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課程來源:TED
     

 

Fahad Al-Attiya 談一個缺乏水源的國家

Fahad Al-Attiya: A country with no water

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Fahad Al-Attiya

2012年4月演講,2013年1月在TEDxSummit上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

想像一個資源豐富的國家-擁有石油、天然氣、陽光、風(和金錢)-但缺少一項關鍵的生活必需品:水。土木工程師Fahad Al-Attiya闡述如何以意想不到的方式,替卡達這個中東小國創造水源。

 

關於Fahad Al-Attiya

Fahad Al-Attiya的工作是維護卡達的糧食穩定。卡達是個缺乏水源、90%糧食仰賴進口的國家。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Fahad Bin Mohammed Al-Attiya擁有一個彷彿為他量身訂做的工作:他的家鄉卡達是新興石油生產國,擁有每年平均15%的經濟成長率及迅速增長的人口。伴隨人口暴增而來的是用水量激增的問題。因此,其中有何令人不解之處?事實上卡達並無水源。相較於巴西每年1782毫米的降雨量,卡達每年的降雨量為74毫米。

 

Al-Attiya是卡達國家糧食保障計劃主席,在一個缺乏水源、90%糧食仰賴進口的國家中,負責維持糧食供應,使之不虞匱乏。他希望自己對於永續農業的創新計劃-尤其在乾旱地區-能幫助其他國家因應氣候急遽變化導致的糧食短缺問題。

 

Fahad Al-Attiya的英語網上資料

Read: Can Qatar's food security plan ripen?

Q&A: Greenhouse gas emissions

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Fahad Al-Attiya 談一個缺乏水源的國家

 

願真主賜你們平安(阿拉伯問候語)。歡迎來到杜哈。我負責本國的糧食保障,這是我未來兩年的工作-設計一個總體計畫,並於十年內達成目標-當然,這需要眾人攜手合作。首先我想敘述一個故事,關於我本身及你們此時身處之國家的故事。當然,大多數聽眾今天都已用過三餐,或許演講結束後還會繼續進食。

 

因此-1940年代的卡達是什麼情形?當時本國大約有11000名居民,此處沒有水源、沒有能源、沒有石油、沒有汽車,可說一無所有。大多數居住於此的人,不是住在沿海村莊,以捕魚維生,就是過著游牧生活,四處尋找水源。並無今日所見的繁華,亦無今日在杜哈、杜拜、阿布達比、科威特或利雅德所見的繁華都市。並非人們無法開發都市,而是缺乏所需資源。如你們所知,人們的壽命也十分短暫,大多數人50歲左右已壽終正寢。

 

我們進入第二章:石油時代。1939年,本國發現了石油,但不幸的是,石油並未獲得大規模商業開採,直到二次世界大戰之後。石油造成什麼影響?它改變了本國的面貌,如你們今日所見,也使得那些在沙漠中四處遷徙、尋找水源和食物、費心照料牲口的牧民逐漸都市化。

 

你們或許感到奇怪,但我的家族成員擁有不同口音,母親與父親的口音截然不同。土生土長的卡達居民大約30萬人,使用的口音大約有五、六種。有人質疑,「為何如此?這是怎麼回事?」因為我們散居各處,我們無法以群居方式生活,主要是因為缺乏資源。當資源-即石油-出現後,我們開始發展先進技術,將人們聚集起來,因為我們需要群眾的力量。人們開始交流,於是我們發現彼此擁有不同口音。

 

因此這是第二章:石油時代。我們談談今日的情況:這或許是大多數人所知的杜哈天際線。如今的人口是多少?大約170萬,這是不到60年間的成果。過去5年,本國平均經濟成長率大約是15%,平均壽命增加到78歲,平均用水量提高到430公升,可說是全球最高的用水量。從缺乏水源轉變成高度用水量,勝於世上任何國家,我不知道這是否是缺水造成的反效果。

 

但這個故事中令人感興趣之處為何?令人感興趣的是,在缺乏水源的情況下,過去5年中,本國每年的經濟成長率依然維持15%。這具有歷史意義,可說是史無前例的情況。缺乏水源將導致城市的衰敗。這是本國創造的歷史,不僅是我們建造的城市,也是充滿夢想的城市。生活於此的人們期待成為科學家和醫生,建造美麗的家園,請建築師設計房子,這些人的毅力使這片不宜居住的土地改頭換面。當然,必須藉助科技的力量。巴西擁有每年1782毫米的降雨量,卡達僅有74毫米,但我們擁有這樣的經濟成長率。

 

問題在於如何做到這一點?我們如何在這種情況下生存?我們依然缺乏水源,主要原因在於這座龐大的機器,名稱為海水淡化裝置。能源是其中的關鍵因素,它改變了一切-即我們從地底抽出、大量使用的石油。或許大部分聽眾正是藉由它前來杜哈,因此它相當於我們的湖泊,如果你能想像,它相當於我們的河流,這正是大家有水可用的原因。這是本國有史以來最偉大的科技-海水淡化裝置。

 

那麼,其中有何風險?我是否杞人憂天?我的看法是,如果觀察全球情況,你們將意識到,我不得不憂心。人口與各項需求與日俱增。不過幾個月前,全球人口已達70億,隨之而來的是對糧食的需求。根據預測,到了2050年,全球將擁有90億人口。

 

因此,一個缺乏水源的國家不得不擔憂隨之而來的影響。飲食結構亦發生變化。隨著經濟水準逐漸提高,人們的飲食習慣亦發生改變,例如消耗更多肉類等等。另一方面,因為氣候變化和其它因素,糧食產量逐漸減少,因此人們必須確實意識到即將發生的危機。

 

這是卡達不為人知的情況。我們僅有兩天的淡水儲備量,本國90%的糧食仰賴進口,我國耕地面積不到國土的1%,因為市場開放政策及外來的嚴酷競爭等因素,數量有限的農民已被擠出農業競爭行列,因此我們亦面臨某些風險。這些風險直接影響國家的永續發展。

 

問題在於是否存在解決方案?是否存在永續的解決方案?確實存在。這張投影片總結了數千頁科技文獻,是我們過去兩年的研究成果。我們從水源談起。因此大家十分清楚,如之前所言,我們需要能源。如果我們需要能源,該使用何種能源?耗竭性能源?化石燃料?或者我們該採取其他選擇?如果使用另一種能源,我們是否擁有相對優勢?我想大多數聽眾已猜到我們的選擇:每年300天的日照。因此我們將使用這種可再生能源製造所需的淡水,我們將藉由發電量為1800 MW的太陽能系統,生產350萬立方公尺淡水,這是十分龐大的數量。

 

這些水將供給農民使用,農民將擁有灌溉作物的水源,藉此為人民提供糧食。但為了支援橫軸所列的計畫-因為這是我們預定設置的項目和系統-我們也需要發展縱軸所列的項目:系統支援、高等教育、研究開發、工業、科技等,發展可應用的技術,最後是市場行銷。但使一切計畫可行的方法,必須藉由法規政策和規章,若沒有這些,一切都是空談。

 

因此這就是我們的計畫。我們希望於兩年內使這些計畫成真,我們的目標是成為屹立千年的城市,如同周遭眾多歷史悠久的城市:伊斯坦堡、羅馬、倫敦、巴黎、大馬士革、開羅。我國僅擁有60年歷史,但我們希望成為屹立不搖的城市,生活在和平世界。

 

十分感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About the Talk
Imagine a country with abundant power -- oil and gas, sunshine, wind (and money) -- but missing one key essential for life: water. Infrastructure engineer Fahad Al-Attiya talks about the unexpected ways that the small Middle Eastern nation of Qatar creates its water supply.
 
About the Speaker
Fahad Al-Attiya's job is to maintain food security in Qatar, a country that has no water and imports 90 percent of its food. Full bio »
 
About the Transcript
Salaam alaikum. Welcome to Doha. I am in charge of making this country's food secure. That is my job for the next two years, to design an entire master plan, and then for the next 10 years to implement it -- of course, with so many other people. But first, I need to talk to you about a story, which is my story, about the story of this country that you're all here in today. And of course, most of you have had three meals today, and probably will continue to have after this event.
 
So going in, what was Qatar in the 1940s? We were about 11,000 people living here. There was no water. There was no energy, no oil, no cars, none of that. Most of the people who lived here either lived in coastal villages, fishing, or were nomads who roamed around with the environment trying to find water. None of the glamour that you see today existed. No cities like you see today in Doha or Dubai or Abu Dhabi or Kuwait or Riyadh. It wasn't that they couldn't develop cities. Resources weren't there to develop them. And you can see that life expectancy was also short. Most people died around the age of 50.
 
So let's move to chapter two: the oil era. 1939, that's when they discovered oil. But unfortunately, it wasn't really fully exploited commercially until after the Second World War. What did it do? It changed the face of this country, as you can see today and witness. It also made all those people who roamed around the desert -- looking for water, looking for food, trying to take care of their livestock -- urbanize.
 
You might find this strange, but in my family we have different accents. My mother has an accent that is so different to my father, and we're all a population of about 300,000 people in the same country. There are about five or six accents in this country as I speak. Someone says, "How so? How could this happen?" Because we lived scattered. We couldn't live in a concentrated way simply because there was no resources. And when the resources came, be it oil, we started building these fancy technologies and bringing people together because we needed the concentration. People started to get to know each other. And we realized that there are some differences in accents.
 
So that is the chapter two: the oil era. Let's look at today. This is probably the skyline that most of you know about Doha. So what's the population today? It's 1.7 million people. That is in less than 60 years. The average growth of our economy is about 15 percent for the past five years. Lifespan has increased to 78. Water consumption has increased to 430 liters. And this is amongst the highest worldwide. From having no water whatsoever to consuming water to the highest degree, higher than any other nation. I don't know if this was a reaction to lack of water.
 
But what is interesting about the story that I've just said? The interesting part is that we continue to grow 15 percent every year for the past five years without water. Now that is historic. It's never happened before in history. Cities were totally wiped out because of the lack of water. This is history being made in this region. Not only cities that we're building, but cities with dreams and people who are wishing to be scientists, doctors. Build a nice home, bring the architect, design my house. These people are adamant that this is a livable space when it wasn't. But of course, with the use of technology. So Brazil has 1,782 millimeters per year of precipitation of rain. Qatar has 74, and we have that growth rate.
 
The question is how. How could we survive that? We have no water whatsoever. Simply because of this gigantic, mammoth machine called desalination. Energy is the key factor here. It changed everything. It is that thing that we pump out of the ground, we burn tons of, probably most of you used it coming to Doha. So that is our lake, if you can see it. That is our river. That is how you all happen to use and enjoy water. This is the best technology that this region could ever have: desalination.
 
So what are the risks? Do you worry much? I would say, perhaps if you look at the global facts, you will realize, of course I have to worry. There is growing demand, growing population. We've turned seven billion only a few months ago. And so that number also demands food. And there's predictions that we'll be nine billion by 2050.
 
So a country that has no water has to worry about what happens beyond its borders. There's also changing diets. By elevating to a higher socio-economic level, they also change their diet. They start eating more meat and so on and so forth. On the other hand, there is declining yields because of climate change and because of other factors. And so someone has to really realize when the crisis is going to happen.
 
This is the situation in Qatar, for those who don't know. We only have two days of water reserve. We import 90 percent of our food, and we only cultivate less than one percent of our land. The limited number of farmers that we have have been pushed out of their farming practices as a result of open market policy and bringing the big competitions, etc., etc. So we also face risks. These risks directly affect the sustainability of this nation and its continuity.
 
The question is, is there a solution? Is there a sustainable solution? Indeed there is. This slide sums up thousands of pages of technical documents that we've been working on over the past two years. Let's start with the water. So we know very well -- I showed you earlier -- that we need this energy. So if we're going to need energy, what sort of energy? A depletable energy? Fossil fuel? Or should we use something else? Do we have the comparative advantage to use another sort of energy? I guess most of you by now realize that we do: 300 days of sun. And so we will use that renewable energy to produce the water that we need. And we will probably put 1,800 megawatts of solar systems to produce 3.5 million cubic meters of water. And that is a lot of water.
 
That water will go then to the farmers, and the farmers will be able to water their plants, and they will be able then to supply society with food. But in order to sustain the horizontal line -- because these are the projects, these are the systems that we will deliver -- we need to also develop the vertical line: system sustenance, high-level education, research and development, industries, technologies, to produce these technologies for application, and finally markets. But what gels all of it, what enables it, is legislation, policies, regulations. Without it we can't do anything.
 
So that's what we are planning to do. Within two years we should hopefully be done with this plan and taking it to implementation. Our objective is to be a millennium city, just like many millennium cities around: Istanbul, Rome, London, Paris, Damascus, Cairo. We are only 60 years old, but we want to live forever as a city, to live in peace.
 
Thank you very much.
 

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