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課程來源:TED
     

 

Sheikha Al Mayassa 談地方全球化,全球地方化

Sheikha Al Mayassa: Globalizing the local, localizing the global

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Sheikha Al Mayassa

2010年12月演講,2012年2月在TEDWomen上線

 

翻譯:TED

編輯:朱學恆、洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

卡達藝術家、說書人及電影製片人的贊助者Sheikha Al Mayassa,講述藝術和文化如何塑造一個國家的特色-並讓每一個國家將它的獨特性分享給更廣闊的世界。如她所言,「我們不希望千篇一律,但希望能互相理解。」

 

關於Sheikha Al Mayassa

Sheikha Al Mayassa是推動卡達成為中東主要藝術和文化中心背後的青年力量和進步力量。

 

為什麼要聽她演講

身為卡達博物館管理局(QMA)主管的卡達公主Sheikha Al Mayassa,藉由祖國豐富的歷史,推動教育和跨文化之間的互動。QMA的主要計畫是伊斯蘭藝術博物館,這是一座建於穆斯林世界,作為世界藝術資訊和教育中心的機構。卡達公主Sheikha Al Mayassa的願景是使這座博物館不僅能保存和記錄多樣化的伊斯蘭藝術,也能提供一個舒適的場所,讓國際社會更瞭解這些不曾被深入瞭解的文化。

 

Sheikha Al Mayassa致力於促進多樣性及為所有人創造機會。她也是「援助亞洲」(ROTA)的主席,這是一個試圖為整個亞洲地區無法接受教育的人提供教育機會的組織,不論性別或年齡。她目前正在紐約哥倫比亞大學攻讀研究所。

 

「阿拉伯世界有很多非常富裕的國家,但仍有貧困的人口。它們缺乏創新、停滯不前。卡達希望能成為其中的模範。它已證明有能力在短時間內造成巨大改變。」

-Sheikha Al Mayassa於Travel + Leisure,2007年7月

 

Sheikha Al Mayassa的英語網上資料

Website: Qatar Museums Authority(網頁不存在)

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Sheikha Al Mayassa 談地方全球化,全球地方化

 

我和我弟弟都屬於30歲以下的人口,Pat說這佔了總人口的70%,但根據我們的統計,這佔了這個地區總人口的60%。卡達也不例外,它是年輕人領導的年輕國家,我們嚮往最新科技、iPods,但我則喜歡阿拉伯式長袍,就是我今天所穿的傳統服飾。

 

現在,它已不是宗教服裝,也不代表宗教宣言;相反地,它是我們用來表達多元文化的象徵。我記得幾年前,記者問目前在現場的Sheikha博士,她是卡達大學校長-順帶一提,Sheikha博士是女性。記者問她是否認為長袍會對她的自由造成任何妨害或阻礙,她的答案剛好相反;長袍令她感到更自由,因為她可以在長袍下隨意穿著。她可以穿睡衣上班,沒人會發現。(笑聲)並不是她真的會這麼做,我只是說說而已。

 

(笑聲)

 

我的重點是,人可以自由選擇-就像印度女性可以穿她的紗麗,或日本女性可以穿她的和服。我們正從內部改變我們的文化,但同時,我們也與我們的傳統重新接軌。我們瞭解現代化正在發生的事實,沒錯,卡達希望成為一個現代化國家,但同時,我們也重新連結和申張我們的阿拉伯傳統。對我們而言,順其自然的發展相當重要,我們不斷地作出有意識的決定以達成其中的平衡。

 

事實上,研究顯示,世界越平坦,如果引用Tom Friedman(《世界是平的》作者)的話,或越全球化,就會有越來越多的人希望與眾不同。對我們年輕人來說,他們期望成為獨一無二的個體,尋求彼此間的差異,這就是為什麼我偏好Richard Wilk的說法:「地方全球化,全球地方化。」我們不希望千篇一律,但希望能彼此尊重和互相理解,因此傳統變得更加重要,而不是不重要。

 

全球化是必然的趨勢,然而,我們認為也需保留地方特性,這正是這個地區的領導人試圖實現的。我們試著成為地球村的一部分,但同時,我們透過文化制度和文化發展來調整自己。我是這個現象的代表之一,我認為現場很多人-我看得出很多人跟我有相同的想法,即使看不見華盛頓的聽眾,但我確信他們也有相同的想法。我們不斷地試著跨越不同世界、不同文化,試著面對彼此間不同的期望帶來的挑戰。

 

所以我想提出一個問題:21世紀的文化該是什麼模樣?在世界逐漸變得個人化的當下,當手機、漢堡、電話、所有事物都具有其獨特性時,我們該如何看待自己及他人?這將如何影響我們的沙漠文化?

 

我不確定在華盛頓那裡有多少人瞭解這個地區的文化發展,最近的發展是2008年在卡達開幕的伊斯蘭藝術博物館,我親自體現了這些文化發展,但我也知道,這必須以自然的方式進行。是的,我們確實擁有發展新文化體制所需的資源,但我認為更重要的是,我們很幸運擁有具遠見的領導者,他們明白這些改變不能由外部發展,必須由內部體現。知道嗎?你或許會驚訝地發現,波斯灣區大部分文化發展的主導者都是女性。

 

我想請問大家,你們對這一點有什麼看法?是因為這是比較容易的選擇?還是我們沒其他事可做?不,我不這麼認為。我認為這個地區的女性意識到,文化是連結當地及各區域人民的重要因素,它是讓人們聚集在一起、討論彼此想法的自然因素,就像我們在TED所做的一樣。我們在這裡,我們是社會的一份子,分享並交流意見,藝術成了我們民族認同相當重要的一部分。藝術家的存在及他們在社會和政治上的影響對民族文化認同的發展相當重要。

 

你們知道,藝術和文化潛藏巨大的商機,你們可以問我,可以問蘇富比和佳士得拍賣公司的主席及執行長,可以問Charles Saatchi(著名收藏家)對偉大藝術品的看法;他們賺了很多錢。所以我認為,我們國家的女性之所以成為領導者,是因為她們意識到保有我們文化的特色對後代子孫非常重要,不然,為什麼希臘會要求歸還埃爾金大理石雕塑?為什麼當私人收藏家想將他的收藏賣給外國博物館時會引起騷動?為什麼我得花幾個月時間,才能從倫敦或紐約取得出口許可證,將藝術品運回國內?

 

幾小時後,我的伊朗朋友Shirin Neshat-她對我們來說是非常重要的藝術家,將會為你們演講。她住在紐約市,但她不想成為西方藝術家;相反地,她試著使她的文化、民族及傳統進行重要的交流,她透過攝影和電影這些重要的視覺形式來進行。

 

同樣地,卡達正試著以內在體現的方式來發展國家博物館。我們的目標是文化的融合與獨立,我們不想要西方已有的東西,我們不想要他們的收藏品,我們想建立自己的特性、自己的脈絡,創造開放性的交流,使大家能分享彼此的想法。過幾天,阿拉伯當代藝術博物館就會開幕,我們進行了廣泛的調查,確保阿拉伯穆斯林藝術家及非穆斯林的阿拉伯藝術家-順帶一提,並非所有阿拉伯人都是穆斯林-確保他們的作品都能展示在這個新博物館中。這間博物館是政府資助的,這個計畫已進行了三十年,過幾天博物館就要開幕了,歡迎大家搭乘卡達航空前來參加。

 

(笑聲)

 

這座博物館對我們跟對西方來說一樣重要,有些人或許聽過一位叫Baya Mahieddine的阿爾及利亞藝術家,但我懷疑有多少人知道,這位藝術家曾於1930年代在畢卡索的巴黎工作室工作過。這對我來說是一項新發現,我想不久的將來,我們的畢卡索、雷捷和塞尚將會舉世皆知。我們確實有藝術家,但不幸的是,我們尚未將他們發掘出來。

 

視覺表達只是文化融合的一種形式。我們意識到,最近越來越多人藉由YouTube和社群網路等工具傳達自己的故事、分享照片、透過自己的聲音述說自己的故事。藉由同樣的方式,我們創立了杜哈電影學院。杜哈電影學院是教導電影知識及電影製作的機構,去年我們連一位卡達女製片人也沒有,今天,我很驕傲地宣布,我們已培育出超過66位卡達女製片人,她們透過自己的聲音,編輯及述說自己的故事。

 

(掌聲)

 

如果你們願意的話,我想分享的一部一分鐘的影片。事實證明,這部60秒的影片如日本俳句般簡潔有力,展現出故事的全貌,這是我們其中一位製片人的作品。

 

(影片)

 

男孩:嘿!聽著,妳知道股價上漲了嗎?

 

女孩:你在扮演誰?

 

男孩:Khaled叔叔。

 

女孩:來,把頭巾戴上。

 

Khaled:我為什麼要戴?

 

女孩:照我的話做,小女孩。

 

男孩:不,妳扮媽媽,我扮爸爸

 

(女孩:但這是我的遊戲)。

 

男孩:那妳自己玩吧!

 

女孩:女人哪!才說她們一句就不高興了,真沒用,謝謝。謝謝!

 

(掌聲)

 

回到跨越東西方的議題上。上個月,我們在杜哈舉辦了第二屆杜哈翠貝卡電影節,杜哈翠貝卡電影節在我們的新文化中心Katara舉行,吸引了42000名觀眾,我們展出了51部電影。它並非一個重要的電影節,但對紐約和杜哈兩座城市來說是相當重要的電影節。它之所以重要在於兩個原因。第一,它讓我們得以將阿拉伯製片者及阿拉伯的聲音,展示給世上最國際化的城市之一-紐約市;同時,我們邀請他們探索我們的世界,他們學習我們的文化、語言、傳統,瞭解彼此的不同及相同之處。

 

人們總是說「讓我們建立起溝通的橋樑」。坦白說,我想做的不僅如此,我想打破東西方之間對彼此一無所知的障礙。不,並非我們之前提過的比較容易的選擇,而是Joseph Nye提過的軟實力。文化是將人們結合在一起的重要工具,我們不應該低估它。

 

「瞭解自己」是一趟自我表達和自我實現的旅程。我不想假裝我知道所有答案,但我知道,身為個人的我,及身為這個民族一份子的我們,都歡迎能分享彼此想法的社會。這是一趟非常有趣的旅程,歡迎大家一同參與及討論,如何透過文化活動和意見交流,讓人們結合在一起的新概念。瞭解能摧毀恐懼、戰勝恐懼,試試看吧!

 

女士先生們,非常感謝。Shokran(阿拉伯語謝謝)。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Sheikha Al Mayassa, a patron of artists, storytellers and filmmakers in Qatar, talks about how art and culture create a country's identity -- and allow every country to share its unique identity with the wider world. As she says: "We don't want to be all the same, but we do want to understand each other."

About the Speaker

Sheikha Al Mayassa is the young and progressive force behind Qatar's mission to become the Middle East's foremost destination for the arts and culture. Full bio »

Transcript

Now this is not a religious garment, nor is it a religious statement. Instead, it's a diverse cultural statement that we choose to wear. Now I remember a few years ago, a journalist asked Dr. Sheikha, who's sitting here, president of Qatar University -- who, by the way, is a woman -- he asked her whether she thought the abaya hindered or infringed her freedom in any way. Her answer was quite the contrary. Instead, she felt more free, more free because she could wear whatever she wanted under the abaya. She could come to work in her pajamas and nobody would care. (Laughter) Not that you do; I'm just saying.

(Laughter)

My point is here, people have a choice -- just like the Indian lady could wear her sari or the Japanese woman could wear her kimono. We are changing our culture from within, but at the same time we are reconnecting with our traditions. We know that modernization is happening. And yes, Qatar wants to be a modern nation. But at the same time we are reconnecting and reasserting our Arab heritage. It's important for us to grow organically.And we continuously make the conscious decision to reach that balance.

In fact, research has shown that the more the world is flat, if I use Tom Friedman's analogy, or global, the more and more people are wanting to be different. And for us young people, they're looking to become individuals and find their differences amongst themselves. Which is why I prefer the Richard Wilk analogy of globalizing the local and localizing the global. We don't want to be all the same, but we want to respect each other and understand each other. And therefore tradition becomes more important, not less important.

Life necessitates a universal world, however, we believe in the security of having a local identity. And this is what the leaders of this region are trying to do. We're trying to be part of this global village, but at the same time we're revising ourselves through our cultural institutions and cultural development. I'm a representation of that phenomenon. And I think a lot of people in this room, I can see a lot of you are in the same position as myself.And I'm sure, although we can't see the people in Washington, they are in the same position. We're continuously trying to straddle different worlds, different cultures and trying to meet the challenges of a different expectation from ourselves and from others.

So I want to ask a question: What should culture in the 21st century look like? In a time where the world is becoming personalized, when the mobile phone, the burger, the telephone, everything has its own personal identity, how should we perceive ourselvesand how should we perceive others? How does that impact our desert culture?

I'm not sure of how many of you in Washington are aware of the cultural developments happening in the region and, the more recent, Museum of Islamic Art opened in Qatar in 2008. I myself am personalizing these cultural developments, but I also understand that this has to be done organically. Yes, we do have all the resources that we need in order to develop new cultural institutions, but what I think is more important is that we are very fortunate to have visionary leaders who understand that this can't happen from outside, it has to come from within. And guess what? You might be surprised to know that most people in the Gulf who are leading these cultural initiatives happen to be women.

I want to ask you, why do you think this is? Is it because it's a soft option; we have nothing else to do? No, I don't think so. I think that women in this part of the world realize that culture is an important component to connect people both locally and regionally. It's a natural component for bringing people together, discussing ideas -- in the same way we're doing here at TED. We're here, we're part of a community, sharing out ideas and discussing them. Art becomes a very important part of our national identity. The existential and social and political impact an artist has on his nation's development of cultural identity is very important.

You know, art and culture is big business. Ask me. Ask the chairpersons and CEOs of Sotheby's and Christie's. Ask Charles Saatchi about great art. They make a lot of money.So I think women in our society are becoming leaders, because they realize that for their future generations, it's very important to maintain our cultural identities. Why else do Greeks demand the return of the Elgin Marbles? And why is there an uproar when a private collector tries to sell his collection to a foreign museum? Why does it take me months on end to get an export license from London or New York in order to get pieces into my country?

In few hours, Shirin Neshat, my friend from Iran who's a very important artist for us will be talking to you. She lives in New York City, but she doesn't try to be a Western artist.Instead, she tries to engage in a very important dialogue about her culture, nation and heritage. She does that through important visual forms of photography and film.

In the same way, Qatar is trying to grow its national museums through an organic process from within. Our mission is of cultural integration and independence. We don't want to have what there is in the West. We don't want their collections. We want to build our own identities, our own fabric, create an open dialogue so that we share our ideasand share yours with us. In a few days, we will be opening the Arab Museum of Modern Art. We have done extensive research to ensure that Arab and Muslim artists, and Arabs who are not Muslims -- not all Arabs are Muslims, by the way -- but we make sure that they are represented in this new institution. This institution is government-backed and it has been the case for the past three decades. We will open the museum in a few days, and I welcome all of you to get on Qatar Airways and come and join us.

(Laughter)

Now this museum is just as important to us as the West. Some of you might have heardof the Algerian artist Baya Mahieddine, but I doubt a lot of people know that this artist worked in Picasso's studio in Paris in the 1930s. For me it was a new discovery. And I think with time, in the years to come we'll be learning a lot about our Picassos, our Legers and our Cezannes. We do have artists, but unfortunately we have not discovered them yet.

Now visual expression is just one form of culture integration. We have realized that recently more and more people are using the means of YouTube and social networking to express their stories, share their photos and tell their own stories through their own voices. In a similar way, we have created the Doha Film Institute. Now the Doha Film Institute is an organization to teach people about film and filmmaking. Last year we didn't have one Qatari woman filmmaker. Today I am proud to say we have trained and educated over 66 Qatari women filmmakers to edit, tell their own stories in their own voices.

(Applause)

Now if you'll allow me, I would love to share a one-minute film that has proven to showthat a 60-sec film can be as powerful as a haiku in telling a big picture. And this is one of our filmmakers' products.

(Video) Boy: Hey listen! Did you know that the stocks are up? Who are you playing? Girl: Uncle Khaled. Here, put on the headscarf. Khaled: Why would I want to put it on? Girl: Do as you're told, young girl. Boy: No, you play mom and I play dad. (Girl: But it's my game.)Play by yourself then. Girl: Women! One word and they get upset. Useless. Thank you. Thank you!

(Applause)

SM: Going back to straddling between East and West, last month we had our second Doha Tribeca Film Festival here in Doha. The Doha Tribeca Film Festival was held at our new cultural hub, Katara. It attracted 42,000 people, and we showcased 51 films. Now the Doha Tribeca Film Festival is not an imported festival, but rather an important festivalbetween the cities of New York and Doha. It's important for two things. First, it allows us to showcase our Arab filmmakers and voices to one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the world, New York City. At the same time, we are inviting them to come and explore our part of the world. They're learning our culture, our language, our heritage and realizing we're just as different and just the same as each other.

Now over and over again, people have said, "Let's build bridges," and frankly, I want to do more than that. I would like break the walls of ignorance between East and West -- no, not the soft option that we have discussed before, but rather the soft power that Joseph Nye has spoken about before. Culture's a very important tool to bring people together. We should not underestimate it.

"Know thyself," that is the journey of self-expression and self-realization that we are traveling. Now I don't pretend to have all the answers, but I know that me as an individualand we as a nation welcome this community of ideas worth spreading. This is a very interesting journey. I welcome you on board for us to engage and discuss new ideas of how to bring people together through cultural initiatives and discussions. Familiarity destroys and trumps fear. Try it.

Ladies and gentlemen, thank you very much. Shokran.


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