MyOOPS開放式課程
請加入會員以使用更多個人化功能
來自全球頂尖大學的開放式課程,現在由世界各國的數千名義工志工為您翻譯成中文。請免費享用!
課程來源:TED
     

 

Arthur Potts 談對永續餐廳的展望

Arthur Potts Dawson: A vision for sustainable restaurants

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Arthur Potts

2010年7月演講,2010年12月在TEDGlobal 2010上線

 

翻譯:TED

編輯:朱學恆、洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

如果你參觀過餐廳的廚房,就會瞭解有多少食物、水和能源在這被浪費掉。廚師Arthur Potts-Dawson分享了他的個人願景,就是大量減少餐廳與超市的資源浪費,持續性的促進廢棄物回收利用、製造堆肥及提供永續能源(及美味的食物)。

 

關於Arthur Potts

Arthur Potts-Dawson希望我們擔負起不只是對於所吃食物的責任,也得擔負起如何購買,甚至如何處理食物的責任。他以無可挑剔的品味為我們指出可行之路。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

他先成為美食家還是先成為環保戰士呢?23年來,Arthur Potts Dawson與英國最受尊敬的廚師們一起工作,包括Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall和Jamie Oliver。但他對食物的興趣始於在多塞特郡一座農場成長的童年生活。「在我成長階段當中,家中從來就不是很有錢,」他說。「我們學會隨手關燈及穿上毛衣來而代替暖氣。」

 

這種節儉的感性表現在他2006年於倫敦開幕的著名餐廳-橡實屋及水之屋。從屋頂花園到低耗能冰箱,以及將廚餘變成堆肥的蠕蟲飼養箱,這些餐館呈現了生態友好做法所達成的益處-並成為下一代環保廚師的訓練場地。Potts Dawson現在正將他的改革運動帶到廚房餐桌上,準備開辦「大眾超市」,這是一間由會員經營並合作支持英國農場的超市。他也在Mrs Paisley's Lashings餐廳擔任烹飪工作,這是一間將其利潤資助倫敦各校城市花園的晚餐俱樂部。

 

「他是否有時會羨慕那些追求名聲和金錢,而不用擔心採購可回收微纖維桌面的同業?他說:『我只想提供人們想吃的食物,並為餐飲業及所有行業指出未來的前進方向。有那麼一天,我所做的一切都將會是值得的。』」

-Nick Curtis,《晚間標準報》

 

Arthur Potts的英語網上資料

Home: Acorn House(編輯當時無法連上網頁)

Twitter: @TPSLondon

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Arthur Potts 談對永續餐廳的展望

餐廳和食品業大概是世界上最浪費資源的產業。現在我們在英國所吃掉的每一份熱量,就需要耗費十倍的熱量來生產,實在不少。我想談一些較為簡樸的作法。這是我今天在農夫市場找到的,如果演講後有誰想帶回家搗成泥,就請便吧!這只是個普通的馬鈴薯。我花了很長的時間-大約25年,才想出這個道理。在它的生命裡,大約會歷經八個不同的型式。首先,它需要栽種,這就耗掉不少能源;馬鈴薯會成長,也會吸收養份,之後才能收成。接下來則是配銷,配銷牽扯到的問題很多。再過來是買賣過程,最後送到我手上,我則是處理它,並進行烹調,讓人們吃下肚-希望大家都滿意。最後階段則是廢棄物處理,這也是大家最為忽略的階段。浪費可分為幾種型態。有人浪費時間、有人浪費空間、有人浪費能源、也有人浪費廢棄物。我在過去五年中所參與過的每一項工作裡,都致力於減少各種浪費行為。

 

好,你們會問,永續餐廳是什麼模樣?基本上,這種餐廳和其他餐廳沒什麼不同,就是這間餐廳,店名叫「橡實屋」,這是它正面和背面的照片。我來向大家介紹幾個這間餐廳的概念。地板:耐磨、可回收利用。椅子:回收物製作,可再回收利用。桌子:契約林地生產製造,這是用挪威契約林地生產的木材所製造。這張長椅,我媽說坐上去很不舒服,她不喜歡坐在上頭,所以她跑到當地雜貨拍賣店買了些椅墊,全是回收再製作的,手工還不賴。我討厭浪費,尤其是牆壁。如果空著沒用,就放個架子上去,我就是這麼做的,還可以向顧客展示我的產品。整間餐廳都使用永續能源,這是用風力發電的,所有燈泡都是白光燈泡,油漆都是選用化學物質含量最少的品牌,這對整天都在餐廳裡工作的人來說很重要。我一直在實驗這個,我不知道你們是否看得出來,但我在表面多漆了一層,那是塑化聚合物。我一直思考著,嗯,我要用天然的東西,但我想,不、不,也可以用合成樹脂、用聚合物來做些實驗。這些東西會比我長壽嗎?或許會喔!這是一台重新調整過的咖啡機,看起來確實比一台新的更好,擺在這裡看起來不錯。重新回收利用資源是很重要的,我們過濾自己要喝的水,把水裝進瓶子裡,放進冰箱,重覆使用同一個瓶子。這裡還有一個很棒的小例子。看看這株橘子樹,它其實是被種在一個汽車輪胎裡,我把車胎內面翻出來,然後再縫起來,我放了些堆肥在裡頭,就長出了這株橘子樹,很棒吧!

 

這是廚房,就在同一個房間裡。基本上我設計了一個菜單,讓顧客挑選自己所需的食物份量,而不是由我端出固定份量的菜餚,我讓顧客決定自己要吃多少份量。好,這個廚房不大,大約只有五平方公尺而已,每天可供220人用餐。我們每天製造相當多的廢棄物,這是廢棄物堆放室。人們不可能不製造廢棄物,但我要說的不是消滅廢棄物,而是儘量減少廢棄物的產生。在這個房間中,堆放著無法避免產生的廢棄物和紙箱,我把廚餘放進乾燥脫水機裡,把它們變成乾燥狀態,我可以先儲存著,日後再來做堆肥。

 

我在這個院子裡製作堆肥,你在這裡看到的所有土壤,基本上都是食物殘渣,是餐廳生產的廚餘。我把廚餘放進這些管子裡,那是我用漂流木和酒桶這類東西做出來的。這是三個堆肥箱,每週可處理大約70公斤的蔬菜廚餘,真的很棒,可做出很棒的堆肥。也有很多蟲子住在裡頭,其中有一種蟲子真的很大,裡面有很多蟲子。有一次我試著把乾燥的廚餘放到蟲子面前說,「給你當晚餐。」有點像是蔬菜乾,但卻把蟲子全殺死了。我不知道裡頭有多少蟲,但我可能會有很嚴重的報應吧!(笑聲)你現在看到的是濾水系統,水會從這裡流到餐廳外面,流過這一層石頭來過濾,這裡將會種植一些薄荷。我會用過濾過的水來澆花,最後我想回收利用這些水,將它引入廁所,或許用來洗手吧,我還不知道。

 

水是非常重要的一環,我開始思考這一點,開了一家叫「水之屋」的餐廳。如果我能把水之屋打造成一個沒有碳排放的餐廳,就從不使用瓦斯開始,那一定很棒,我設法做到這一點。這家餐廳看起來有點像橡實屋,同樣的,桌椅全都是英國製造,而且更耐用些。但這是間電氣餐廳,所有東西都以電做為能源,包含餐廳和廚房,全都靠水力發電,所以我從風力發電轉變成水力發電。各位要瞭解,有一點很重要,這個房間藉由水降溫,也藉由水供應熱源。我們過濾回收的水,用水來發電,這是名符其實的水之屋。餐廳裡有空氣調節系統,我沒有使用冷氣機,因為我覺得太耗能了。基本上餐廳使用空氣調節系統,我引進外面河道的氣溫,利用熱能交換機制將空氣抽進來,它使得屋頂上那些令人驚歎的帆轉動,讓風緩緩地降落在餐廳客人身上,讓他們感受到涼風或是熱風,視需求而定。這是英國製的柳條風扇,它緩慢地轉動,讓空氣在房裡流動,很先進吧?完全不使用冷氣機,我愛死這個了!餐廳外有一條河,我們架設了數百公尺的管線,把河道上的溫度和室內溫度交換,大約可造成4度的溫差,我不知道它是怎麼運作的,但我在這上面花了一大筆錢。(笑聲)最棒的是,一位在餐廳裡工作的廚師就住在這艘船上,完全不使用電,自行生產所有能源,他種植自己所需的水果,真是太棒了!

 

這些餐廳的命名是有其含義的。橡實屋以木為元素,水之屋以水為元素,我思考著,嗯,我打算建五間餐廳,以中國的五行為主題,我已經有水、木餐廳了,我即將建一間火餐廳,之後還要建以金和土為主題的餐廳,各位等著瞧吧!好,這是我下一個計畫,我想了五個星期了,我正在構想,真的很不好做,那就是開一間大眾超市。基本上,我開的餐廳只能吸引那些與我志同道合的顧客,但我得做的是,將我的食物推廣給更多人,因此目標-或許是更多藍領階級,或那些確實相信互相合作的人。這是一個社會性企業,不以營利為目的的超市,其中原因在於食物和都市社區間,以及社區和農夫間社會關係的疏離。我希望將倫敦社區與農夫連結起來,這真的很重要。所以我打算賣馬鈴薯、牛奶、蔥和甘藍菜-全都是非常重要的食物。我保留了原來的地磚、地板、管線,取得一些回收的冰箱,還有一些回收的收銀機和手推車。我的意思是,整個計畫相當具有永續性。事實上,我試著,並打算將它打造成全世界最具永續性的超市,完全沒有食物會被浪費。目前還沒有人這麼做過,事實上,如果你關心這類議題的話,目前只有Sainsbury超市嘗試這麼做,我打算搶在他們前頭。

 

大自然不會製造浪費,不會出現像這樣浪費的情形。自然界的一切都在一個封閉的循環裡消耗殆盡,廢棄物是終點也是起點,我們在某段時期也受益於這些廢棄物,這是我們必須瞭解的重要觀念。如果我們不挺身而出,做出改變,不去思考永續性食物,不去思考永續的大自然系統,終有一天我們會走向滅亡之途。但-我想身先士卒,讓各位知道,只要我們多擔負一些責任就可以做到,有環保意識的企業是可行的。就在這裡,你們可以看到,目前我已經有三家這樣的餐廳,我還得繼續努力。這個概念還在胚胎階段,但我認為這很重要。我認為如果我們做到減量、重覆使用、拒絕浪費以及回收再利用-這是最後一點,回收再利用是我要強調的最後一個重點。所以總共有四個重點,不只是三個而已。我認為這樣我們就能邁向正確的目標。這三家公司還不是很完美,只是一個理想而已。我認為將會遇到許多困難,但靠著大家幫助,我確信一定能找到解決之道,我希望各位都能參與。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About the Talk

If you've been in a restaurant kitchen, you've seen how much food, water and energy can be wasted there. Chef Arthur Potts-Dawson shares his very personal vision for drastically reducing restaurant, and supermarket, waste -- creating recycling, composting, sustainable engines for good (and good food).

About the Speaker

Arthur Potts Dawson wants us to take responsibility not just for the food we eat, but how we shop for and even dispose of it. And he's showing the way -- with impeccable taste. Full bio and more links

Transcript

Restaurants and the food industry in general are pretty much the most wasteful industry in the world. For every calorie of food we consume here in Britain today, 10 calories are taken to produce it. That's a lot. I want to take something rather humble to discuss. I found this in the farmers' market today. If anybody wants to take it home and mash it later, you're very welcome to. The humble potato. And I've spent a long time -- 25 years -- preparing these. And it pretty much goes through eight different forms in its lifetime. First of all, it's planted, and that takes energy. It grows and is nurtured. It's then harvested. It's then distributed, and distribution is a massive issue. It's then sold and bought, and it's then delivered to me. I basically take it, prepare it, and then people consume it -- hopefully they enjoy it. The last stage is basically waste. And this is is pretty much where everybody disregards it. There are different types of waste. There's a waste of time, there's a waste of space, there's a waste of energy, and there's a waste of waste. And every business I've been working on over the past five years, I'm trying to lower each one of these elements.

Okay. You ask what a sustainable restaurant looks like. Basically a restaurant just like any other. This is the restaurant, Acorn House. Front and back. So let me run you through a few ideas. Floor: sustainable, recyclable. Chairs: recycled and recyclable. Tables: Forestry Commission. This is Norwegian Forestry Commission wood. This bench, although it was uncomfortable for my mom -- she didn't like sitting on it, so she went and bought these cushions from a local jumble sale -- reusing, a job that was pretty good. I hate waste, especially walls. If they're not working, put a shelf on it, which I did. And that shows all the customers my products. The whole business is run on sustainable energy. This is powered by wind. All of the lights are daylight bulbs. Paint is all low-volume chemical, which is very important when you're working in the room all the time. I was experimenting with these -- I don't know if you can see it -- but there's a work surface there. And that's a plastic polymer. And I was thinking, well I'm trying to think nature, nature, nature. But I thought, no, no, experiment with resins, experiment with polymers. Will they outlive me? They probably might. Right, here's a reconditioned coffee machine. It actually looks better than a brand new one -- so looking good there. Now reusing is vital. And we filter our own water. We put them in bottles, refrigerate them, and then we reuse that bottle again and again and again. Here's a great little example. If you can see this orange tree, it's actually growing in a car tire, which has been turned inside out and sewn up. It's got my compost in it, which is growing an orange tree, which is great.

This is the kitchen, which is in the same room. I basically created a menu that allowed people to choose the amount and volume of food that they wanted to consume. rather than me putting a dish down, they were allowed to help themselves to as much or as little as they wanted. Okay, it's a small kitchen. It's about five sq. meters. It serves 220 people a day. We generate quite a lot of waste. This is the waste room. You can't get rid of waste. But this story's not about eliminating it, it's about minimizing it. In here, I have produce and boxes that are unavoidable. I put my put my food waste into this dehydrating desiccating macerator, turns food into an inner material, which I can store and then compost later.

I compost it in this garden. All of the soil you can see there is basically my food, which is generated by the restaurant, and it's growing in these tubs, which I made out of storm-felled trees and wine casks and all sorts of things. Three compost bins -- go through about 70 kilos of raw vegetable waste a week -- really good, makes fantastic compost. A couple of wormeries in there too. And actually one of the wormeries was a big wormery; I had a lot of worms in it. And I tried taking the dried food waste, putting it to the worms, going, "There you go, dinner." It was like vegetable jerky, and killed all of them. I don't know how many worms in there, but I've got some heavy karma coming, I tell you. (Laughter) What you're seeing here is a water filtration system. This takes the water out of the restaurant, runs it through these stone beds -- this is going to be mint in there -- and I sort of water the garden with it. And I ultimately want to recycle that, put it back into the loos, maybe wash hands with it, I don't know.

So, water is a very important aspect. I started meditating on that and created a restaurant called Waterhouse. If I could get Waterhouse to be a no-carbon restaurant that is consuming no gas to start with, that would be great. I managed to do it. This restaurant looks a little bit like Acorn House -- same chairs, same tables. They're all English and a little bit more sustainable. But this is an electrical restaurant. The whole thing is electric, the restaurant and the kitchen. And it's run on hydroelectricity, so I've gone from air to water. Now it's important to understand that this room is cooled by water, heated by water, filters its own water, and it's powered by water. It literally is Waterhouse. The air handling system inside it, I got rid of air-conditioning, because I thought there was too much consumption going on there. This is basically air handling. I'm taking the temperature of the canal outside, pumping it through the heat exchange mechanism, it's turning through these amazing sails on the roof, and that, in turn, is falling softly onto the people in the restaurant, cooling them, or heating them, as the need may be. And this is an English willow air diffuser. And that's softly moving that air current through the room. Very advanced, no air-conditioning -- I love it. In the canal, which is just outside the restaurant, there is hundreds of meters of coil piping. This takes the temperature of the canal and turns it into this four-degrees heat exchange. I have no idea how it works, but I paid a lot of money for it. (Laughter) And what's great is one of the chefs who works in that restaurant lives on this boat -- it's off-grid, it generates all its own power -- he's growing all his own fruit, and that's fantastic.

There's no accident in names of these restaurants. Acorn House is the element of wood, Waterhouse is the element of water, and I'm thinking, well I'm going to be making, five restaurants based on the five Chinese medicine acupuncture specialities. I've got water and wood. I'm just about to do fire. I've got metal and earth to come. So you've got to watch your space for that. Okay. So this is my next project. Five weeks old, it's my baby, and it's hurting real bad. The People's Supermarket. So basically, the restaurants only really hit people who believed in what I was doing anyway. What I needed to do was get food out to a broader spectrum of people. So people -- i.e. perhaps, more working-class -- or people who actually believe in a cooperative. This is a social enterprise, not-for-profit supermarket. It really is about the social disconnect between food, communities in urban settings and their relationship to rural growers -- connecting communities in London to rural growers. Really important. So I'm committing to potatoes, I'm committing to milk, I'm committing to leeks and broccoli -- all very important stuff. I've kept the tiles, I've kept the floors, I've kept the trunking, I've got some recycled fridges, I've got some recycled tills, I've got some recycled trolleys. I mean, the whole thing is is super-sustainable. In fact, I'm trying and I'm going to make this the most sustainable supermarket in the world. That's zero food waste. And no one's doing that just yet. In fact, Sainbury's, if you're watching, try it on. I'm going to get there before you.

So nature doesn't create waste doesn't create waste as such. Everything in nature is used up in a closed continuous cycle with waste being the end of the beginning. And that's been something that's been nurturing me for some time. And it's an important statement to understand. If we don't stand up and make a difference and think about sustainable food, think about the sustainable nature of it, then we may fail. But -- I wanted to get up and show you that we can do it if we're more responsible. Environmentally-conscious businesses are doable. They're here. You can see I've done three so far; I've got a few more to go. The idea is embryonic. I think it's important. I think that if we reduce, reuse, refuse and recycle -- right at the end there. Recycling is the last point I want to make. But it's the four R's, rather than the three R's. Then I think we're going to be on our way. So these three are not perfect -- they're ideas. I think that there are many problems to come, but with help, I'm sure I'm going to find solutions. And I hope you all take part.

Thank you very much.
 


留下您對本課程的評論
標題:
您目前為非會員,留言名稱將顯示「匿名非會員」
只能進行20字留言

留言內容:

驗證碼請輸入3 + 7 =

標籤

現有標籤:1
新增標籤:


有關本課程的討論

目前暫無評論,快來留言吧!

Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。
協助推廣單位: