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課程來源:TED
     

 

Eduardo Paes 談未來城市的四項要件

Eduardo Paes: The 4 commandments of cities

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Eduardo Paes

2012年2月演講,2012年4月在TED2012上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Eduardo Paes是里約熱內盧市長,這是座幅員廣闊、複雜、美麗的城市,擁有650萬人口。他分享四個治理里約熱內盧-及所有未來城市的想法,包括大膽(且可行)的基礎設施更新,及如何使一座城市更具「智慧」。

 

關於Eduardo Paes

Eduardo Paes市長的使命就是確保里約熱內盧的復興能為所有市民創造出一個充滿希望的未來。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Eduardo Paes的政治生涯始於擔任里約熱內盧Barra da Tijuca及Jacarepaguá區首長。他之後擔任過市議員、國會議員、環境部委任書記,並於2007年擔任州政府體育及旅遊局秘書。里約州州長Sérgio Cabral任命Paes負責泛美運動會籌備工作,他在短短7個月內就及時完成任務。Eduardo Paes於2008年當選里約熱內盧市長。

 

Paes說,身為市長的使命就是確保里約熱內盧在巴西經濟復甦、州政府有效的安撫政策,及成功取得2016年奧運主辦權的情況下,為里約熱內盧所有市民創造出一個充滿希望的未來。

 

他開辦了一些計畫,例如Porto Maravilha(振興港區計畫),Morar Carioca(使所有貧民區城市化),UPP Social(安撫貧民區的社會事業開發計畫),里約熱內盧市政營運中心(監控所有市政營運的神經中樞),建立BRT系統(四條能連接整座城市的雙節式公車快速專用道)。

 

Eduardo Paes的英語網上資料

About: Rio de Janeiro

Blog: Four commandments

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Eduardo Paes 談未來城市的四項要件

 

很榮幸來到這裡,很榮幸來到這裡談論城市及城市的未來。很榮幸以市長的身份來到這裡。我確實認為市長的政治立場就是真正改善人民的生活,這就是這個職位該做的事。很高興以里約熱內盧市市長的身份來到這裡。里約熱內盧是一座美麗的城市,一個充滿活力、獨一無二的地方。事實上,你現在看到的正是擁有世上最棒工作的人,我真的很想與大家分享我生命中一個非常特殊的時刻,及里約熱內盧的歷史。

 

(影片)播報員:女士先生們,這個信封裡裝著選舉結果。

 

Jacques Rogge:我很榮幸宣布,第31屆奧運會主辦城市為-里約熱內盧市。(歡呼)

 

EP:好,非常感人,非常激動人心,但並非一件容易的事。事實上,這是一項非常艱難的挑戰。我們必須擊敗歐洲君主國家,這是西班牙國王Juan Carlos;我們必須擊敗科技強國日本;我們必須擊敗世上最有權勢的人保衛自己城市的努力;所以這相當不容易。事實上,最後這位傢伙幾年前說過一句話,我認為非常適合用來描述里約熱內盧在申奧中取得勝利的情形:「我們確實證明了這一點,是的,我們辦得到。」

 

事實上,這就是我今晚來這裡的原因。我今晚來這裡是要告訴大家「有志竟成」。你並不一定非得富有或強大才能達成目標。城市是一項大挑戰,治理城市是一項艱鉅的任務,但使用一些原始方法來達成目標,藉由一些基本要件,你可以真正讓城市成為一個相當棒的居住場所。我希望大家想像一下里約熱內盧的景象。你或許會想到一座充滿活力的城市,一座綠意盎然、生氣勃勃的城市。最能展現這一點的就是Carlos Saldanha去年製作的《里約大冒險》動畫。

 

(音樂)(影片)

 

鳥:真是太不可思議了!

 

(音樂)

 

EP:好,里約熱內盧某些地方確實是這麼美,但並非所有地方都是如此。我們就像世上每一座大城市一樣,我們有很多人口、污染、汽車、水泥建築,大量的水泥建築。我在這裡展示的是一些Madureira的照片,它就像里約熱內盧郊區的心臟。我想利用我們在Madureira進行的改革為例,說明我們認為的第一項要件是什麼。

 

所以,每當你看見像這樣的水泥叢林,你必須做的就是尋找開放空間;如果沒有開放空間,你就得進行開發。所以著手開發這些空間,讓人們可以進入並利用這些空間。這裡將在今年六月成為里約熱內盧第三大公園,這是一個能讓人們聚會的地方。你可以在這裡享受大自然,這裡的溫度比氣溫低了攝氏二、三度。所以今晚我要說明的第一項要件是,未來的城市必須合乎環保原則。每當你想到一座城市,你就得聯想到綠色,你得聯想到一個綠意盎然的環境。

 

所以現在來談我們認為的第二項要件。讓我們想想居住在城市裡的居民,許多人聚在一起,城市裡擠滿了人。所以,當有35億人口生活在城市中時,該如何解決這些人的交通問題?到了2050年將會增加到60億人。所以每當你想到這些人的交通問題時,就會聯想到高容量運輸。但有個問題。高容量運輸意味著得花很多錢。

 

所以我要在這裡分享的是前市長Curitiba曾在TED提出的想法,這是他曾在巴西Jaime Lerner市實施的,也是我們正在里約熱內盧複製的計畫,就是BRT-公車捷運系統。所以你將一輛公車-就是大家熟悉的一般公車,你將它內部改裝成火車車廂的形式,讓它使用單獨車道,即專用車道。承包商並不喜歡這個主意。你不需要進行地下工程,你可以建設很棒的車站,這是我們在里約熱內盧所建的一座車站。同樣地,建設這樣的車站不需進行地下工程。這種車站跟地鐵站一樣舒適,功能也相同,一公里的成本是地鐵的十分之一。因此,花費較少的錢,卻更快地達成目標,才能真正改善人們的交通問題。

 

這是里約熱內盧地圖,其中所有的線,你在圖上看見的所有著色的線,代表我們的高容量運輸網路。目前我們的高容量運輸網路只能供18%的人口使用,藉由我們正在建設的公車捷運系統,同樣地,以最便宜和最快的方式,我們將能使63%的人口使用高容量運輸網路。

 

所以記得我說過的,你並不一定非得富有或強大才能達成目標,你可以用原始的方式達成目標。所以今晚我要說明的第二項要件是,未來的城市必須能處理居民的交通及整合問題。

 

現在來談第三項要件。這是最具爭議性的一項要件。它跟貧民區、貧民窟有關-隨便你怎麼稱呼,世界各地的名稱會有所差異,但我們今晚要說明的重點是,貧民區並不一定只會造成問題。我的意思是,貧民區有時能成為一項解決方案。如果你善加處理,如果你在貧民區裡執行某些公共政策。我再讓大家看看里約熱內盧地圖,它有630萬個居民-其中超過20%-即140萬人居住在貧民區,所有紅色部分都是貧民區。所以你可以看到,它們遍布整個城市。這是里約熱內盧貧民區的典型景觀,你可以看到貧富之間的對比。

 

所以今晚我想分享兩項關於貧民區的改革。第一項是,你可以將它從所謂的〔惡性〕循環轉變成實質的循環。但要做到這一點,你必須深入改革貧民區,提供基礎服務-主要是教育和衛生方面的高品質服務。我以一個簡單例子來說明。這是一棟位於里約熱內盧貧民區的老舊建築-名稱為(不清楚),我們剛將它改建成一所高品質小學。這是我們在貧民區建立的一所基礎建康照護中心,同樣擁有高品質,我們稱它為家庭診所。所以第一項就是將高品質的基礎服務帶入貧民區內。

 

我想分享關於貧民區的第二項改革是,你必須在貧民區內建設開放空間,將基礎設施建設在貧民區、貧民窟當中。里約熱內盧的目標是,在2020年之前使所有貧民區都市化。另一個例子是,在這個房屋擁擠的地方,我們建造了這座稱為知識廣場的空間。這是一個充滿高科技的場所,住在附近貧困家庭裡的孩子可以進入此處,接觸所有的科技設備。我們甚至建了一座劇院-3D電影院。這是一項可以達成的改變,最後你會得到比TED獎項更棒的東西,就是這些生活在貧民區裡的孩子歡樂的笑聲。所以我今晚想說明的第三項要件是,未來的城市必須融合整個社會;你無法治理一座並未整合的城市。

 

現在來說明我們的第四項要件。我今晚本來不該來這裡,我的意思是,十一月到五月間,里約熱內盧有許多繁忙的事務。我們上週才舉行過嘉年華會,相當棒,也非常有趣。我們有除夕慶典,大約有兩百萬人前往Copacabana海灘。但我們也有一些麻煩。我是指,每年此時,我們都得與水災和熱帶暴雨抗爭。你能想像人們看到這些景象還能給我什麼好臉色?我們有熱帶暴雨問題,幾乎每年我們都會遭遇像這樣的土石流,相當可怕。

 

但我今天之所以能來這裡的原因得歸功於它。這是我們與IBM合作進行了一年多的計畫,就是所謂的里約熱內盧市政營運中心。我想向大家展示,我可以利用這個技術,從長灘這裡掌控我的城市。所以雖然我昨晚來到這裡,卻對城市裡的情況瞭若指掌。我們現在要跟市政營運中心通話。這是Osorio,他是市政營運中心秘書。所以Osorio,很高興見到你,我已經告訴聽眾,每年這個時候我們都有熱帶暴雨問題,所以里約熱內盧目前天氣如何?

 

Osorio:天氣晴朗,今天天氣相當晴朗,我讓您看看氣象雷達衛星圖。您可以看見,城市上空只有一點濕氣,今天和接下來幾天城市的天氣狀況相當良好。

 

EP:好的,那交通狀況呢?每年這個時候我們的塞車情況相當嚴重,居民對市長相當不滿。所以,今晚的交通如何?

 

Osario:今晚的交通狀況良好,我讓您看8000輛汽車其中一輛的情況。我讓市長先生看的是里約熱內盧市中心即時傳輸的影像,您可以看見街道相當通暢。現在是里約熱內盧晚上十一點,交通狀況沒有任何問題。我現在向您報告今天整體的交通狀況。早晨交通繁忙,下午是交通尖峰期,但沒什麼大問題。本市的交通事故低於平均值。

 

EP:好的,現在請你展示公共服務的情形,這些是汽車。

 

Osorio:沒問題,市長先生,我讓您看看垃圾車隊的情形。這是實況轉播。我們所有的垃圾車都裝設了GPS,您可以看見它們正在城市裡每個區域工作,準時收集垃圾,公共服務進行得相當順利。

 

EP:好的,Osorio,非常感謝,感謝你的協助,我們現在要回到演講現場,準備進行結尾。(掌聲)好,所以,這個地方沒有檔案、沒有文書工作、沒有距離、一天24小時運作。所以我今晚要向大家說明的第四項要件是,未來的城市必須使用尖端科技,我不需在場就能瞭解並治理城市。

 

但是,我今晚在這裡所說的一切,或這些要件,是一些治理城市的手段或方法。我指的是投資基礎設施、投資環保、開放式公園、開放空間、融合整個社會、使用科技,但最後當我們談到城市時,我們談論的是一大群人。我們不能將其視為一個問題。這是很棒的事;如果現在有35億人口,將來會變成60億、100億。這很棒,意味著將會有100億個頭腦共同努力、100億個人才共同努力。

 

因此,未來的城市,我確信,將會是一座關心居民的城市,將社會及居民整合在一起;未來的城市將是不會忽視任何人的城市,這就是我理想的城市。

 

非常感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Eduardo Paes is the mayor of Rio de Janeiro, a sprawling, complicated, beautiful city of 6.5 million. He shares four big ideas about leading Rio -- and all cities -- into the future, including bold (and do-able) infrastructure upgrades and how to make a city "smarter."

About the Speaker

Mayor Eduardo Paes is on a mission to ensure that Rio's renaissance creates a positive legacy for all its citizens. Full bio »

Transcript

It's a great honor to be here. It's a great honor to be here talking about cities, talking about the future of cities. It's great to be here as a mayor. I really do believe that mayors have the political position to really change people's lives. That's the place to be. And it's great to be here as the mayor of Rio. Rio's a beautiful city, a vibrant place, special place. Actually, you're looking at a guy who has the best job in the world. And I really wanted to share with you a very special moment of my life and the history of the city of Rio.

(Video) Announcer: And now, ladies and gentlemen, the envelope containing the result.Jacques Rogge: I have the honor to announce that the games of the 31st Olympiad are awarded to the city of Rio de Janeiro. (Cheering)

EP: Okay, that's very touching, very emotional, but it was not easy to get there. Actually it was a very hard challenge. We had to beat the European monarchy. This is Juan Carlos, king of Spain. We had to beat the powerful Japanese with all of their technology. We had to beat the most powerful man in the world defending his own city. So it was not easy at all. And actually this last guy here said a phrase a few years ago that I think fits perfectly to the situation of Rio winning the Olympic bid. We really showed that, yes, we can.

And really, this is the reason I came here tonight. I came here tonight to tell you that things can be done, that you don't have always to be rich or powerful to get things on the way, that cities are a great challenge. It's a difficult task to deal with cities. But with some original ways of getting things done, with some basic commandments, you can really get cities to be a great, great place to live. I want you all to imagine Rio. You probably think about a city full of energy, a vibrant city full of green. And nobody showed that better than Carlos Saldanha in last year's "Rio."

(Music) (Video) Bird: This is incredible. (Music)

EP: Okay, some parts of Rio are pretty much like that, but it's not like that everywhere.We're like every big city in the world. We've got lots of people, pollution, cars, concrete, lots of concrete. These pictures I'm showing here, they are some pictures from Madureira. It's like the heart of the suburb in Rio. And I want to use an example of Rio that we're doing in Madureira, in this region, to see what we should think as our first commandment.

So every time you see a concrete jungle like that, what you've got to do is find open spaces. If you don't have open spaces, you've got to go there and open spaces. So go inside these open spaces and make it that people can get inside and use those spaces.This is going to be the third largest park in Rio by June this year. It's going to be a place where people can meet, where you can put nature. The temperature's going to drop two, three degrees centigrade. So the first commandment I want to leave you tonight is, a city of the future has to be environmentally friendly. Every time you think of a city, you've got to think green. You've got to think green and green.

So moving to our second commandment that I wanted to show you. Let's think that cities are made of people, lots of people together. cities are packed with people. So how do you move these people around? When you have 3.5 billion people living in cities -- by 2050, it's going to be 6 billion people. So every time you think about moving these people around, you think about high-capacity transportation. But there is a problem. High-capacity transportation means spending lots and lots of money.

So what I'm going to show here is something that was already presented in TED by the former mayor of Curitiba who created that, a city in Brazil, Jaime Lerner. And it's something that we're doing, again, lots in Rio. It's the BRT, the Bus Rapid Transit. So you get a bus. It's a simple bus that everybody knows. You transform it inside as a train car.You use separate lanes, dedicated lanes. The contractors, they don't like that. You don't have to dig deep down underground. You can build nice stations. This is actually a station that we're doing in Rio. Again, you don't have to dig deep down underground to make a station like that. This station has the same comfort, the same features as a subway station. A kilometer of this costs a tenth of a subway. So spending much less money and doing it much faster, you can really change the way people move.

This is a map of Rio. All the lines, the colored lines you see there, it's our high-capacity transportation network. In this present time today, we only carry 18 percent of our population in high-capacity transportation. With the BRTs we're doing, again, the cheapest and fastest way, we're going to move to 63 percent of the population being carried by high-capacity transportation.

So remember what I said: You don't always have to be rich or powerful to get things done.You can find original ways to get things done. So the second commandment I want to leave you tonight is, a city of the future has to deal with mobility and integration of its people.

Moving to the third commandment. And this is the most controversial one. It has to do with the favelas, the slums -- whatever you call it, there are different names all over the world.But the point we want to make here tonight is, favelas are not always a problem. I mean, favelas can sometimes really be a solution, if you deal with them, if you put public policy inside the favelas. Let me just show a map of Rio again. Rio has 6.3 million inhabitants --More than 20 percent, 1.4 million, live in the favelas. All these red parts are favelas. So you see, they are spread all over the city. This is a typical view of a favela in Rio. You see the contrast between the rich and poor.

So I want to make two points here tonight about favelas. The first one is, you can change from what I call a [vicious] circle to a virtual circle. But what you've got to do to get that is you've got to go inside the favelas, bring in the basic services -- mainly education and health -- with high quality. I'm going to give a fast example here. This was an old building in a favela in Rio -- [unclear favela name] -- that we just transformed into a primary school,with high quality. This is primary assistance in health that we built inside a favela, again, with high quality. We call it a family clinic. So the first point is bring basic services inside the favelas with high quality.

The second point I want to make about the favelas is, you've got to open spaces in the favela. Bring infrastructure to the favelas, to the slums, wherever you are. Rio has the aim, by 2020, to have all its favelas completely urbanized. Another example, this was completely packed with houses, and then we built this, what we call, a knowledge square.This is a place with high technology where the kids that live in a poor house next to this place can go inside and have access to all technology. We even built a theater there -- 3D movie. And this is the kind of change you can get for that. And by the end of the day you get something better than a TED Prize, which is this great laugh from a kid that lives in the favela. So the third commandment I want to leave here tonight is, a city of the future has to be socially integrated. You cannot deal with a city if it's not socially integrated.

But moving to our fourth commandment, I really wouldn't be here tonight. Between November and May, Rio's completely packed. We just had last week Carnivale. It was great. It was lots of fun. We have New Year's Eve. There's like two million people on Copacabana Beach. We have problems. We fight floods, tropical rains at this time of the year. You can imagine how people get happy with me watching these kinds of scenes.We have problems with the tropical rains. Almost every year we have these landslides, which are terrible.

But the reason I could come here is because of that. This was something we did with IBMthat's a little bit more than a year old. It's what we call the Operations Center of Rio. And I wanted to show that I can govern my city, using technology, from here, from Long Beach,so I got here last night and I know everything. We're going to speak now to the Operations Center. This is Osorio, he's our secretary of urban affairs. So Osorio, good to be there with you. I've already told the people that we have tropical rain this time of year. So how's the weather in Rio now?

Osorio: The weather is fine. We have fair weather today. Let me get you our weather satellite radar. You see just a little bit of moisture around the city. Absolutely no problem in the city in terms of weather, today and in the next few days.

EP: Okay, how's the traffic? We, at this time of year, get lots of traffic jams. People get mad at the mayor. So how's the traffic tonight?

Osario: Well traffic tonight is fine. Let me get you one of our 8,000 buses. A live transmission in downtown Rio for you, Mr. Mayor. You see, the streets are clear. Now it's 11:00 pm in Rio. Nothing of concern in terms of traffic. I'll get to you now the incidents of the day. We had heavy traffic early in the morning and in the rush hour in the afternoon, but nothing of big concern. We are below average in terms of traffic incidents in the city.

EP: Okay, so you're showing now some public services. These are the cars.

Osorio: Absolutely, Mr. Mayor. Let me get you the fleet of our waste collection trucks. This is live transmission. We have GPS's in all of our trucks. And you can see them working in all parts of the city. Waste collection on time. Public services working well.

EP: Okay, Osorio, thank you very much. It was great to have you here. We're going to move so that I can make a conclusion. (Applause) Okay, so no files, this place, no paperwork,no distance, 24/7 working. So the fourth commandment I want to share with you here tonight is, a city of the future has to use technology to be present. I don't need to be there anymore to know and to administrate the city.

But everything that I said here tonight, or the commandments, are means, are ways, for us to govern cities -- invest in infrastructure, invest in the green, open parks, open spaces,integrate socially, use technology. But at the end of the day, when we talk about cities, we talk about a gathering of people. And we cannot see that as a problem. That is fantastic. If there's 3.5 billion now, it's going to be six billion then it's going to be 10 billion. That is great, that means we're going to have 10 billion minds working together, 10 billion talents together.

So a city of the future, I really do believe that it's a city that cares about its citizens,integrates socially its citizens. A city of the future is a city that can never let anyone out of this great party, which are cities.

Thank you very much.


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