鎖定在窮苦的家庭,說服父母把孩子送到這裡,他們提供免費食物和住屋做為回報,有時還每個月給這些家庭一些津貼。我們取得了一卷塔利班製作的宣傳影帶,年輕男孩們被灌輸自殺攻擊及處決間諜的正當性。

 

我和一位來自Swat的男孩取得聯繫,他目前在類似這樣的伊斯蘭學校裡讀書,Hazrat Ali來自Swat的窮苦農村家庭,他在一年前加入塔利班,那時他13歲。

 

塔利班在你們家鄉如何招募新成員?

 

Hazrat Ali:他們一開始叫我們到清真寺去,對我們講道,然後他們把我們帶到一間伊斯蘭學校,教我們可蘭經上的事。

 

Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy:他說孩子們會接受數個月的軍事訓練。

 

HA:他們教我們使用自動機槍、Kalishnikov步槍、火箭筒、手榴彈和炸彈等,他們說我們只能對異教徒使用這些武器,然後他們教我們做自殺攻擊。

 

SOC:你願意執行自殺攻擊任務嗎?

 

Hazrat Ali:願真主賜與我力量。

 

SOC:在我的研究中,我曾看過塔利班美化他們招募和訓練這些孩子的行為,我認為這個過程分成五個步驟。第一個步驟是,塔利班將目標鎖定居住在農村地區的貧困大家庭,他們將父母和小孩分開,答應父母會給孩子食物、衣物和居住的地方,然後他們把孩子送走,送到數百哩外依照塔利班要求方式進行教學的嚴格學校。

 

第二個步驟,他們教孩子們讀可蘭經,也就是伊斯蘭的聖經,以阿拉伯文印製,是這些孩子根本不會讀也不會說的語言,所以孩子們只能仰賴神學院老師的解釋。我個人認為這些老師扭曲了經文的教義,以便達到他們的目的。這些孩子被禁止閱讀報紙、聽收音機、或閱讀不是老師建議的書,如果有孩子違反了規定,就會被嚴厲地訓斥。事實上,塔利班完全禁止孩子們接觸其他資訊來源。

 

第三個步驟,塔利班要孩子們憎恨這個他們所生存的世界,所以他們會毆打孩子,我曾親眼見過,他們一天只吃二餐,只有乾麵包和水,他們幾乎不讓孩子們玩遊戲,他們要孩子們一天中八小時的時間,就只能讀可蘭經。這些孩子跟囚犯沒有兩樣,他們不能離開也不能回家,他們的父母都太窮,沒辦法把他們帶回家。

 

第四個步驟,塔利班中較年長的成員,也就是戰士們,會開始和年輕男孩們談論有關殉教後的榮耀,他們說,當他們死後,會被接到天上,那裡有流淌著牛奶和蜂蜜的湖水,有72個處女在天堂準備接待他們,那裡有無限的食物,這份榮耀將會使他們成為鄰里間的英雄人物。事實上,這就是洗腦過程的開始。

 

第五個步驟,我相信塔利班有一項最有效的宣傳武器,他們用的宣傳影片是經過剪接的照片,內容是關於在伊拉克、阿富汗及巴基斯坦死亡的男人、女人及小孩,他們所傳達的基本訊息是,西方強權國家根本不在乎平民百姓的死活,所以居住在這些地方的人民必須和支持西方強權國家的政府合作,這就是巴基斯坦在過去二年內有超過六千個平民死亡的原因。現在,這些孩子被訓練為自殺炸彈客,他們已經準備好到外面的世界去戰鬥,因為他們被告知這是唯一可以榮耀真主的方法。

 

我要讓你們看紀錄片中另一個片段。

 

這個男孩叫Zenola,他炸死了自己還有其他六個人;這個男孩叫Sadik,他炸死了22個人;這個男孩叫Messoud,他炸死了28個人。塔利班所經營的自殺學校,訓練了一整個世代的男孩,對平民百姓痛下殺手。

 

你願意執行自殺攻擊任務嗎?

 

男孩:我很樂意,但要我父親同意才行。當我看到比我年紀小,或和我同齡的自殺炸彈客時,我會因為他們的恐怖攻擊而激發鬥志。

 

SOC:若你執行自殺攻擊任務,會得到什麼祝福?

 

男孩:審判日來臨時,真主會問我:「你為什麼要這麼做?」我會回答:「真主,只是為了讓你高興!我會用我的生命來對抗異教徒。」真主會審視我的意圖,如果我是為伊斯蘭消滅惡行,那我就可以上天堂。

 

歌聲:在審判日來臨時,真主會呼喚我,我的身軀將被拼湊起來,真主會問我為何這麼做。

 

SOC:我想讓各位思考一下,如果你在這種環境裡成長,面對這種選擇,你會選擇活在這個世界上,還是選擇死後的光榮世界?有一個塔利班的招募員告訴我,「在這場戰爭裡總有人要被犧牲。」

 

謝謝各位。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Filmmaker Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy takes on a terrifying question: How does the Taliban convince children to become suicide bombers? Propaganda footage from a training camp is intercut with her interviews of young camp graduates. A shocking vision.

About the Speaker

Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy makes documentary films. She's the founder of the Citizens Archive of Pakistan, dedicated to preserving Pakistan's history. Full bio and more links

Transcript

Today, I want you to look at children who become suicide bombers through a completely different lens. In 2009, there were 500 bomb blasts across Pakistan. I spent the year working with children who were training to become suicide bombers and with Taliban recruiters, trying to understand how the Taliban were converting these children into live ammunition and why these children were actively signing up to their cause.

I want you to watch a short video from my latest documentary film, "Children of the Taliban."

(Singing)

The Taliban now run their own schools. They target poor families and convince the parents to send their children. In return, they provide free food and shelter and sometimes pay the families a monthly stipend. We've obtained a propaganda video made by the Taliban. Young boys are taught justifications for suicide attacks and the execution of spies.

I made contact with a child from Swat who studied in a madrassa like this. Hazrat Ali is from a poor farming family in Swat. He joined the Taliban a year ago, when he was 13.

How do the Taliban in your area get people to join them?

Hazrat Ali: They first call us to the mosque and preach to us. Then they take us to a madrassa and teach us things from the Koran.

Sharmeen Obaid Chinoy: He tells me that children are then given months of military training.

HA: They teach us to use machine guns, Kalishnikov, rocket launchers, grenades, bombs. They ask us to use them only against the infidels. Then they teach us to do a suicide attack.

SOC: Would you like to carry out a suicide attack?

HA: If God Almighty gives me strength.

SOC: I, in my research, have seen that the Taliban have perfected the way in which they recruit and train children. And I think it's a five step process. Step one is that the Taliban prey on families that are large, that are poor, that live in rural areas. They separate the parents from the children by promising to provide food, clothing, shelter to these children. Then they ship them off, hundreds of miles away to hard-line schools that run along the Taliban agenda.

Step two: They teach the children the Koran, which is Islam's holiest book, in Arabic, a language these children do not understand and cannot speak. They rely very heavily on teachers who I have personally seen distort the message to these children as and when it suits their purpose to. These children are explicitly forbidden from reading newspapers, listening to radio, reading any books that the teachers do not prescribe them. If any child is found violating these rules, he is severely reprimanded. Effectively, the Taliban create a complete blackout of any other source of information for these children.

Step three: The Taliban want these children to hate the world that they currently live in. So they beat these children. I have seen it. They feed them twice a day dried bread and water. They rarely allow them to play games. They tell them that, for eight hours at a time, all they have to do is read the Koran. The children are virtual prisoners. They cannot leave; they cannot go home. Their parents are so poor, they have no resources to get them back.

Step four: The older members of the Taliban, the fighters, start talking to the younger boys about the glories of martyrdom. They talk to them about how, when they die, they will be received up with lakes of honey and milk, how there will be 72 virgins waiting for them in paradise, how there will be unlimited food and how this glory is going to propel them to become heroes in their neighborhoods. Effectively, this is the brainwashing process that has begun.

Step five: I believe the Taliban have one of the most effective means of propaganda. Their videos that they use are intercut with photographs of men and women and children dying in Iraq and Afghanistan and in Pakistan. And the basic message is that the Western powers do not care about civilian deaths, so those people who live in areas and support governments that work with Western powers are fair game. That's why Pakistani civilians, over 6,000 of whom have been killed in the last two years alone, are fair game. Now these children are primed to become suicide bombers. They're ready to go out and fight because they've been told that this is effectively their only way to glorify Islam.

I want you to watch another excerpt from the film.

This boy is called Zenola. He blew himself up, killing six. This boy is called Sadik. He killed 22. This boy is called Messoud. He killed 28. The Taliban are running suicide schools, preparing a generation of boys for atrocities against civilians.

Do you want to carry out a suicide attack?

Boy: I would love to. But only if I get permission from my dad. When I look at suicide bombers younger than me, or my age, I get so inspired by their terrific attacks.

SOC: What blessing would you get from carrying out a suicide attack?

Boy: On the day of judgment, God will ask me, "Why did you do that?" I will answer, "My Lord! Only to make you happy! I have laid down my life fighting the infidels." Then God Almighty will look at my intention. If my intention was to eradicate evil for Islam, then I will be rewarded with paradise.

Singing: ♫ On the day of judgment ♫ ♫ My God will call me ♫ ♫ My body will be put back together ♫ ♫ And God will ask me why I did this ♫

SOC: I leave you all with this thought: If you grew up in these circumstances, faced with these choices, would you choose to live in this world or in the glorious afterlife? As one Taliban recruiter told me, "There will always be sacrificial lambs in this war."

Thank you. (Applause)
 


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