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Dyan deNapoli 談偉大的企鵝救援行動

Dyan deNapoli: The great penguin rescue

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Dyan deNapoli

2011年6月演講,2011年8月在TEDxBoston 2011上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

個人的故事,集體的勝利:Dyan deNapoli講述世上最大規模的志願動物救援行動,這個行動在南非外海的漏油事件後,拯救了4萬多隻企鵝。這麼浩大的工程是如何完成的?是從一隻接一隻的清洗企鵝開始的…

 

關於Dyan deNapoli

請叫她「企鵝女士」。Dyan deNapoli向全世界傳遞關於這些迷人鳥類的知識。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

身為新英格蘭水族館的企鵝水族館資深管理者,Dyan deNapoli親手養大數十隻幼企鵝,並將飼養企鵝的每日規畫提供給水族館的遊客參考。她還走遍全球,跟企鵝研究人員一起進行實地研究。

 

身為她自己創立的教育公司負責人,她經常撰寫與企鵝有關的主題,並在前往Galapagos群島和南極的觀光船上擔任企鵝專家和客座講師。她估計自己已向大約25萬名美國及外國遊客傳授過關於企鵝的知識。

 

Dyan deNapoli的英語網上資料

Twitter: @thepenguinlady

Home: The Penguin Lady

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Dyan deNapoli 談偉大的企鵝救援行動

從有記憶開始,我對動物和海洋就有著特別深刻的感受,到了這個年紀,我個人的偶像是海豚飛寶。當我最初瞭解到所謂的瀕危物種時,知道每天都有動物面臨永遠在地球上消失的危機,實在令我痛心不已。我想做一些能幫得上忙的事,但我總是懷疑,單憑一人之力,可能造成什麼改變嗎?30年光陰過去了,但我終於得到了這個問題的答案。

 

當這些來自於去年發生在墨西哥灣的可怕BP(英國石油)漏油事故中,令人心碎的油污染海鳥圖片終於開始浮上檯面,有人引述一位德國生物學家Silvia Gaus所說的,「我們應該將所有受到油污染的海鳥安樂死,因為研究顯示牠們被釋放後只有不到百分之一的存活率。」我極力反對這個說法。此外,我相信每一隻遭受油污染的動物,都應該得到第二次生存的機會。我想告訴你們為什麼我對這一點有如此強烈的感覺。

 

2000年6月23日,一艘叫做Treasure的船在南非開普敦外海沉沒,漏出了1300噸燃料,污染了全世界將近半數非洲企鵝生存的棲息地。這艘船沉沒在南邊的Robben島和北邊的Dassen島之間,這兩個島正是非洲企鵝主要的繁殖地。而距這一天六年三天前的1994年6月20日,一艘叫做Apollo Sea的船在Dassen島附近沉沒,漏出的油污染了一萬隻企鵝,並導致其中半數死亡。當Treasure這艘船於2000年沉沒時,正是科學家記錄中非洲企鵝最佳繁殖季節的高峰期,當時非洲企鵝已被列為瀕危物種。很快的,近2萬隻企鵝全身都被這種有毒的油覆蓋住了。當地名為SANCCOB的海鳥救援中心立即展開了大規模救援行動,很快的成為有史以來規模最大的動物救援行動。

 

當時,我正在此地附近工作,我是新英格蘭水族館的企鵝水族館管理者。剛好在11年前的昨天,企鵝水族館辦公室的電話響起,這通電話使我的生命永遠改變了。是SANCCOB的Estelle van der Meer來電,他說,「請過來協助我們,我們有上千隻遭受油污染的企鵝,和上千名有意願但完全沒有經驗的志願協助者,我們需要企鵝專家來培訓和監督他們。」所以兩天後,我與一隊企鵝專家坐上了前往開普敦的飛機。

 

這棟大樓內的景像是令人震驚且超現實的,事實上,很多人將它比喻為戰區。上星期有一位10歲女孩問我,「當妳第一次走進這棟大樓,看到這麼多遭受油污染的企鵝時有什麼感覺?」這就是所發生的事。我立刻回想起當時的感受。企鵝是非常聒噪的鳥類,非常非常吵鬧,所以當我走進這棟大樓時,預期迎面而來的是各式各樣刺耳的鳴叫聲。但相反的,當我們穿過門進入這棟大樓時,四周出奇地靜默,所以很顯然,這些鳥類精神緊繃、生病且心靈受創。

 

另一件令人震驚的事是志工的數量。每天有多達1000人前來救援中心,最後,在整個救援期間,共有超過12500位來自世界各地的志工,到開普敦來幫忙拯救這些鳥類。令人驚訝的是,他們當中沒有任何人有義務待在那裡,但他們確實這麼做了。因此,對我們少數幾個因專業能力而前來協助的人來說,這些不平凡的志工對這場動物危機的回應,令人深深感動且敬佩不已。

 

因此,到達後的第二天,兩位來自水族館的人負責二號房的救援工作。二號房內有4000多隻遭受油污染的企鵝。請注意,三天前我們所照顧的企鵝是60隻,因此這肯定會讓我們手忙腳亂而且有點害怕-至少我有這種感覺。以個人來說,我真的不知道自己是否有能力處理這麼龐大的任務,以整體來說,我們真的不知道是否能搞定這一切。因為大家都知道,僅僅在六年前,數量為目前一半的企鵝在遭受油污染後獲救,但只有一半存活下來,所以憑我們的能力,可能拯救這麼多遭受油污染的企鵝嗎?我們真的不知道。

 

但帶給我們希望的,是這些不遺餘力奉獻心力且勇敢的志工。圖中這三位正進行強制餵食企鵝的工作,你可能有注意到,他們戴著非常厚的手套,你們對非洲企鵝應該有所瞭解的是,牠們有非常銳利的喙,不久之後,我們身體從頭到腳遍佈著這些驚恐的企鵝所造成的可怕傷口。

 

我們到達後隔天,一個新的危機開始浮現:浮油現在向北朝Dassen島移動,這個情形讓救援人員感到絕望,因為他們知道,如果再度遭受油污染侵襲,就無法挽救更多受污染的鳥類了。確實沒有好的解決辦法;但最後,其中一位研究人員提出了這個瘋狂的想法,他說:「好吧,我們為什麼不試著將這些可能再度遭受油污染的鳥類聚集在一起。」他們聚集了20000隻企鵝,「我們可以用卡車將牠們運到500英哩外的伊麗莎白港沿岸,將牠們放入潔淨的水域中,讓牠們自行游泳回家。」

 

(笑聲)

 

其中三隻企鵝-Peter、Pamela和Percy身上帶有衛星標記,研究人員合掌祈禱,希望當牠們回到家時,島上的油污已被清理乾淨。幸運的是,當牠們返抵家門時,油污確實已清除乾淨了。所以這是個大賭注,但確實奏效了。因此,他們現在知道,可以使用這種策略對付未來石油漏出的危機。

 

因此,救援野生動物的過程,就像生命的過程一樣,我們從彼此以往的經驗中學習,也從我們的成功和失敗中學習。在1994年Apollo Sea號的救援行動中,我們學習到最主要的一點是,造成這些企鵝死亡的主要原因是,人們在無意間使用通風不良的運輸箱和卡車,因為他們尚未準備好同時處理這麼多受到油污染的企鵝。因此,在這兩次漏油之間,相隔六年的時間當中,他們建造了上千個通風良好的箱子,結果是,在這次Treasure號的救援行動中,只有160隻企鵝在運輸過程中死亡,而不是之前的5000隻。單單這一點就是一項了不起的勝利。

 

在Apollo號的救援行動中,我們學習到的另一件事,就是如何利用這些訓練箱訓練企鵝自行取食魚類。在Treasure號救援任務中,我們再次使用了這個技術,但在訓練過程中,我們注意到一件有趣的事:第一隻成功學會自行取食的,是一隻翅膀上裝著金屬環的企鵝,牠是在六年前Apollo Sea漏油事件中倖存的企鵝,因此,企鵝也會從過往的經驗中學習。

 

我們必須仔細地將油污從這所有的企鵝身上清理乾淨,將一隻企鵝清乾淨,至少需要兩個人花上一個小時才能完成。當你清洗企鵝時,首先必須將脫脂劑噴在牠身上,這使我想到一個跟Treasure號救援任務有關,也是我最喜歡的故事。大約在這個漏油事件發生的一年之前,一位17歲的學生發明了一種脫脂劑,SANCCOB一直使用這種脫脂劑,因為它非常有效,所以他們開始將它用在Treasure號救援任務中。但清洗工作還沒完成,脫脂劑就用完了,來自SANCCOB的Estelle焦急的打電話給那位學生說,「拜託,你得製造更多些。」於是他奔回實驗室,製造了足以將其餘鳥類全都清洗乾淨的脫脂劑。所以,我認為這是最酷的事,一位少年發明了一種有助於拯救成千上萬隻動物生命的產品。

 

那麼,那20000隻遭受油污染的企鵝最後怎麼了?Silvia Gaus說對了嗎?我們應該依常規將所有遭受油污染的鳥類安樂死,反正牠們大多數最後還是無法順利存活?她真是大錯特錯。經過義工們50萬小時的艱苦奮鬥,超過90%的油污染企鵝成功地回到野外。而我們從後續研究中得知,牠們的壽命就跟未受油污染的企鵝一樣長,並能成功地進行繁殖。

 

此外,我們拯救了約3000隻幼企鵝,並以人工飼養。同樣的,我們由長期監測得知,這些人工飼養的幼企鵝,存活到成年及繁殖年齡的數目,比企鵝雙親養大的幼企鵝還多。掌握了這些知識後,SANCCOB提出一個支援幼企鵝的計畫,他們每年都拯救並飼養被遺棄的幼企鵝,並達成80%這個令人刮目相看的成功率。這是極為重要的成果,因為一年前,非洲企鵝被列為瀕臨絕種的動物,牠們可能在10年內就會絕種,如果我們現在不進行一些措施來保護牠們的話。

 

那麼,我從這些刺激且難忘的經歷中學到什麼?就個人而言,我學習到,我處理這一切的能力,比我認為自己能做到的還多得多;我瞭解到,就算只有一個人,也能造成很大的變化,只要看那位17歲的學生就知道。當我們聚在一起,齊心協力,就能造就一些不平凡的事。說真的,成為比自我更重要的大團隊中的一份子,就是我們能擁有的、最有益的經驗了。

 

最後,我想留給你們一個想法和一個挑戰,如果你們願意的話。身為企鵝女士,我的任務是喚起人們的認知,並籌募保護企鵝的資金。但為什麼每個人都該關心企鵝呢?好,你們該關心企鵝的原因是,牠們是一個指標性物種。簡單來說,如果企鵝漸漸死亡,意味著我們的海洋正逐漸死去,最終也會影響到我們。因為正如Sylvia Earle所說的,「海洋是支持我們生命的系統。」當今企鵝面臨的兩項主要威脅是過度捕撈和全球暖化,事實上,這兩件事是我們每個人都有能力改變的。因此,如果我們每個人都盡一己之力,齊心協力,就能造成一些改變,幫助企鵝避免滅絕的命運。人類一向是企鵝最大的威脅,但我們現在可以成為牠們唯一的希望。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

A personal story, a collective triumph: Dyan deNapoli tells the story of the world's largest volunteer animal rescue, which saved more than 40,000 penguins after an oil spill off the coast of South Africa. How does a job this big get done? Penguin by penguin by penguin ...

About the Speaker

Call her "the Penguin Lady." Dyan deNapoli educates the world about these fascinating birds. Full bio and more links

Transcript

For as long as I can remember, I have felt a very deep connection to animals and to the ocean. And at this age, my personal idol was Flipper the dolphin. And when I first learned about endangered species, I was truly distressed to know that everyday animals were being wiped off the face of this Earth forever. And I wanted to do something to help, but I always wondered, what could one person possibly do to make a difference? And it would be 30 years, but I would eventually get the answer to that question.

When these heartbreaking images of oiled birds finally began to emerge from the Gulf of Mexico last year during the horrific BP oil spill, a German biologist by the name of Silvia Gaus was quoted as saying, "We should just euthanize all oiled birds because studies have shown that fewer than one percent of them survive after being released." And I could not disagree more. And in addition, I believe that every oiled animal deserves a second chance at life. And I want to tell you why I feel so strongly about this.

On June 23rd, 2000, a ship named the Treasure sank off the coast of Capetown, South Africa, spilling 1,300 tons of fuel, which polluted the habitats of nearly half the entire world population of African penguins. Now the ship sank between Robben Island to the south and Dassen Island to the north. And these are two of the penguins' main breeding islands. And exactly six years and three days earlier on June 20th, 1994, a ship named the Apollo Sea sank near Dassen Island, oiling 10,000 penguins -- half of which died. Now when the Treasure sank in 2000, it was the height of the best breeding season scientists had ever recorded for the African penguin -- which at the time, was listed as a threatened species. And soon, nearly 20,000 penguins were covered with this toxic oil. And the local seabird rescue center, named SANCCOB, immediately launched a massive rescue operation -- and this soon would become the largest animal rescue ever undertaken.

Now at the time, I was working down the street. I was a penguin aquarist at the New England Aquarium. And exactly 11 years ago yesterday, the phone rang in the penguin office. And with that call, my life would change forever. It was a Estelle van der Meer calling from SANCCOB, saying, "Please come help. We have thousands of oiled penguins and thousands of willing, but completely inexperienced, volunteers. And we need penguin experts to come train and supervise them." So two days later, I was on a plane headed for Capetown with a team of penguin specialists.

And the scene inside of this building was devastating and surreal. In fact, many people compared it to a war zone. And last week, a 10 year-old girl asked me, "What did it feel like when you first walked into that building and saw so many oiled penguins?" And this is what happened. I was instantly transported back to that moment in time. Penguins are very vocal birds and really, really noisy. And so I expected to walk into this building and be met with this cacophony of honking and braying and squawking, but instead, when we stepped through those doors and into the building, it was eerily silent. So it was very clear these were stressed, sick, traumatized birds.

The other thing that was so striking was the sheer number of volunteers. Up to 1,000 people a day came to the rescue center. And eventually, over the course of this rescue, more than 12 and a half thousand volunteers came from all over the world to Capetown to help save these birds. And the amazing thing was that not one of them had to be there -- yet they were. So for the few of us that were there in a professional capacity, this extraordinary volunteer response to this animal crisis was profoundly moving and awe-inspiring.

So the day after we arrived, two of us from the aquarium were put in charge of room two. And room two had more than 4,000 oiled penguins in it. Now mind you, three days earlier, we had 60 penguins under our care. So we were definitely overwhelmed and just a bit terrified -- at least I was. Personally, I really didn't know if I was capable of handling such a monstrous task. And collectively, we really didn't know if we could pull this off. Because all knew that just six years earlier, half as many penguins had been oiled and rescued and only half of them had survived. So would it be humanly possible to save this many oiled penguins? We just did not know.

But what gave us hope were these incredibly dedicated and brave volunteers -- three of whom here are force-feeding penguins. And you may notice they're wearing very thick gloves. And what you should know about African penguins is that they have razor-sharp beaks. And before long, our bodies were covered head to toe with these nasty wounds inflicted by the terrified penguins.

Now the day after we arrived, a new crisis began to unfold. The oil slick was now moving north towards Dassen Island, and the rescuers despaired, because they knew if the oil hit, it would not be possible to rescue any more oiled birds. And there really were no good solutions. But then finally, one of the researchers threw out this crazy idea. He said, "Okay, why don't we try and collect the birds at the greatest risk of getting oiled" -- they collected 20,000 -- "and we'll ship them 500 miles up the coast to Port Elizabeth in these open air trucks and release them into the clean waters there and let them swim back home."

(Laughter)

So three of those penguins -- Peter, Pamela and Percy -- wore satellite tags. And the researchers crossed their fingers and hoped that by the time they got back home, the oil would be cleaned up from their island. And luckily, the day they arrived, it was. So it had been a huge gamble, but it had paid off. And so they know now that they can use this strategy in future oil spills.

So in wildlife rescue, as in life, we learn from each previous experience, and we learn from both our successes and our failures. And the main thing learned during the Apollo Sea rescue in '94 was that most of those penguins had died due to the unwitting use of poorly ventilated transport boxes and trucks -- because they just had not been prepared to deal with so many oiled penguins at once. So in these six years between these two oil spills, they built thousands of these well-ventilated boxes. And as a result, during the Treasure rescue, just 160 penguins died during the transport process, as opposed to 5,000. So this alone was a huge victory.

Something else learned during the Apollo rescue was how to train the penguins how to take fish freely from their hands, using these training boxes. And we used this technique again during the Treasure rescue. But an interesting thing was noted during the training process. The first penguins to make that transition to free feeding were the ones that had a metal band on their wing from the Apollo Sea spill six years earlier. So penguins learn from previous experience too.

So all of those penguins had to have the oil meticulously cleaned from their bodies. And it would take two people at least an hour just to clean one penguin. And when you clean a penguin, you first have to spray it with a degreaser. And this brings me to my favorite story from the Treasure rescue. About a year prior to this oil spill, a 17 year-old student had invented a degreaser. And they'd been using it at SANCCOB with great success, so they began using it during the Treasure rescue. But part way through, they ran out. So in a panic, Estelle from SANCCOB called the student and said, "Please, you have to make more." So he raced to the lab and made enough to clean the rest of the birds. So I just think it is the coolest thing that a teenager invented a product that helped save the lives of thousands of animals.

So what happened to those 20,000 oiled penguins? And was Silvia Gaus right? Should we routinely euthanize all oiled birds because most of them are going to die anyway? Well she could not be more wrong. After half a million hours of grueling volunteer labor, more than 90 percent of those oiled penguins were successfully returned to the wild. And we know from follow-up studies that they have lived just as long as never-oiled penguins, and bred nearly as successfully.

And in addition, about 3,000 penguin chicks were rescued and hand-raised. And again, we know from long-term monitoring that more of these hand-raised chicks survive to adulthood and breeding age than do parent-raised chicks. So, armed with this knowledge, SANCCOB has a chick bolstering project. And every year they rescue and raise abandoned chicks. And they have a very impressive 80 percent success rate. And this is critically important because, one year ago, the African penguin was declared endangered. And they could be extinct in less than 10 years, if we don't do something now to protect them.

So what did I learn from this intense and unforgettable experience? Personally, I learned that I am capable of handling so much more than I ever dreamed possible. And I learned that one person can make a huge difference. Just look at that 17 year-old. And when we come together and work as one, we can achieve extraordinary things. And truly, to be a part of something so much larger than yourself is the most rewarding experience you can possibly have.

So I'd like to leave you with one final thought and a challenge, if you will. My mission as the penguin lady is to raise awareness and funding to protect penguins, but why should any of you care about penguins? Well, you should care because they're an indicator species. And simply put, if penguins are dying, it means our oceans are dying, and we ultimately will be affected, because, as Sylvia Earle says, "The oceans are our life-support system." And the two main threats to penguins today are overfishing and global warming. And these are two things that each one of us actually has the power to do something about. So if we each do our part, together, we can make a difference, and we can help keep penguins from going extinct. Humans have always been the greatest threat to penguins, but we are now their only hope.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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