MyOOPS開放式課程
請加入會員以使用更多個人化功能
來自全球頂尖大學的開放式課程,現在由世界各國的數千名義工志工為您翻譯成中文。請免費享用!
課程來源:TED
     

 

Taryn Simon 談血統背後的故事

Taryn Simon: The stories behind the bloodlines

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

 

講者:Taryn Simon

 

2012年2月演講,2012年3月在TED Salon London上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Taryn Simon藉由拍攝歷史中心人物的後裔,捕捉跨時代故事的精髓。在這場引人入勝的演講中,她展示了一系列來自世界各地的故事,調查了血統的本質,及眾多不同力量的交互作用如何形塑了我們的人生。

 

關於Taryn Simon

藉著大型相機和遊說技巧,Taryn Simon成功進入禁區,拍攝到一般民眾無法進入的美國基礎設施景觀。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

藉著《美國不為人知的角落索引》(An American Index of the Hidden and Unfamiliar)攝影集,Taryn Simon挖掘了美國不光彩的秘密。她被獲准進入各種地方,包括白虎養殖所、甘迺迪機場檢疫區、墮胎診所和病毒研究實驗室。Simon展示了深植於美國基礎、神話和日常生活中,但一般民眾仍無法進入或毫不知情的場所。在早期的攝影集《無辜》中,她拍攝了80多位經DNA檢測而被證明無罪的死刑犯肖像,並探討照片在審判過程中扮演的角色。

 

但Simon的攝影作品不僅是單純的文件記錄。其中蘊含著萬丈光芒、不安的氛圍及險惡的影響,隨著藝術的奧秘而脈動。

 

Taryn的作品「被宣告死亡的生者及其他章節」於2011年首次在倫敦泰特現代美術館及柏林新國家藝廊展出後,將於2012年5月2日至9月3日於紐約現代藝術博物館展出。

 

Taryn Simon的英語網上資料

Homepage: tarynsimon.com

Q&A: From design mind

Exhibit: A Living Man Declared Dead and Other Chapter

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Taryn Simon 談血統背後的故事

 

這是Shivdutt Yadav,他來自印度北方邦。當Shivdutt拜訪北方邦土地登記處時,發現官方記錄將他列為已死亡;他的土地不再登記於他的名下,他的兄弟Chandrabhan和Phoolchand也被列為已死亡。

 

家族成員行賄政府官員,插手世襲土地的繼承,藉由宣告三兄弟的死亡,讓他們得以繼承三兄弟父親留下的祖傳農田。因此,三兄弟和他們的家人不得不搬出自己的家。以Yadav家族這個案例來說,當地法院在2001年已排定此案件的審查程序,但法官卻從未開庭。

 

北方邦有幾個類似案例,在他們的案子獲得適當審查之前,當事人已死亡。Shivdutt父親的死亡及家族成員對他財產的覬覦,導致了這種腐敗現象。他被安葬在恆河中;死者在恆河岸邊被火化,或被綁上沉重的石頭,沉入河中。

 

拍攝這些兄弟的相片是一種令人困惑的反向證明,因為他們不存在於正式記錄上,而照片通常被視為某人存在的證據。然而,這些人依然被視為已死亡。這種令人為難的窘境導致了這個計畫的主題,它的觀點是,在許多方面來說,我們都是「活死人」;我們以某些方式呈現過去和未來的鬼魂。

 

這個故事寫於我新作品的前18章中,作品名稱為《被宣告死亡的生者及其他章節》。為了這項作品,我周遊世界四年多,研究和記錄血統及與其有關的故事。我對跟命運有關的想法很感興趣,想知道我們的命運是否取決於血統、機率或環境。我記錄的主題包括巴西家族間的鬥爭、波士尼亞種族屠殺受害者、第一位劫機的女性和印度的「活死人」。在每個章節中,你都可以看到統治、權力、領土或宗教等外在力量,與心理和身體所繼承之內在力量的衝突。

 

我的每一項作品都由三個部分組成。左邊是一個或多個人物肖像面板,我將某特定血統的成員進行系統性排列;接著是一個設計成滾動形式的文字面板,我在其中建立了關於成員背景的敘述。右邊設計成一個註腳面板,這是一個更直觀的空間,我在其中呈現了故事片段、其他故事的起源及照片證據,這多少是為了以較不具時間順序的形式,呈現我們在網路上蒐集到的歷史或故事,所以它較無秩序。這種無秩序與血統不可改變的順序形成直接對比。

 

我過去的計畫常以序列形式呈現,藉由確定的主題和確定的表述方式記錄較全面性的內容,但其實它是相當抽象的。在這個計畫中,我想以相反的方式運作,尋找一個具有絕對性質的主題,某種我無法選擇性地修改、安排或編輯的東西,這讓我想到了血統。血統是天生注定的,但這項計畫的重點在於有序與無序的碰撞-血統的有序相對於充滿混亂和暴力的故事中所呈現的失序;這就是這些章節的主題。

 

在第二章中,我拍攝了Arthur Ruppin的後裔。他在1907年被猶太復國主義組織派遣至巴勒斯坦,尋找適合猶太人的定居處,並收購土地作為猶太人的定居處。他代表巴勒斯坦土地開發公司負責徵地工作,他的努力導致一個猶太國的建立。我在耶路撒冷猶太復國主義檔案館進行研究,想看看與猶太國建立有關的早期文件。我發現你在投影片上看到的這些地圖,這些是猶太復國主義組織所做的關於猶太人定居處取代方案的研究。因此,我對地理因素所造成的影響很感興趣。想像一下,如果以色列在烏干達,世界會變得有何不同?這就是這些地圖所顯示的。這些檔案收藏在耶路撒冷,他們保存了按索引排列的檔案,包括從1919年到1965年移民到巴勒斯坦(後來的以色列地區)最早一批移民的檔案和申請書。

 

第三章:Joseph Nyamwanda Jura Ondijo,他在肯亞基蘇木郊區治療患者,包括愛滋病、肺結核、不孕症、精神病和驅邪。他收取的報酬大多是現金、牛或羊,但有時,當他的女病人付不起醫藥費時,她們的家人會將那些女性送給Jura來換取治療。這些交易的結果造成Jura有9個妻子、32個孩子和63個孫輩,你可以在投影片上看到他的子孫。

 

其中兩個患有不孕症的妻子為他帶來了這些後代,他治癒了她們;三個所謂中邪的妻子,其中一個罹患氣喘和嚴重胸痛;Ondijo聲稱他是為了愛而娶另外兩個妻子,支付她們家人總共16頭牛;一位妻子拋棄了他,另一位在驅邪過程中過世。肯亞廣泛實行一夫多妻制,這在特權階級中相當普遍,他們能支付大筆聘金並維持多個家庭,重要社會和政治人物進行一夫多妻制的實例,導致一夫多妻制被視為財富、地位和權力的象徵。

 

你或許注意到,有幾個章節中的肖像處是空白的,這些空白處代表某個活著、但無法拍攝肖像的人,我在文字面板上敘述了他們缺席的原因。包括罹患登革熱、坐牢、從軍,因宗教和文化因素而不允許拍照的婦女。在這個章節中,空白處是因為這些孩子的母親不允許他們前往拍照地點,擔心他們的父親會趁機綁架他們。

 

二十四隻歐洲兔在1859年被帶到澳洲,這是英國移民為了狩獵等目的而帶來的。在一百年當中,24隻兔子已暴增至5億隻。歐洲兔在澳洲沒有天敵,牠們與當地野生動物競爭,損害當地植物、使土地退化。自1950年代以來,澳洲將致命疾病引進野生兔族群,來控制牠們的繁衍。這些兔子被飼養在政府機構-昆士蘭生物安全部門。他們培育出三種血統的兔子,讓牠們感染一種致命疾病,監測牠們的繁衍過程,看看是否能有效殺死牠們,藉此測試病菌的毒性。在這項試驗中,所有兔子都死了,除了少數幾隻被安樂死。

 

阿德雷得巧克力公司與澳洲無兔基金會(Foundation for Rabbit-Free Australia)合作,停止生產所有復活節巧克力兔,用復活節袋狸取代。這麼做是為了抵制與兔子有關的慶典,或許也是為了讓大眾在殺兔子時更舒坦些,並推廣澳洲本土動物-即實際上受到歐洲兔威脅的動物。

 

在第七章中,我著重於描述某個遭種族滅絕的血脈。在兩天的時間當中,這條血脈中有六個人在斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺中被殺害。這是我唯一呈現出死者的作品,但我僅呈現出那些在斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺中被殺害的死者。這是自二次世界大戰以來歐洲最嚴重的大屠殺。在這次大屠殺中,8000名波士尼亞穆斯林男子和男孩被計劃性的處決。

 

所以,當你仔細觀察這件作品時可以看到,左上角那名男子是他身旁那名女子的父親,她叫Zumra;在她之後的是她四個孩子,他們全都死於斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺中;在四個孩子之後的是Zumra的妹妹,之後是她的孩子;他也被殺害了。我在波士尼亞期間,Zumra長子的遺體從萬人塚中被挖出,因此我得以拍攝他完整的遺體。然而,其他以藍色幻燈片呈現的人,顯示的是他們的牙齒和骨骼樣本;這是藉由與家族成員的DNA比對才得以證明他們的身份。他們都已適當地埋葬,所以留下的只有國際失蹤人口委員會提供的藍色幻燈片。

 

這些是從萬人塚挖出的個人物品,正等待家族成員辨認。Potochari電池廠的塗鴉-這是大屠殺時期聯合國荷蘭士兵的駐點,也是之後塞爾維亞士兵的駐點。這是Milosevic(南斯拉夫前總統)審判時使用的影片截圖,從上而下,顯示了塞爾維亞進行屠殺的單位正接受東正教牧師的祝福-在他們將那些男孩和男人們聚集在一起並殺死他們之前。

 

第15章是一件較具展示意味的作品。我在2009年請求中國國務院新聞辦公室選擇一個多代的血脈,代表這個計畫裡的中國。他們因為家族規模而選擇了一個來自北京的大家族,但拒絕為這個選擇做進一步解釋。以我的作品來說,沒有空白肖像是相當罕見的情況;每個人都參與了拍攝。你也可以在瀏覽這幅血統圖的過程中看出一胎化政策的演變。

 

之前被稱為外宣部的國務院新聞辦公室,負責中國所有的對外宣傳事務,控制了所有在中國工作的外國媒體及他們發佈到中國之外的影像製作。他們還會監控網路,指示當地媒體如何處理任何可能引起爭議的話題,包括西藏問題、少數民族人權、宗教民主運動和恐怖主義。在這項作品的註腳面板中,這個辦公室指示我拍攝了北京中央電視塔,我也拍攝了他們在我離開時送給我的禮品袋。

 

這是Hans Frank的後裔,他是希特勒的私人法律顧問及波蘭佔領時期總督。這個血統裡有許多空白肖像,突顯了這個家族史的複雜關係。缺席的原因包括有人拒絕參與,也有父母本身參與,但不讓他們的孩子參與,因為他們認為孩子太年輕,無法做出適當決定。部份家族成員提供了他們的服裝,而非本人肖像,因為他們不想因為我所突顯的過去而被認出。最後,有個人背對著我拍照,之後打消了參與意願,所以我不得不打上馬賽克,讓人們無從辨識。

 

在這項作品的註腳面板中,我拍攝了官方發行的希特勒肖像郵票,和英國情報機構仿製的Hans Frank肖像郵票。它在波蘭發行,造成Frank和希特勒之間的摩擦,讓希特勒認為Frank想篡奪他的權力。

 

再次談到命運。我對與命運有關的藝術品很感興趣。這些是Hans Frank在第三帝國時期掠奪的畫作,我對它們的消失及出現所產生的影響很感興趣。這是達文西的「抱銀貂的女子」;林布蘭的「好撒馬利亞人風景」(Landscape With Good Samaritan);拉斐爾的「少年畫像」-它不曾再出現過。

 

第12章著重於一些出生在不是由他們挑起的戰爭當中的人,但最後那也變成他們的戰爭。這是Ferraz家族和Novaes家族,他們有血海深仇。這場仇恨始於1991年巴西東北部的伯南布哥州,這場仇恨造成兩個家族共20名成員死亡,還有被捲入這場仇恨中的40個人死亡,包括僱來的打手、無辜的旁觀者和朋友。兩個家族之間的緊張關係可追溯至1913年,當時他們進行政治權力上的鬥爭,但過去二十年中,情況變得相當暴力,包括斬首及兩位市長的死亡。Novaes家族領導人Louis Novaes在郊區住所四周安裝了防護牆,這些砲眼的用途是射擊和監視。

 

巴西東北部的伯南布哥州是全國最暴力的地區之一,報復性正義原則或以眼還眼的觀念深植於這個地區,報復性殺戮已在該地區造成數起死亡事件。這個故事就像作品中許多章節一樣,讀起來幾乎是典型的情節,就像莎士比亞所寫的故事;現在發生的事,將來還會一再發生。我對這個重複性很感興趣。我回家後收到一則消息,其中一位家族成員的臉上中了30槍。

 

第17章是一個與血統及歷史無關的探索。烏克蘭孤兒院收容的兒童介於6歲和16歲之間。這件作品是按年齡排序,因為它無法由血統排序。我在孤兒院的12個月期間,只有一個孩子被領養。孩子滿16歲就必須離開孤兒院,儘管事實上他們通常無處可去。這在烏克蘭是家常便飯-當孩子們離開孤兒院時,就成了人口販賣、兒童色情和賣淫等行業的目標;為了生存,許多人不得不從事犯罪活動,自殺率相當高。

 

這是男孩的臥室。孤兒院的床位不足,沒有足夠的禦寒衣物,孩子們很少洗澡,因為10月之前都不供應熱水。這是女孩的臥室。負責人列出孤兒院最迫切的需求:一台工業規模的洗衣機和烘乾機,四部吸塵器,兩台電腦,一台投影機,一台影印機,冬天穿的鞋和鑽牙機。這是我在孤兒院教室拍攝的照片,其中有個我回家後才翻譯出的標語:「不知道自己過去的人,不配擁有未來。」

 

這個計畫還有許多章節,這只是對一千多張照片的簡略描述。堆積如山的照片和故事建構出一間檔案室。我在這堆照片和文字中苦苦尋找其中的模式,想像環繞在生命中的種種事件所導致的結果似乎就像血統本身的編碼。但這些檔案存在的原因是,其中有些東西不一定能彼此連結,所有收集到的資料之間參雜著某些東西,那就是出生和死亡這個無情的存在,和其中無止盡的故事集合。人們出生和死亡的模式幾乎就像一台機器;故事繼續不斷地發生。因此,我思考著,是這一切的累積導致了某種進化,或我們只是一遍又一遍地重覆這個過程?

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Taryn Simon captures the essence of vast, generation-spanning stories by photographing the descendants of people at the center of the narrative. In this riveting talk she shows a stream of these stories from all over the world, investigating the nature of genealogy and the way our lives are shaped by the interplay of many different forces.

About the Speaker

With a large-format camera and a knack for talking her way into forbidden zones, Taryn Simon photographs portions of the American infrastructure inaccessible to its inhabitants. Full bio »

Transcript

This is Shivdutt Yadav, and he's from Uttar Pradesh, India. Now Shivdutt was visiting the local land registry office in Uttar Pradesh, and he discovered that official records were listing him as dead. His land was no longer registered in his name. His brothers, Chandrabhan and Phoolchand, were also listed as dead.

Family members had bribed officials to interrupt the hereditary transfer of land by having the brothers declared dead, allowing them to inherit their father's share of the ancestral farmland. Because of this, all three brothers and their families had to vacate their home.According to the Yadav family, the local court has been scheduling a case review since 2001, but a judge has never appeared.

There are several instances in Uttar Pradesh of people dying before their case is given a proper review. Shivdutt's father's death and a want for his property led to this corruption.He was laid to rest in the Ganges River, where the dead are cremated along the banks of the river or tied to heavy stones and sunk in the water.

Photographing these brothers was a disorienting exchange because on paper they don't exist, and a photograph is so often used as an evidence of life. Yet, these men remain dead. This quandary led to the title of the project, which considers in many ways that we are all the living dead and that we in some ways represent ghosts of the past and the future.

So this story is the first of 18 chapters in my new body of work titled "A Living Man Declared Dead and Other Chapters." And for this work, I traveled around the world over a four-year period researching and recording bloodlines and their related stories. I was interested in ideas surrounding fate and whether our fate is determined by blood, chance or circumstance. The subjects I documented ranged from feuding families in Brazil to victims of genocide in Bosnia to the first woman to hijack an airplane and the living dead in India. In each chapter, you can see the external forces of governance, power and territory or religion colliding with the internal forces of psychological and physical inheritance.

Each work that I make is comprised of three segments. On the left are one or more portrait panels in which I systematically order the members of a given bloodline. This is followed by a text panel, it's designed in scroll form, in which I construct the narrative at stake. And then on the right is what I refer to as a footnote panel. It's a space that's more intuitive in which I present fragments of the story, beginnings of other stories, photographic evidence. And it's meant to kind of reflect how we engage with histories or stories on the Internet, in a less linear form. So it's more disordered. And this disorder is in direct contrast to the unalterable order of a bloodline.

In my past projects I've often worked in serial form, documenting things that have the appearance of being comprehensive through a determined title and a determined presentation, but in fact, are fairly abstract. In this project I wanted to work in the opposite direction and find an absolute catalog, something that I couldn't interrupt, curate or edit by choice. This led me to blood. A bloodline is determined and ordered. But the project centers on the collision of order and disorder -- the order of blood butting up against the disorder represented in the often chaotic and violent stories that are the subjects of my chapters.

In chapter two, I photograph the descendants of Arthur Ruppin. He was sent in 1907 to Palestine by the Zionist organization to look at areas for Jewish settlement and acquire land for Jewish settlement. He oversaw land acquisition on behalf of the Palestine Land Development Company whose work led to the establishment of a Jewish state. Through my research at the Zionist Archives in Jerusalem, I wanted to look at the early paperworkof the establishment of the Jewish state. And I found these maps which you see here. And these are studies commissioned by the Zionist organization for alternative areas for Jewish settlement. In this, I was interested in the consequences of geography and imagining how the world would be different if Israel were in Uganda, which is what these maps demonstrate. These archives in Jerusalem, they maintain a card index file of the earliest immigrants and applicants for immigration to Palestine, and later Israel, from 1919 to 1965.

Chapter three: Joseph Nyamwanda Jura Ondijo treated patients outside of Kisumu, Kenya for AIDS, tuberculosis, infertility, mental illness, evil spirits. He's most often paid for his services in cash, cows or goats. But sometimes when his female patients can't afford his services, their families give the women to Jura in exchange for medical treatment. As a result of these transactions, Jura has nine wives, 32 children and 63 grandchildren. In his bloodline you see the children and grandchildren here.

Two of his wives were brought to him suffering from infertility and he cured them, three for evil spirits, one for an asthmatic condition and severe chest pain and two wives Ondijo claims he took for love, paying their families a total of 16 cows. One wife deserted himand another passed away during treatment for evil spirits. Polygamy is widely practiced in Kenya. It's common among a privileged class capable of paying numerous dowries and keeping multiple homes. Instances of prominent social and political figures in polygamous relationships has led to the perception of polygamy as a symbol of wealth, status and power.

You may notice in several of the chapters that I photographed there are empty portraits.These empty portraits represent individuals, living individuals, who couldn't be present.And the reasons for their absence are given in my text panel. They include dengue fever,imprisonment, army service, women not allowed to be photographed for religious and cultural reasons. And in this particular chapter, it's children whose mothers wouldn't allow them to travel to the photographic shoot for fear that their fathers would kidnap them during it.

Twenty-four European rabbits were brought to Australia in 1859 by a British settler for sporting purposes, for hunting. And within a hundred years, that population of 24 had exploded to half a billion. The European rabbit has no natural predators in Australia, and it competes with native wildlife and damages native plants and degrades the land. Since the 1950s, Australia has been introducing lethal diseases into the wild rabbit populationto control growth. These rabbits were bred at a government facility, Biosecurity Queensland, where they bred three bloodlines of rabbits and have infected them with a lethal disease and are monitoring their progress to see if it will effectively kill them. So they're testing its virulence. During the course of this trial, all of the rabbits died, except for a few, which were euthanized.

Haigh's Chocolate, in collaboration with the Foundation for Rabbit-Free Australia, stopped all production of the Easter Bunny in chocolate and has replaced it with the Easter Bilby.Now this was done to counter the annual celebration of rabbits and presumably make the public more comfortable with the killing of rabbits and promote an animal that's native to Australia, and actually an animal that is threatened by the European rabbit.

In chapter seven, I focus on the effects of a genocidal act on one bloodline. So over a two-day period, six individuals from this bloodline were killed in the Srebrenica massacre.This is the only work in which I visually represent the dead. But I only represent those that were killed in the Srebrenica massacre, which is recorded as the largest mass murder in Europe since the Second World War. And during this massacre, 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys were systematically executed.

So when you look at a detail of this work, you can see, the man on the upper-left is the father of the woman sitting next to him. Her name is Zumra. She is followed by her four children, all of whom were killed in the Srebrenica massacre. Following those four children is Zumra's younger sister who is then followed by her children who were killed as well. During the time I was in Bosnia, the mortal remains of Zumra's eldest son were exhumed from a mass grave. And I was therefore able to photograph the fully assembled remains. However, the other individuals are represented by these blue slides, which show tooth and bone samples that were matched to DNA evidence collected from family members to prove they were the identities of those individuals. They've all been given a proper burial, so what remains are these blue slides at the International Commission for Missing Persons.

These are personal effects dug up from a mass grave that are awaiting identification from family members and graffiti at the Potochari battery factory, which was where the Dutch U.N. soldiers were staying, and also the Serbian soldiers later during the times of the executions. This is video footage used at the Milosevic trial, which from top to bottomshows a Serbian scorpion unit being blessed by an Orthodox priest before rounding up the boys and men and killing them.

Chapter 15 is more of a performance piece. I solicited China's State Council Information Office in 2009 to select a multi-generational bloodline to represent China for this project.They chose a large family from Beijing for its size, and they declined to give me any further reasoning for their choice. This is one of the rare situations where I have no empty portraits. Everyone showed up. You can also see the evolution of the one-child-only policyas it travels through the bloodline.

Previously known as the Department of Foreign Propaganda, the State Council Information Office is responsible for all of China's external publicity operations. It controls all foreign media and image production outside of China from foreign media working within China. It also monitors the Internet and instructs local media on how to handle any potentially controversial issues, including Tibet, ethnic minorities, Human Rights, religion,democracy movements and terrorism. For the footnote panel in this work, this office instructed me to photograph their central television tower in Beijing. And I also photographed the gift bag they gave me when I left.

These are the descendants of Hans Frank who was Hitler's personal legal advisor and governor general of occupied Poland. Now this bloodline includes numerous empty portraits, highlighting a complex relationship to one's family history. The reasons for these absences include people who declined participation. There's also parents who participated who wouldn't let their children participate because they thought they were too young to decide for themselves. Another section of the family presented their clothing, as opposed to their physical presence, because they didn't want to be identified with the past that I was highlighting. And finally, another individual sat for me from behind and later rescinded his participation, so I had to pixelate him out so he's unrecognizable.

In the footnote panel that accompanies this work I photographed an official Adolph Hitler postage stamp and an imitation of that stamp produced by British Intelligence with Hans Frank's image on it. It was released in Poland to create friction between Frank and Hitler,so that Hitler would imagine Frank was trying to usurp his power.

Again, talking about fate, I was interested in the stories and fate of particular works of art.These paintings were taken by Hans Frank during the time of the Third Reich. And I'm interested in the impact of their absence and presence through time. They are Leonardo da Vinci's "Lady With an Ermine," Rembrandt's "Landscape With Good Samaritan" and Raphael's "Portrait of a Youth," which has never been found.

Chapter 12 highlights people being born into a battle that is not of their making, but becomes their own. So this is the Ferraz family and the Novaes family. And they are in an active blood feud. This feud has been going on since 1991 in Northeast Brazil in Pernambuco, and it involved the deaths of 20 members of the families and 40 others associated with the feud, including hired hit men, innocent bystanders and friends.Tensions between these two families date back to 1913 when there was a dispute over local political power. But it got violent in the last two decades and includes decapitationand the death of two mayors. Installed into a protective wall surrounding the suburban home of Louis Novaes, who's the head of the Novaes family, are these turret holes, which were used for shooting and looking.

Brazil's northeast state of Pernambuco is one of the nation's most violent regions. It's rooted in a principle of retributive justice, or an eye for an eye, so retaliatory killings have led to several deaths in the area. This story, like many of the stories in my chapters, reads almost as an archetypal episode, like something out of Shakespeare, that's happening now and will happen again in the future. I'm interested in these ideas of repetition. So after I returned home, I received word that one member of the family had been shot 30 times in the face.

Chapter 17 is an exploration of the absence of a bloodline and the absence of a history.Children at this Ukrainian orphanage are between the ages of six and 16. This piece is ordered by age because it can't be ordered by blood. In a 12-month period when I was at the orphanage, only one child had been adopted. Children have to leave the orphanage at age 16, despite the fact that there's often nowhere for them to go. It's commonly reported in Ukraine that children, when leaving the orphanage are targeted for human trafficking,child pornography and prostitution. Many have to turn to criminal activity for their survival,and high rates of suicide are recorded.

This is a boys' bedroom. There's an insufficient supply of beds at the orphanage and not enough warm clothing. Children bathe infrequently because the hot water isn't turned on until October. This is a girls' bedroom. And the director listed the orphanage's most urgent needs as an industrial size washing machine and dryer, four vacuum cleaners, two computers, a video projector, a copy machine, winter shoes and a dentist's drill. This photograph, which I took at the orphanage of one of the classrooms, shows a sign which I had translated when I got home. And it reads: "Those who do not know their past are not worthy of their future."

There are many more chapters in this project. This is just an abridged rendering of over a thousand images. And this mass pile of images and stories forms an archive. And within this accumulation of images and texts, I'm struggling to find patterns and imagine that the narratives that surround the lives we lead are just as coded as blood itself. But archives exist because there's something that can't necessarily be articulated. Something is said in the gaps between all the information that's collected. And there's this relentless persistence of birth and death and an unending collection of stories in between. It's almost machine-like the way people are born and people die, and the stories keep coming and coming. And in this, I'm considering, is this actual accumulation leading to some sort of evolution, or are we on repeat over and over again?

Thank you.

(Applause)


留下您對本課程的評論
標題:
您目前為非會員,留言名稱將顯示「匿名非會員」
只能進行20字留言

留言內容:

驗證碼請輸入0 + 9 =

標籤

現有標籤:1
新增標籤:


有關本課程的討論

目前暫無評論,快來留言吧!

Creative Commons授權條款 本站一切著作係採用 Creative Commons 授權條款授權。
協助推廣單位: