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課程來源:TED
     

 

Alexander Tsiaras 談可視化的受孕到誕生過程

Alexander Tsiaras: Conception to birth – visualized

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Alexander Tsiaras

2010年12月演講,2011年11月在INK Conference上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

影像製作者Alexander Tsiaras與聽眾分享了強大的可視化醫學,展示人類從受孕到誕生及之後的發展過程。(部分僅是圖片,但其它為影片格式)

 

關於Alexander Tsiaras

Alexander Tsiaras運用藝術及科技,使不可見的人體部份可視化。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Alexander Tsiaras是一位藝術家及技術開發者,致力於探索不可見的人體部份,並開發科學可視化軟體,使他能使用大量數據「畫」出人體解剖結構。他是《人體探索之旅》作者及《資訊建築師》共同作者。他最新的著作是《孕:目睹子宮內的奇蹟》。

 

他最近的計畫是「影像醫學博士(The Visual MD)」,這是一個可視化人體網站。

 

Alexander Tsiaras的英語網上資料

Home: Anatomical Travel

Home: The Visual MD

Book: Conception to Birth

More: Tsiaras speaks at BIF-2 and BIF-4

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Alexander Tsiaras 談可視化的受孕到誕生過程

 

我是醫學系副教授和科學可視化主任,於耶魯大學醫學系任職。我的工作是為NASA編寫許多演算法和程式碼,用於即將進行長途太空飛行的太空人虛擬手術上,使這些資料可以儲存在機器人中。在我們實際運作過程中,一件令人著迷的事是,使用新型掃描技術,我們觀察到之前從未見過的東西。我指的是,不僅是疾病管理而已,我們也能在人體上看見令人驚嘆不已的東西。

 

我還記得第一次觀察膠原的時候。在整個身體中所有的一切-你的頭髮、皮膚、骨骼、指甲全都是由膠原組成,它是一種繩狀結構,像這樣捲曲成螺旋狀。膠原結構唯一發生改變的地方就是眼睛的角膜。在你的眼睛裡它變成網狀型態,因此變得透明,而非不透明;如此完美組織的結構,很難不將它歸屬於上帝的傑作,因為我們一再地在身體上各個不同部位看見它。

 

當我與美國國家衛生研究院合作,進行一項相當有趣的微核磁共振造影機計畫時,得到一個機會。我們打算做的是一個新掃描計畫,使用這些新技術,觀察胎兒從受孕到出生的發展。所以我寫了演算法的程式碼,Paul Lauterbur製造了硬體,然後因為發明MRI(磁共振造影術)而獲得諾貝爾獎。我拿到這份資料,我將讓你們觀賞其中一些例子,「從受孕到誕生」。

 

(音樂)

 

影片字幕:「從受孕到誕生」;卵母細胞;精子;受精卵;24小時:胎兒首次分裂;受精卵融合後幾小時分裂;每12至15小時再次分裂;早期胚胎;卵黃囊仍提供嬰兒養分;25天:心臟腔室發展中;32天:手臂和手發展中;36天:原椎胚開始發展;這幾週是胎兒發展最快速時期;如果胎兒在整整9個月中持續以這種速度成長,出生時體重將會是1.5噸;45天;胚胎心跳速率是母親的兩倍;51天;52天:視網膜、鼻子和手指發展中;為了讓肌肉和骨骼持續生長,胎兒必需在子宮內不斷運動;12週:不明顯的陰莖,性別尚無法確定;8個月;分娩:生產階段;出生的一刻。

 

(掌聲)

 

Alexander Tsiaras:謝謝。但如你們所見,當你真正開始著手處理這些數據時,它是相當壯觀的。當我們繼續掃描更多東西,致力於進行這個計畫,觀察這兩個簡單的細胞,它們擁有這種令人難以置信、成為你這個神奇產物的組織結構。我們繼續著手處理這些數據,觀察身體中的小囊泡,這些小塊組織是胚泡上的滋養層,突然自行侵入子宮壁說,「我要留在這裡。」突然跟雌激素產生對話和通訊;這個黃體酮說,「我要留在這裡,讓我著床。」建構出這種令人難以置信的三線型胎兒結構,在44天內變成某種你可以識別的東西。到了九週時,它確實稍微有了一點人類的雛形。這個訊息中蘊含的驚奇在於,我們如何確實讓身體裡的生物機制真正瞭解這個訊息?

 

我要讓你們看一些相當獨特的東西。這是一顆25週大的人類心臟,基本上只有兩股。就像神奇的摺紙藝術般,細胞在四週內,以每秒一百萬個的速度發展,它只是自行折疊而已。五週內,你可以開始看見早期的心房和心室;到了第六週,這些皺褶開始形成心臟內部的乳突結構,每一個都可以向下折疊成實際的心臟瓣膜,直到你擁有一顆成熟的心臟,基本上這就是整個人體中進行的發展過程。這個機制的魔法存在於每一個遺傳結構中,正確表達出神經細胞該生長於哪個位置。這些數學模型的複雜性,這些工作事實上是如何完成的,已超出人類理解範圍。

 

即使我是一位數學家,依然驚奇不已地看著這一切。這些指令集如何在構建我們時不發生錯誤?這是一個謎、一種魔法、一種神的力量。然後我們開始觀察成人的生命結構,看看這一小簇微血管叢。這只是一種微小的子結構,相當細微,但基本上當你9個月大,即將出生時,體內已擁有將近60000英哩的血管。我的意思是,看得見的只有一英哩,59,999英哩基本上是用來攜入養份及攜離廢物。這個建構於單一系統中的複雜性,再次地超越任何理解範圍或現有的數學模型。

 

而這個從大腦到身體其餘每一個部分的指令集-看看這種折疊的複雜性,瞭解這種折疊方式事實上可以容納更多資訊的智慧是從何而來?所以當你真正觀察嬰兒大腦的發展時,這是我們目前正在進行的工作之一,事實上我們展開了兩項新研究;從嬰兒出生那一刻開始,掃描他們的大腦,每6個月一次,直到他們6歲。事實上我們打算在大約250名兒童身上進行,觀察腦迴和腦溝事實上是如何摺疊而成,看看這個不可思議的發展如何變成屬於我們的記憶和奇蹟。

 

這不僅跟我們本身的存在有關,還有女性身體如何瞭解,不僅是由她們自行構建的遺傳結構,且擁有這個使她成為活動的免疫、心血管系統的知識。這基本上是一個移動系統,得以真正孕育並賦予孩子一種奇蹟。它,再次地,超越了我們理解範圍,成為存在於這個世界的奇蹟,那就是我們。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Image-maker Alexander Tsiaras shares a powerful medical visualization, showing human development from conception to birth and beyond. (Some graphic images.)

About the Speaker

Using art and technology, Alexander Tsiaras visualizes the unseen human body. Full bio and more links

Transcript

I was offered a position as associate professor of medicine and chief of scientific visualization at Yale University in the department of medicine. And my job was to write many of the algorithms and code for NASA to do virtual surgery in preparation for the astronauts going into deep spaceflight, so they could be kept in robotic pods. One of the fascinating things about what we were actually working on is that we were seeing, using new kinds of scanning technologies, things that had just never been seen before -- I mean, not only in disease management, but also things that allowed us to see things above the body that just made you marvel.

I remember one of the first times we were looking at collagen. And your entire body, everything -- your hair, skin, bone, nails -- everything is made of collagen. And it's a kind of rope-like structure that twirls and swirls like this. And the only place that collagen changes its structure is in the cornea of your eye. In your eye, it becomes a grid formation, and therefore, it becomes transparent, as opposed to opaque. So perfectly organized a structure, it was hard not to attribute divinity to it. Because we kept on seeing this over and over and over again in different parts of the body.

One of the opportunities I had was one person was working on a really interesting micromagnetic resonance imaging machine with the NIH. And what we were going to do was scan a new project on the development of the fetus from conception to birth using these kinds of new technologies. So I wrote the algorithms in code, and he built the hardware -- Paul Lauterbur -- then went onto win the Nobel Prize for inventing the MRI. I got the data. And I'm going to show you a sample of the piece, "From Conception to Birth."

(Music)

Video text: "From Conception to Birth" Oocyte Sperm Egg Inseminated 24 Hours: Baby's first division The fertilized ovum divides a few hours after fusion ... And divides anew every 12 to 15 hours. Early Embryo Yolk sack still feeding Baby. 25 Days: Heart chamber developing 32 Days: Arms & hands are developing 36 Days: Beginning of the primitive vertabrae These weeks are the period of the most rapid development of the fetus. If the fetus continues to grow at this speed for the entire nine months, it would be 1.5 tons at birth. 45 Days Embryo's heart is beating twice as fast as the mother's. 51 Days 52 Days: Developing retina, nose and fingers The fetus' continual movement in the womb is necessary for muscular and skeletal growth. 12 Weeks: Indifferent penis -- girl or boy yet to be determined 8 Months Delivery: the expulsion stage The moment of birth

(Applause)

Alexander Tsiaras: Thank you. But as you can see, when you actually start working on this data, it's pretty spectacular. And as we kept on scanning more and more, working on this project, looking at these two simple cells that have this kind of unbelievable machinery that will become the magic of you. And as we kept on working on this data, looking at small clusters of the body, these little pieces of tissue that were a trophoblast coming off of a blastocyst, all of a sudden burrowing itself into the side of the uterus, saying, "I'm here to stay." All of a sudden having conversation and communications with the estrogens, the progesterones, saying, "I'm here to stay, plant me," building this incredible trilinear fetus that becomes, within 44 days, something that you can recognize, and then at nine weeks is really kind of a little human being. The marvel of this information: How do we actually have this biological mechanism inside our body to actually see this information?

I'm going to show you something pretty unique. Here's a human heart at 25 [weeks]. It's just basically two strands. And like this magnificent origami, cells are developing at one million cells per second at four weeks, as it's just folding on itself. Within five weeks, you can start to see the early atrium and the early ventricles. Six weeks, these folds are now beginning with the papilla on the inside of the heart actually being able to pull down each one of those valves in your heart until you get a mature heart -- and then basically the development of the entire human body. The magic of the mechanisms inside each genetic structure saying exactly where that nerve cell should go -- the complexity of these mathematical models of how these things are indeed done are beyond human comprehension.

Even though I am a mathematician, I look at this with marvel of how do these instruction sets not make these mistakes as they build what is us? It's a mystery, it's magic, it's divinity. Then you start to take a look at adult life. Take a look at this little tuft of capillaries. It's just a tiny sub-substructure, microscopic. But basically by the time you're nine months and you're given birth, you have almost 60,000 miles of vessels inside your body. I mean, and only one mile is visible. 59,999 miles that are basically bringing nutrients and taking waste away. The complexity of building that within a single system is, again, beyond any comprehension or any existing mathematics today.

And that instruction set, from the brain to every other part of the body -- look at the complexity of the folding. Where does this intelligence of knowing that a fold can actually hold more information, so as you actually watch the baby's brain grow -- and this is one of the things that we're doing right now. We're actually doing the launch of two new studies of actually scanning babies' brains from the moment they're born. Every six months until they're six years old -- we're going to be doing actually to about 250 children -- watching exactly how the gyri and the sulci of the brains fold to see how this magnificent development actually turns into memories and the marvel that is us.

And it's not just our own existence, but how does the woman's body understand to have genetic structure that not only builds her own, but then has the understanding that allows her to become a walking immunological, cardiovascular system that basically is a mobile system that can actually nurture, treat this child with a kind of marvel that is beyond, again, our comprehension -- the magic that is existence, that is us?

Thank you.
 


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