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Paul Conneally 談數位化人道主義

Paul Conneally: Digital humanitarianism

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Paul Conneally

2011年11月演講,2012年2月在TEDxRC2上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

海地的災難性地震為人道主義團體上了意想不到的一課:行動裝置在協調、通訊和指導救災工作上的力量。Paul Conneally在TEDxRC2的演講中,舉出幾個非凡的例子,顯示社群媒體和其他新科技已逐漸成為人道援助工作的重要工具。

 

關於Paul Conneally

Paul Conneally是國際紅十字會與紅新月會國際聯合會公眾傳播經理,以及將數位科技用於人道援助的領導人物。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Paul Conneally於1988年開始擔任平面和廣播媒體記者,主要著重於製作社會經濟發展和國際政治方面的新聞報導和紀錄片。他曾任職於國際紅十字會11年,負責從北高加索和中亞地區到巴爾幹地區、阿富汗、索馬里、厄立特里亞、衣索比亞、蘇丹、以色列及佔領區的通訊、合作、運作等事項。他也擔任國際紅十字會日內瓦捐款報告單位負責人兩年半時間。

 

自2008年8月開始,Paul為國際紅十字會與紅新月會國際聯合會負責所有公眾傳播事宜,包括影音製作、宣傳倡議及網路和社群媒體等方面的工作。

 

Paul Conneally的英語網上資料

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Paul Conneally 談數位化人道主義

 

從20世紀初開始,人道主義模式幾乎沒有任何變化,它根深蒂固於類比時代,但一個重大轉變即將發生,這個轉變的催化劑就是2010年1月12日襲擊海地的大地震。海地是改變整個局面的關鍵,地震摧毀了首都太子港,奪去大約32萬人的生命,使大約120萬人無家可歸,政府機構完全癱瘓,包括總統府。我還記得自己站在太子港市中心的司法部屋頂上,這棟建築大約有兩公尺高,因地震猛烈的力量而完全被壓毀。

 

對我們這些在災後初期抵達現場的人員來說,顯然即使在經驗最豐富的救災老手眼中,海地的情況也是大不相同的。海地的情況是我們前所未見的,但海地也提供了某些前所未有的經驗。海地讓我們窺見,在人們得以利用智慧行動裝置產生高度連結的世界中,未來災害應變的可能情況。

 

因為在飽受摧殘的太子港市區之外,大量簡訊如排山倒海般傳入-人們請求援助、懇求我們的協助、分享資訊、提供支援、找尋他們的親人;這是傳統援助機構從未遭遇過的情況。我們身處世上最貧窮的國家之一,但80%的人手中都有行動裝置。我們並未預期到這種情況,而它塑造了援助工作的模式。

 

在海地之外的地方,情況同樣有所改變,成千上萬所謂的數位義工在網際網路上搜尋,將已轉變成網路訊息的簡訊進行轉換,然後放上開放資源地圖,使它們與各種重要資訊結合。例如危機地圖和開放街道地圖等網站人員,將這些資訊放上網路分享給大眾,使媒體、援助組織和社群本身得以參與和使用。

 

回顧海地,當地居民越來越傾向於使用簡訊傳遞訊息,飢餓和受傷的人們將他們的困境以簡訊發出,將他們所需的幫助以簡訊發出,整個太子港街道兩旁遍布創業家提供的手機充電站,他們比我們更瞭解,人民本能的需要互相連結。

 

從未遇過這種情況的我們,希望試著瞭解如何引用這個令人難以置信的資源,我們如何才能真正利用這令人難以置信的行動通訊及簡訊服務技術。我們開始與當地一間名為Voila的電信業者接觸,它是Trilogy國際企業的子公司,我們有三個基本需求:我們希望以雙向通訊進行溝通,我們不希望只是呼籲,我們也需要聆聽;我們希望針對特定地理區域,我們不需要同時向全國發出訊息;我們希望它易於使用。

 

從海地的斷垣殘壁和這場破壞當中,孕育出我們稱之為TERA的東西-即Trilogy緊急應變應用程式,從那時起,我們將它用於支援救援工作。它被用於幫助社區進行災害準備工作,它被用於與天氣有關的災害預警工作,它被用於公共健康宣傳活動,例如霍亂的預防;它甚至被用於敏感議題,例如建立對性別暴力的認知。

 

但它有用嗎?我們不久前才發表對這個計畫的評估,所有證據均顯示其成效相當顯著。大約74%的人接收到這些資訊-那些預設的接收者,有74%可接收到;其中96%的人發現它很有用,其中83%的人會採取行動,證實它的確有廣大影響力;其中73%的人會將資訊分享。

 

TERA系統在當地工程師支援下,從海地開始發展。這是一個易於使用的技術,將它用於人道救援能產生很大影響。科技可帶來變革,整個開發中國家、公民和社區正利用科技,使他們為自己的社區帶來變化,正向的變化。藉由社會力量的共享,強化了基層群眾的力量。他們正挑戰舊時模式,舊時用於控制和指揮的類比模式。

 

一個與科技改革力量有關的例子發生在奇貝拉。奇貝拉是非洲最大的貧民窟之一,位於肯亞首都奈洛比郊區,它是數目不詳人民的居住地-據說介於25萬至120萬之間。如果你今天抵達奈洛比,拿起旅遊地圖,可以看見奇貝拉是一座草木青蔥的國家公園,缺乏人類居住區域。

 

生活在奇貝拉當地社區的年輕人,藉由簡單的手持裝置-GPS手持裝置及可發簡訊的手機,將自己標示在地圖上。他們整理了來自群眾的資訊,呈現了人們原本無法看見的事物。像Josh和Steve這樣的人,持續整合各個資訊層面、即時訊息,將它貼上網路及地圖,供大眾使用。你可以藉此得知最近的臨時音樂會,你可以得知最近的安全事故,你可以藉此找到宗教活動場所,你可以藉此找到保健中心,你可以感受到這個欣欣向榮社區的活力。他們在YouTube上也有自己的新聞網,目前大約有36000瀏覽人次,他們讓我們知道可用行動裝置、數位科技做什麼。

 

他們顯示了科技的魔力可使無形變有形,他們給了自己一個發聲管道,他們說出自己的故事,不受限於官方發表的制式言論。

 

我們從世界各地看到了類似的故事。例如在蒙古,有30%的人是游牧民族,他們正使用簡訊系統追蹤遷移情況和天氣模式,人們甚至利用簡訊舉行遠程參與的牧民高峰會。如果人們打算遷入城市,來到陌生、充滿水泥建築的環境,他們也能藉由社會支援者事先準備好、以簡訊發送的知識預先得到幫助。在奈及利亞,開放資源簡訊工具正被紅十字會社區工作者用於收集來自當地社區的資訊,試著對瘧疾進行深入瞭解及降低其盛行率。我的同事,執行這個計畫的Jason Peat告訴我,這比傳統方法快了10倍,也便宜10倍。

 

不僅社區能使用這個工具,但真正重要的是,這些資訊留存在需要制訂長遠健康政策的社區。我們生存於一個星球,擁有70億人口及50億行動裝置用戶,到了2015年,世界上將會有30億台智慧手機。聯合國寬頻委員會最近定下目標,協助開發中國家50%的人口能擁有寬頻網路,相較於目前20%的人口。我們迅速邁向一個超連接世界,來自所有文化和社會階層的公民都將擁有智慧型、傳訊快速的行動裝置。

 

人們知道,從開羅到奧克蘭有個新方式可以連結在一起,有個新方式可以進行動員,有個新方式可以產生影響。一個轉變即將發生,我們必須藉由人道主義結構及人道主義模式瞭解,人們共同的聲音需要透過新科技整合,成為有組織的策略和行動計劃。不僅是用於集資或行銷,我們需要,例如,接收大量資訊。這些知識來自市場領導者,他們瞭解其中含義,及如何使用並利用大量資訊。

 

我希望你們思考的一個想法是,例如,觀察我們的IT(資訊技術)部門,他們通常是位於研究室或地下室的硬體服務供應商,但他們需要升級為軟體策略者,我們需要我們組織中的人員瞭解處理大量資訊是什麼情形,我們需要以科技作為組織原則的核心,我們需要會議室裡的科技策略者可以提出和回答問題,「亞馬遜或Google會怎麼處理這所有的資訊?」並將它轉變成有利於人道主義的工具。

 

新數位科技帶來的可能性可以幫助人道組織,不僅是確保人們獲得資訊或進行通訊的權利,但我認為,未來人道組織也必須預期人們獲得關鍵通訊技術的權利,以確保他們的聲音可以傳出去,確保他們真正參與的權利,確保他們真正處於人道主義世界。確保受災害影響的人們充分參與人道主義的工作一直是遙不可及的理想,我們現在擁有工具,擁有這個可能性,再也沒理由不這麼做。我認為,我們必須將人道主義世界從類比帶往數位境界。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

The disastrous earthquake in Haiti taught humanitarian groups an unexpected lesson: the power of mobile devices to coordinate, inform, and guide relief efforts. At TEDxRC2, Paul Conneally shows extraordinary examples of social media and other new technologies becoming central to humanitarian aid.

About the Speaker

Paul Conneally is the public communications manager for the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and a leader in using digital technologies for humanitarian aid. Full bio »

Transcript

The humanitarian model has barely changed since the early 20th century. Its origins are firmly rooted in the analog age. And there is a major shift coming on the horizon. The catalyst for this change was the major earthquake that struck Haiti on the 12th of January in 2010. Haiti was a game changer. The earthquake destroyed the capital of Port-au-Prince, claiming the lives of some 320,000 people, rendering homeless about 1.2 million people. Government institutions were completely decapitated, including the presidential palace. I remember standing on the roof of the Ministry of Justice in downtown Port-au-Prince. It was about two meters high, completely squashed by the violence of the earthquake.

For those of us on the ground in those early days, it was clear for even the most disaster-hardened veterans that Haiti was something different. Haiti was something we hadn't seen before. But Haiti provided us with something else unprecedented. Haiti allowed us to glimpse into a future of what disaster response might look like in a hyper-connected world where people have access to mobile smart devices.

Because out of the urban devastation in Port-au-Prince came a torrent of SMS texts -- people crying for help, beseeching us for assistance, sharing data, offering support, looking for their loved ones. This was a situation that traditional aid agencies had never before encountered. We were in one of the poorest countries on the planet, but 80 percent of the people had mobile devices in their hands. And we were unprepared for this, and they were shaping the aid effort.

Outside Haiti also, things were looking different. Tens of thousands of so-called digital volunteers were scouring the Internet, converting tweets that had already been converted from texts and putting these into open-source maps, layering them with all sorts of important information -- people like Crisis Mappers and Open Street Map -- and putting these on the Web for everybody -- the media, the aid organizations and the communities themselves -- to participate in and to use.

Back in Haiti, people were increasingly turning to the medium of SMS. People that were hungry and hurting were signaling their distress, were signaling their need for help. On street sides all over Port-au-Prince, entrepreneurs sprung up offering mobile phone charging stations. They understood more than we did people's innate need to be connected.

Never having been confronted with this type of situation before, we wanted to try and understand how we could tap into this incredible resource, how we could really leverage this incredible use of mobile technology and SMS technology. We started talking with a local telecom provider called Voilà, which is a subsidiary of Trilogy International. We had basically three requirements. We wanted to communicate in a two-way form of communication. We didn't want to shout; we needed to listen as well. We wanted to be able to target specific geographic communities. We didn't need to talk to the whole country at the same time. And we wanted it to be easy to use.

Out of this rubble of Haiti and from this devastation came something that we call TERA -- the Trilogy Emergency Response Application -- which has been used to support the aid effort ever since. It has been used to help communities prepare for disasters. It has been used to signal early warning in advance of weather-related disasters. It's used for public health awareness campaigns such as the prevention of cholera. And it is even used for sensitive issues such as building awareness around gender-based violence.

But does it work? We have just published an evaluation of this program, and the evidence that is there for all to see is quite remarkable. Some 74 percent of people received the data. Those who were intended to receive the data, 74 percent of them received it. 96 percent of them found it useful. 83 percent of them took action -- evidence that it is indeed empowering. And 73 percent of them shared it.

The TERA system was developed from Haiti with support of engineers in the region. It is a user-appropriate technology that has been used for humanitarian good to great effect. Technology is transformational. Right across the developing world, citizens and communities are using technology to enable them to bring about change, positive change, in their own communities. The grassroots has been strengthened through the social power of sharing and they are challenging the old models, the old analog models of control and command.

One illustration of the transformational power of technology is in Kibera. Kibera is one of Africa's largest slums. It's on the outskirts of Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. It's home to an unknown number of people -- some say between 250,000 and 1.2 million. If you were to arrive in Nairobi today and pick up a tourist map, Kibera is represented as a lush, green national park devoid of human settlement.

Young people living in Kibera in their community, with simple handheld devices, GPS handheld devices and SMS-enabled mobile phones, have literally put themselves on the map. They have collated crowd-sourced data and rendered the invisible visible. People like Josh and Steve are continuing to layer information upon information, real-time information, Tweet it and text it onto these maps for all to use. You can find out about the latest impromptu music session. You can find out about the latest security incident. You can find out about places of worship. You can find out about the health centers. You can feel the dynamism of this living, breathing community. They also have their own news network on YouTube with 36,000 viewers at the moment.

They're showing us what can be done with mobile, digital technologies. They're showing that the magic of technology can bring the invisible visible. And they are giving a voice to themselves. They are telling their own story, bypassing the official narrative.

And we're seeing from all points on the globe similar stories. In Mongolia for instance, where 30 percent of the people are nomadic, SMS information systems are being used to track migration and weather patterns. SMS is even used to hold herder summits from remote participation. And if people are migrating into urban, unfamiliar, concrete environments, they can also be helped in anticipation with social supporters ready and waiting for them based on SMS knowledge. In Nigeria, open-source SMS tools are being used by the Red Cross community workers to gather information from the local community in an attempt to better understand and mitigate the prevalence of malaria. My colleague, Jason Peat, who runs this program, tells me it's 10 times faster and 10 times cheaper than the traditional way of doing things.

And not only is it empowering to the communities, but really importantly, this information stays in the community where it is needed to formulate long-term health polices. We are on a planet of seven billion people, five billion mobile subscriptions. By 2015, there will be three billion smartphones in the world. The U.N. broadband commission has recently set targets to help broadband access in 50 percent of the Developing World, compared to 20 percent today. We are hurtling towards a hyper-connected world where citizens from all cultures and all social strata will have access to smart, fast mobile devices.

People are understanding, from Cairo to Oakland, that there are new ways to come together, there are new ways to mobilize, there are new ways to influence. A transformation is coming which needs to be understood by the humanitarian structures and humanitarian models. The collective voices of people needs to be more integrated through new technologies into the organizational strategies and plans of actions and not just recycled for fundraising or marketing. We need to, for example, embrace the big data, the knowledge that is there from market leaders who understand what it means to use and leverage big data.

One idea that I'd like you to consider, for instance, is to take a look at our IT departments. They're normally backroom or basement hardware service providers, but they need to be elevated to software strategists. We need people in our organizations who know what it's like to work with big data. We need technology as a core organizational principle. We need technological strategists in the boardroom who can ask and answer the question, "What would Amazon or Google do with all of this data?" and convert it to humanitarian good.

The possibilities that new digital technologies are bringing can help humanitarian organizations, not only ensure that people's right to information is met, or that they have their right to communicate, but I think in the future, humanitarian organizations will also have to anticipate the right for people to access critical communication technologies in order to ensure that their voices are heard, that they're truly participating, that they're truly empowered in the humanitarian world. It has always been the elusive ideal to ensure full participation of people affected by disasters in the humanitarian effort. We now have the tools. We now have the possibilities. There are no more reasons not to do it. I believe we need to bring the humanitarian world from analog to digital.

Thank you very much.

(Applause)
 

 


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很好谈到科技的影响力

Anonymous, 2012-03-31 14:00:32

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