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楊瀾談重塑中國的一代

Yang Lan: The generation that's remaking China

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Yang Lan

2011年7月演講,2011年10月在TEDGlobal上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

楊瀾是一位記者,也是一位企業家,被稱為「中國的歐普拉」。在這場演講中,她闡述對下一代年輕中國公民的剖析-包括城市化的影響、透過微博的交流方式,以及他們對社會缺乏公義的警醒。

 

關於Yang Lan

楊瀾常被稱為「中國的歐普拉」。楊是一位多平台商業帝國的主席,在中國這個共產主義國家中開創了更開放的溝通方式。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

楊瀾在中國媒體界的崛起如同歐普拉在美國的成功。原因顯而易見:楊是一位白手起家的企業家及中國媒體界最有影響力的女性。她身為與丈夫一起建立的商業帝國-陽光媒體集團主席,也是開放式溝通的先驅。

 

楊以創立中國第一個電視時事節目開始她的新聞生涯。從《楊瀾訪談錄》開始,她創立並主持了許多其他開創性節目。廣受歡迎的《天下女人》,現在包括一個網路雜誌和網站,已成為中國最大的職業婦女社群(每月超過2億人次)。

 

楊曾擔任2008年北京奧運形象大使,也在慈善事業上發揮她的影響力。她於2005年成立陽光文化基金會,以喚起人們對於貧困的認知,並促進跨文化之間的交流。

 

「楊是女性傑出的榜樣,她希望在日益全球化的社會,實現橫跨整個媒體產業的夢想。」

-Paley媒體中心,2007年「She Made It」倡議

 

Yang Lan的英語網上資料

Home: chinasunmedia.com

Home: english.sina.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

楊瀾談重塑中國的一代

前往蘇格蘭的前一天晚上,我獲邀主持在上海舉辦的「中國達人秀」決賽,在體育館與八萬名觀眾共襄盛舉。猜猜當晚的表演嘉賓是誰?蘇珊波伊爾。我告訴她,「我明天要去蘇格蘭。」她的歌聲很美,她甚至還試著說了幾個中文字,送你蔥。這不是像「哈囉」或「謝謝」那種一般的問候語,它的意思是「送你蔥」。她為什麼要說這句話?這個典故來自我們中國版的蘇珊波伊爾,一位50多歲的婦女,喜歡唱西洋歌劇的上海菜販,但她一句英語、法語或義大利語都不懂,所以她設法將中文的蔬菜名填入歌詞。(笑聲)她在體育場演唱《公主徹夜未眠》這首歌的最後一句就是「送你蔥」。所以當蘇珊波伊爾說了這句話之後,現場八萬名觀眾一同齊聲歌唱,相當熱鬧。

 

所以我認為,蘇珊波伊爾和這位上海菜販都屬於異類,她們被認為是最不可能在所謂娛樂產業中獲得成功的人,但她們的勇氣和才能帶領她們完成夢想;一個節目和一個表演台,為她們造就了實現自己夢想的舞臺。嗯,與人不同並沒有那麼困難。從不同角度來說,我們都是與眾不同的,但我認為與眾不同是件好事,因為你表現出一個不同的觀點,你或許有機會做出一些改變。

 

我們這一代非常幸運,得以目睹並參與中國歷史性的改變,在過去二、三十年中已出現相當多的變化。我還記得1990年,當時我剛從大學畢業,前去北京第一家五星級飯店應徵銷售部門的工作,喜來登長城飯店-它目前仍在營運。歷經一位日本經理半小時的面試,他最後說,「好,楊小姐,妳有任何問題嗎?」我鼓起勇氣,保持鎮靜,然後說,「是的,你是否能告訴我,你們銷售的究竟是什麼?」我對五星級飯店銷售部門的情況根本毫無頭緒,那是我第一次踏入五星級飯店。

 

大約在同一個時間,我通過了一個面試,中國國家電視台首次的公開面試,與上千位女大學生競爭。製作人告訴我們,他們想找一些甜美、天真、漂亮的新面孔,所以,當輪到我時,我站起來說,「為什麼電視上女性的形象總是必須得漂亮、甜美、天真,還有,唯命是從?她們為什麼不能有自己的想法和聲音?」我想我多少得罪了他們,但我的話確實讓他們留下深刻印象,所以我進入第二輪的競爭行列,然後是第三、第四輪。經過七輪的競爭後,我成了最後脫穎而出的人。因此,我開始主持一個國家電視台黃金時段的節目。信不信由你,這是中國電視史上第一個允許主持人說出自己想法的節目,而不用照本宣科地唸經過批准的腳本。(掌聲)當時這個節目每週的觀眾是2億到3億人。

 

幾年後,我決定前往美國哥倫比亞大學進修研究生課程,之後我開設了自己的媒體公司,這是我在職業生涯這些年當中從未想過的事。我們做了很多事,我曾訪問過一千多人。有時候,年輕人在我面前說,「瀾,妳改變了我的生命。」我為此感到驕傲。但我們也有幸能目睹整個國家的轉型。我參加過北京申奧活動,擔任過上海世博會大使,我目睹了中國擁抱世界、世界擁抱中國。但有時我會思考,當今年輕的一代追求的是什麼?他們有何不同?他們將做出什麼樣的改變以塑造中國的未來?或宏觀來說,這個世界的未來?

 

所以我今天要談論的是,藉由社群媒體平臺來看當今年輕人。首先,他們是哪些人?是什麼樣的人?好,這是一位叫郭美美的女孩,20歲,很漂亮,她在個人微博上炫耀自己昂貴的包包、衣服和名車,微博相當於中國版的Twitter。她自稱是中國紅十字商會總經理,她沒有意識到自己踩到了一條敏感的神經,引起全國對紅十字會公信力的質疑,幾乎是群情嘩然。這引發了相當激烈的爭議,紅十字會不得不開記者會澄清,並調查事件的來龍去脈。

 

到目前為止,截至今天,我們知道,她自己虛構了那個頭銜。或許是因為與慈善機構扯上關係讓她感到自豪,這所有昂貴物品都是她男友送的禮物,他曾是紅十字商會分會之一的董事會成員,解釋起來非常複雜。但無論如何,大眾仍然不買賬,依然議論紛紛。這向我們顯示,人民對政府或政府支持的機構普遍存在著不信任感,因為過去其運作缺乏透明化的緣故。這也向我們顯示像微博這樣的社群媒體之力量及影響。

 

微博從2010年開始蓬勃發展,至今造訪者已增加一倍,網站瀏覽的時間已成為三倍。單是新浪網,一個主要的新聞媒體網站,就有1億4千多萬名微博使用者,騰訊網有2億名使用者。最受歡迎的部落客-不是我,是一位電影明星,有超過950萬的追蹤者,或粉絲。大約80%的微博使用者都是30歲以下的年輕人,因為,如你們所知,傳統媒體仍然受到政府嚴格控制,社群媒體提供了一個出口,讓人民的想法得以稍微釋放一些。但因為並沒有很多其他的出口,從這個出口釋放的熱力有時候非常強烈、活躍,甚至是暴力的。

 

因此,透過微博,我們得以更瞭解中國的年輕人。那麼,他們有何不同?首先,他們大多出生於80和90年代,在一胎化政策下,因為重男輕女家庭的選擇性墮胎,結果是,現在我國年輕男性比女性多三千萬人。這對社會來說可能構成潛在危機,但誰知道呢?我們在一個全球化的世界,所以他們可以找來自其他國家的女朋友。他們大多受到相當良好的教育,中國這一代年輕人的文盲率不到百分之一。城市中,有80%的孩子都進大學就讀,但他們面臨中國人口逐漸高齡化的問題。今年,全國65歲以上人口的比例為百分之七點多,到了2030年將成為15%。你們知道,我們有個傳統,年輕一代供養年老一代,並在生病時照顧他們。因此,這意味著,一對年輕夫婦將必須供養四位平均壽命為73歲的年邁雙親。

 

所以對年輕人來說,謀生並不容易,大學畢業生供過於求。在城市地區,大學畢業生的起薪大約是每月400美元,但平均房租卻超過500美元。那麼,他們怎麼辦?他們不得不共用居住空間,擠在非常有限的空間來省錢,他們自稱為「蟻族」。對那些準備結婚並購買公寓的人來說,他們瞭解到,必需工作30至40年才買得起他們第一間公寓。以美國的房價比例來說,一對夫婦只需工作五年即可負擔,但在中國房地產價格暴漲的情況下,則需30至40年。

 

在2億個到外地工作者當中,有60%是年輕人,他們發現自己處於城市和農村間的夾縫中,其中大多數人不希望回到農村,但他們對城市缺乏歸屬感。他們的工作時間更長,收入更少,社會福利也較少,他們也更容易失業。受到通貨膨脹、銀行貸款緊縮、人民幣升值或歐美各國對他們生產的產品需求下降的影響。然而,去年中國南部製造零件的代工廠發生了駭人聽聞的事件,13位十幾、二十出頭的年輕工人自殺,一個接一個的,就像得傳染病似的。他們是因為各種不同的個人原因而自殺,但這整個事件引起人們對這些到外地工作者在身心上對社會產生疏離感這個問題進行熱烈討論。

 

對那些返回農村的人來說,他們發現自己非常受當地人歡迎,因為藉由在城市中學到的知識、技能和網路知識,在網際網路的幫助下,他們能創造更多的就業機會,提升當地的農業產能,並在這個較不發達的市場中開創新的事業。因此,過去幾年,人們發現沿海地區有勞動力短缺的現象。

 

這些圖顯示的是較一般性的社會背景。第一張是恩格爾係數圖,顯示過去十年中日用品花費的比例下降,大約佔家庭收入的37%。但在過去兩年中,它再度上升至39%,顯示日常生活費用的上升。吉尼係數(係數越大表示所得分配越不平均)已超過0.4的危險基準線,現在是0.5-甚至比美國的情況還糟,顯示我們所得分配極不平均。因此,你們可以看到,整個社會因為失去流動性而變得越來越沮喪,還有對富有者和有權勢者的敵意、甚至反感相當普遍。因此,任何對於政府或企業間貪腐或幕後交易的指控,都會在社會上引起軒然大波,甚至造成社會動盪。

 

因此,透過微博上一些最熱門的話題,我們得以瞭解年輕人最關心的事。社會公義及政府責任是他們首要的要求。在過去十年左右的時間裡,大規模的城市化和城市開發,讓我們目睹了很多關於私有財產被強制拆遷的報導,這在年輕一代當中引起相當大的憤怒和挫折感。人們有時因此被殺害,有時自焚抗議。所以當這些事件的報導越來越頻繁地出現在網路上時,人民要求政府採取行動,制止這種情形。

 

因此,好消息是,今年稍早,國務院通過了關於房屋徵用和拆遷的新條例,將命令強制拆遷的權力由地方政府轉移到法院。同樣的,許多與公眾安全有關的其他議題成為網路上的熱門話題,我們藉此得知了受污染的空氣、水和有毒食品等消息。知道嗎?我國有假牛肉。他們將各種成分塗在雞肉或魚肉上,讓它看起來像牛肉。還有最近人們非常關心食用油的問題,因為發現有上千人從餐廳排放的污水中提煉食用油(即地溝油)。因此,這所有的事件在網路上引起軒然大波。幸運的是,我們看到政府更及時、也更頻繁地回應人民所關切的事。

 

雖然年輕人似乎對於參與公共決策的信念相當確定,但有時他們在個人生活需求方面卻有點迷失。中國很快就會超越美國,成為全球第一大奢侈品消費市場,這還不包括中國人民在歐洲及其他地方的消費。但你們知道嗎?這些消費者當中。有半數收入低於2000美元,他們並不富裕,他們將這些包包和衣服視為身份和社會地位的象徵。這個女孩在電視徵婚節目上直言不諱地說,她寧願在BMW上哭泣,也不願在自行車上開懷而笑。但當然,確實也有年輕人依然寧願開懷而笑,無論是在BMW還是自行車上。

 

因此,在下一張圖片中,你看到的是一個非常流行的現象,稱為「裸婚」,或「裸婚族」。這不是指他們將在婚禮上裸體,這代表這些年輕夫婦準備在沒有房子、車子、鑽戒及婚宴的情況下結婚,展現他們對真愛的承諾。此外,人們也藉由社群媒體行善。第一張圖片顯示的是一輛卡車,上面關著500隻即將被加工成食品的流浪狗及被綁架的狗,在公路上被人發現並擋下,全國人民都可以透過微博看到這一幕。人們捐錢、捐狗食,並自願出力阻止這輛卡車。經過數小時的交涉後,500隻狗都被救出。也有人在微博上協尋失蹤兒童。一位父親將兒子的照片張貼在網路上,經過數千人協助搜尋後,孩子被找到了,我們透過微博就可看到這家人團聚的情景。

 

所以,過去兩年內最流行的一個字眼就是幸福。幸福不僅與個人體驗及價值觀有關,也與環境息息相關。人們思考下列問題:我們打算犧牲環境,進一步達成較高的國內生產總值嗎?我們該如何執行社會和政治改革,使國家能跟上經濟成長的腳步,並維持永續發展及穩定?還有,這個自我修正的系統,如何能讓更多人在所發生的各種衝突中同時感到安心?我想這些就是人民將要解答的問題。我們年輕的一代即將改變這個國家,同時讓自己有所改變。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Yang Lan, a journalist and entrepreneur who's been called "the Oprah of China," offers insight into the next generation of young Chinese citizens -- urban, connected (via microblogs) and alert to injustice.

About this Speaker

Yang Lan is often called “the Oprah of China.” The chair of a multiplatform business empire, Yang is pioneering more-open means of communication in the communist nation. Full bio and more links

Transcript

The night before I was heading for Scotland, I was invited to host the final of "China's Got Talent" show in Shanghai with the 80,000 live audience in the stadium. Guess who was the performing guest? Susan Boyle. And I told her, "I'm going to Scotland the next day." She sang beautifully, and she even managed to say a few words in Chinese. [Chinese] So it's not like "hello" or "thank you," that ordinary stuff. It means "green onion for free." Why did she say that? Because it was a line from our Chinese parallel Susan Boyle -- a 50-some year-old woman, a vegetable vendor in Shanghai, who loves singing Western opera, but she didn't understand any English or French or Italian, so she managed to fill in the lyrics with vegetable names in Chinese. (Laughter) And the last sentence of Nessun Dorma that she was singing in the stadium was "green onion for free." So [as] Susan Boyle was saying that, 80,000 live audience sang together. That was hilarious.

So I guess both Susan Boyle and this vegetable vendor in Shanghai belonged to otherness. They were the least expected to be successful in the business called entertainment, yet their courage and talent brought them through. And a show and a platform gave them the stage to realize their dreams. Well, being different is not that difficult. We are all different from different perspectives. But I think being different is good, because you present a different point of view. You may have the chance to make a difference.

My generation has been very fortunate to witness and participate in the historic transformation of China that has made so many changes in the past 20, 30 years. I remember that in the year of 1990, when I was graduating from college, I was applying for a job in the sales department of the first five-star hotel in Beijing, Great Wall Sheraton -- it's still there. So after being interrogated by this Japanese manager for a half an hour, he finally said, "So, Miss Yang, do you have any questions to ask me?" I summoned my courage and poise and said, "Yes, but could you let me know, what actually do you sell?" I didn't have a clue what a sales department was about in a five-star hotel. That was the first day I set my foot in a five-star hotel.

Around the same time, I was going through an audition -- the first ever open audition by national television in China -- with another thousand college girls. The producer told us they were looking for some sweet, innocent and beautiful fresh face. So when it was my turn, I stood up and said, "Why [do] women's personalities on television always have to be beautiful, sweet, innocent and, you know, supportive? Why can't they have their own ideas and their own voice?" I thought I kind of offended them. But actually, they were impressed by my words. And so I was in the second round of competition, and then the third and the fourth. After seven rounds of competition, I was the last one to survive it. So I was on a national television prime-time show. And believe it or not, that was the first show on Chinese television that allowed its hosts to speak out of their own minds without reading an approved script. (Applause) And my weekly audience at that time was between 200 to 300 million people.

Well after a few years, I decided to go to the U.S. and Columbia University to pursue my postgraduate studies, and then started my own media company, which was unthought of during the years that I started my career. So we do a lot of things. I've interviewed more than a thousand people in the past. And sometimes I have young people approaching me say, "Lan, you changed my life," and I feel proud of that. But then we are also so fortunate to witness the transformation of the whole country. I was in Beijing's bidding for the Olympic Games. I was representing the Shanghai Expo. I saw China embracing the world and vice versa. But then sometimes I'm thinking, what are today's young generation up to? How are they different, and what are the differences they are going to make to shape the future of China, or at large, the world?

So today I want to talk about young people through the platform of social media. First of all, who are they? [What] do they look like? Well this is a girl called Guo Meimei -- 20 years old, beautiful. She showed off her expensive bags, clothes and car on her microblog, which is the Chinese version of Twitter. And she claimed to be the general manager of Red Cross at the Chamber of Commerce. She didn't realize that she stepped on a sensitive nerve and aroused national questioning, almost a turmoil, against the credibility of Red Cross. The controversy was so heated that the Red Cross had to open a press conference to clarify it, and the investigation is going on.

So far, as of today, we know that she herself made up that title -- probably because she feels proud to be associated with charity. All those expensive items were given to her as gifts by her boyfriend, who used to be a board member in a subdivision of Red Cross at Chamber of Commerce. It's very complicated to explain. But anyway, the public still doesn't buy it. It is still boiling. It shows us a general mistrust of government or government-backed institutions, which lacked transparency in the past. And also it showed us the power and the impact of social media as microblog.

Microblog boomed in the year of 2010, with visitors doubled and time spent on it tripled. Sina.com, a major news portal, alone has more than 140 million microbloggers. On Tencent, 200 million. The most popular blogger -- it's not me -- it's a movie star, and she has more than 9.5 million followers, or fans. About 80 percent of those microbloggers are young people, under 30 years old. And because, as you know, the traditional media is still heavily controlled by the government, social media offers an opening to let the steam out a little bit. But because you don't have many other openings, the heat coming out of this opening is sometimes very strong, active and even violent.

So through microblogging, we are able to understand Chinese youth even better. So how are they different? First of all, most of them were born in the 80s and 90s, under the one-child policy. And because of selected abortion by families who favored boys to girls, now we have ended up with 30 million more young men than women. That could pose a potential danger to the society, but who knows; we're in a globalized world, so they can look for girlfriends from other countries. Most of them have fairly good education. The illiteracy rate in China among this generation is under one percent. In cities, 80 percent of kids go to college. But they are facing an aging China with a population above 65 years old coming up with seven-point-some percent this year, and about to be 15 percent by the year of 2030. And you know we have the tradition that younger generations support the elders financially, and taking care of them when they're sick. So it means young couples will have to support four parents who have a life expectancy of 73 years old.

So making a living is not that easy for young people. College graduates are not in short supply. In urban areas, college graduates find the starting salary is about 400 U.S. dollars a month, while the average rent is above $500. So what do they do? They have to share space -- squeezed in very limited space to save money -- and they call themselves "tribe of ants." And for those who are ready to get married and buy their apartment, they figured out they have to work for 30 to 40 years to afford their first apartment. That ratio in America would only cost a couple five years to earn, but in China it's 30 to 40 years with the skyrocketing real estate price.

Among the 200 million migrant workers, 60 percent of them are young people. They find themselves sort of sandwiched between the urban areas and the rural areas. Most of them don't want to go back to the countryside, but they don't have the sense of belonging. They work for longer hours with less income, less social welfare. And they're more vulnerable to job losses, subject to inflation, tightening loans from banks, appreciation of the renminbi, or decline of demand from Europe or America for the products they produce. Last year, though, an appalling incident in a southern OEM manufacturing compound in China: 13 young workers in their late teens and early 20s committed suicide, just one by one like causing a contagious disease. But they died because of all different personal reasons. But this whole incident aroused a huge outcry from society about the isolation, both physical and mental, of these migrant workers.

For those who do return back to the countryside, they find themselves very welcome locally, because with the knowledge, skills and networks they have learned in the cities, with the assistance of the Internet, they're able to create more jobs, upgrade local agriculture and create new business in the less developed market. So for the past few years, the coastal areas, they found themselves in a shortage of labor.

These diagrams show a more general social background. The first one is the Engels coefficient, which explains that the cost of daily necessities has dropped its percentage all through the past decade, in terms of family income, to about 37-some percent. But then in the last two years, it goes up again to 39 percent, indicating a rising living cost. The Gini coefficient has already passed the dangerous line of 0.4. Now it's 0.5 -- even worse than that in America -- showing us the income inequality. And so you see this whole society getting frustrated about losing some of its mobility. And also, the bitterness and even resentment towards the rich and the powerful is quite widespread. So any accusations of corruption or backdoor dealings between authorities or business would arouse a social outcry or even unrest.

So through some of the hottest topics on microblogging, we can see what young people care most about. Social justice and government accountability runs the first in what they demand. For the past decade or so, a massive urbanization and development have let us witness a lot of reports on the forced demolition of private property. And it has aroused huge anger and frustration among our young generation. Sometimes people get killed, and sometimes people set themselves on fire to protest. So when these incidents are reported more and more frequently on the Internet, people cry for the government to take actions to stop this.

So the good news is that earlier this year, the state council passed a new regulation on house requisition and demolition and passed the right to order forced demolition from local governments to the court. Similarly, many other issues concerning public safety is a hot topic on the Internet. We heard about polluted air, polluted water, poisoned food. And guess what, we have faked beef. They have sorts of ingredients that you brush on a piece of chicken or fish, and it turns it to look like beef. And then lately, people are very concerned about cooking oil, because thousands of people have been found [refining] cooking oil from restaurant slop. So all these things have aroused a huge outcry from the Internet. And fortunately, we have seen the government responding more timely and also more frequently to the public concerns.

While young people seem to be very sure about their participation in public policy-making, but sometimes they're a little bit lost in terms of what they want for their personal life. China is soon to pass the U.S. as the number one market for luxury brands -- that's not including the Chinese expenditures in Europe and elsewhere. But you know what, half of those consumers are earning a salary below 2,000 U.S. dollars. They're not rich at all. They're taking those bags and clothes as a sense of identity and social status. And this is a girl explicitly saying on a TV dating show that she would rather cry in a BMW than smile on a bicycle. But of course, we do have young people who would still prefer to smile, whether in a BMW or [on] a bicycle.

So in the next picture, you see a very popular phenomenon called "naked" wedding, or "naked" marriage. It does not mean they will wear nothing in the wedding, but it shows that these young couples are ready to get married without a house, without a car, without a diamond ring and without a wedding banquet, to show their commitment to true love. And also, people are doing good through social media. And the first picture showed us that a truck caging 500 homeless and kidnapped dogs for food processing was spotted and stopped on the highway with the whole country watching through microblogging. People were donating money, dog food and offering volunteer work to stop that truck. And after hours of negotiation, 500 dogs were rescued. And here also people are helping to find missing children. A father posted his son's picture onto the Internet. After thousands of [unclear], the child was found, and we witnessed the reunion of the family through microblogging.

So happiness is the most popular word we have heard through the past two years. Happiness is not only related to personal experiences and personal values, but also, it's about the environment. People are thinking about the following questions: Are we going to sacrifice our environment further to produce higher GDP? How are we going to perform our social and political reform to keep pace with economic growth, to keep sustainability and stability? And also, how capable is the system of self-correctness to keep more people content with all sorts of friction going on at the same time? I guess these are the questions people are going to answer. And our younger generation are going to transform this country while at the same time being transformed themselves.

Thank you very much.

(Applause)
 


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有關本課程的討論

课程讨论
我看哭了,为中国青年

有理又知花, 2013-09-28 19:56:21
課程討論
如果有中英文字幕就更好了
Anonymous, 2012-04-01 23:42:43
课程讨论
太棒了
Anonymous, 2011-11-30 00:05:02
課程討論
爛尾!
Anonymous, 2011-11-22 22:30:18
課程討論
楊瀾更多的不是討論中國當代的年輕人,而像是給新浪微博做推廣、盤點中國2011年大事件。她只是淺顯地提出了中國年輕人的生存和精神囧境,沒有深入去分析和討論解決這種困境的辦法。
shinetu, 2011-10-25 02:18:31

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