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課程來源:TED
     

 

Ramsey Musallam 談激發學習興趣之三項原則

Ramsey Musallam: 3 rules to spark learning

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Ramsey Musallam

2013年4月演講,2013年5月在TED Talks Education上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

一場生死攸關的經歷使化學老師Ramsey Musallam從10年來的「偽教學」中驚醒,領悟到教育者真正的使命:培養好奇心。在這場有趣且充滿個人體驗的演講中,Musallam提出三項激發想像力、學習興趣及使學生對事物原理充滿好奇的原則。

 

關於Ramsey Musallam

身為高中化學老師的Ramsey Musallam,藉由於課堂上使用多媒體及新科技拓展學生的好奇心。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

教育方面的科技創新可說是緩慢而痛苦的過程,因為新科技難以取得、實施及採用。但這無法阻止Ramsey Musallam對教育的熱情。他是舊金山聖心天主教預備高中化學老師,將「有意義地整合多媒體及動手實作之探究式學習圈」視為自己的使命,並鼓勵其他教育工作者共襄盛舉。

 

Musallam提倡將翻轉教學(flipteaching)、平板轉播(tabcasting)、影像播客(video podcasting)及螢幕錄影(screencasting)等工具用於課堂教學。他經營教育部落格「Cycles of Learning」,提供書面及影片教學,說明如何將常用的應用程式,例如Google文件、iOS裝置之螢幕錄影程式、YouTube、KeepVid和文字雲(word clouds)轉變成有效的教學工具。Musallam於2010年取得舊金山大學教育博士學位。

 

Ramsey Musallam的英語網上資料

Home: RamseyMusallam.com

Twitter: @ramusallam

Blog: Cycles of Learning

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Ramsey Musallam 談激發學習興趣之三項原則

 

我是化學老師。

 

(爆炸聲)

 

沒事、沒事。因此,不僅是爆炸,化學現象隨處可見。你是否曾經發現自己在餐廳裡,心不在焉地一再做這個動作?有人點頭。最近我為學生示範這個實驗,請他們動手嘗試並解釋其中原因,之後學生提出的問題和討論十分精彩。請觀賞這部我第三堂課學生Maddie當晚寄給我的影片。

 

(砰)(笑聲)

 

顯然,身為Maddie的化學老師,我很高興她回家後繼續練習這個我們在課堂上示範過的有趣實驗。但更令我感興趣的是,Maddie的好奇心將她帶入一個新階段。如果你觀察燒杯內部,將會看到一根蠟燭,Maddie利用溫度賦予這個現象嶄新的面貌。

 

你們知道,像Maddie這種疑惑和好奇心,相當於使學生親近老師的磁鐵,勝於所有教育方面的技巧或術語。但如果在學生進行探索前即展示這些技巧,我們將失去老師擁有的最佳工具-學生的疑惑。例如將一堂沉悶的課程,透過行動裝置螢幕呈現,或許能節省講課時間,但如果這成為學生體驗的重點,將和填鴨式教育毫無區別,只是披著一件華麗的外衣罷了。但相反地,如果我們有勇氣使學生困惑,讓他們摸不著頭緒,激發真正的疑惑,藉由這些疑惑,身為老師的我們可獲得某些資訊,用來調整教學方式,獲得進行混合式教學的方法。

 

因此,別理會21世紀那些莫名其妙的術語。事實上,我從事教職已有13年,一個生死攸關情況讓我從10年來的「偽教學」中驚醒,幫助我瞭解,學生的疑惑是學習的真正基礎,而非某種照本宣科的課程,那只能提供他們瑣碎的隨機資訊。

 

2010年5月,35歲的我擁有一個2歲大的孩子,第二個孩子即將出生。診斷結果顯示,我長了一個大動脈瘤,位於胸腔主動脈。我必須做開心手術,這是當時醫生寫給我的電子郵件正本。當我收到這封信時,我-猛按大寫鎖定鍵-我完全嚇壞了,明白嗎?但我意外地得到些許安慰,因為我的醫生所展現的自信。這個傢伙的自信從何而來?因為魯莽嗎?

 

因此,當我請教他時,他告訴我三件事。他說:第一,好奇心驅使他預設一些和手術過程有關的棘手問題,包括可行和不可行的情況。第二,他勇於面對,而非畏懼反覆試驗的繁瑣過程;無法避免的反覆試驗過程。第三,藉由謹慎思考,他收集所需的資訊,設計及修正手術過程。最後,藉由堅定的信心,他救了我一命。

 

這些充滿智慧的話語令我獲益匪淺。那年秋季,回學校任職前,我寫下三條屬於我的原則,直到今天依然用於我的教學計畫中。第一項原則:好奇心是首要之事。疑惑可做為卓越教學的窗口,但不可本末倒置。第二項原則:勇於面對繁瑣過程。我們都是老師,我們知道學習過程十分惱人。只因為科學方法論已寫在第五頁第一章第二節中,正好是我們略過不講的章節,對嗎?試誤法仍然是我們每天在聖心高中206室所使用的一種非正式方法。第三項原則:反覆思考。我們所做的十分重要,值得在乎,但也值得修正。我們是否能成為課堂中的外科醫生?彷彿我們的所作所為某天將救人一命。學生值得我們付出,每位學生的情況都不相同。

 

(爆炸聲)

 

喔,抱歉,身為化學老師的我必須發洩一下,才能繼續講課。

 

這是我的女兒。右邊是小Emmalou-南方家族名字;左邊是Riley。幾週後,Riley將成為大女孩;她即將邁入4歲。任何瞭解4歲孩子的人都知道,他們喜歡問「為什麼」。是的,為什麼。我可以教這個孩子任何事,因為她對任何事都感到好奇,我們在那個年紀皆是如此。但Riley未來的老師將面臨極大的挑戰-她尚未遇見的老師們。他們如何培養這份好奇心?

 

你們瞭解,我以Riley比喻所有孩子。我認為輟學有許多不同原因,例如學期開始前已輟學的高中生,或市區中學教室後排空著的課桌。但如果身為教育者的我們,跳脫知識傳播者的單一角色,採取嶄新的教學方式,擔任好奇心與探索能力的培育者,或許能為他們的學校生活帶來更多意義,激發他們的想像力。

 

十分感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About the Talk

It took a life-threatening condition to jolt chemistry teacher Ramsey Musallam out of ten years of “pseudo-teaching” to understand the true role of the educator: to cultivate curiosity. In a fun and personal talk, Musallam gives 3 rules to spark imagination and learning, and get students excited about how the world works.
 
About the Speaker
As a high school chemistry teacher, Ramsey Musallam expands curiosity in the classroom through multimedia and new technology.
 
About the Transcript
I teach chemistry.
 
(Explosion)
 
All right, all right. So more than just explosions, chemistry is everywhere. Have you ever found yourself at a restaurant spacing out just doing this over and over? Some people nodding yes. Recently, I showed this to my students, and I just asked them to try and explain why it happened. The questions and conversations that followed were fascinating. Check out this video that Maddie from my period three class sent me that evening.
 
(Clang) (Laughs)
 
Now obviously, as Maddie's chemistry teacher, I love that she went home and continued to geek out about this kind of ridiculous demonstration that we did in class. But what fascinated me more is that Maddie's curiosity took her to a new level. If you look inside that beaker, you might see a candle. Maddie's using temperature to extend this phenomenon to a new scenario.
 
You know, questions and curiosity like Maddie's are magnets that draw us towards our teachers, and they transcend all technology or buzzwords in education. But if we place these technologies before student inquiry, we can be robbing ourselves of our greatest tool as teachers: our students' questions. For example, flipping a boring lecture from the classroom to the screen of a mobile device might save instructional time, but if it is the focus of our students' experience, it's the same dehumanizing chatter just wrapped up in fancy clothing. But if instead we have the guts to confuse our students, perplex them, and evoke real questions, through those questions, we as teachers have information that we can use to tailor robust and informed methods of blended instruction.
 
So, 21st-century lingo jargon mumbo jumbo aside, the truth is, I've been teaching for 13 years now, and it took a life-threatening situation to snap me out of 10 years of pseudo-teaching and help me realize that student questions are the seeds of real learning, not some scripted curriculum that gave them tidbits of random information.
 
In May of 2010, at 35 years old, with a two-year-old at home and my second child on the way, I was diagnosed with a large aneurysm at the base of my thoracic aorta. This led to open-heart surgery. This is the actual real email from my doctor right there. Now, when I got this, I was -- press Caps Lock -- absolutely freaked out, okay? But I found surprising moments of comfort in the confidence that my surgeon embodied. Where did this guy get this confidence, the audacity of it?
 
So when I asked him, he told me three things. He said first, his curiosity drove him to ask hard questions about the procedure, about what worked and what didn't work. Second, he embraced, and didn't fear, the messy process of trial and error, the inevitable process of trial and error. And third, through intense reflection, he gathered the information that he needed to design and revise the procedure, and then, with a steady hand, he saved my life.
 
Now I absorbed a lot from these words of wisdom, and before I went back into the classroom that fall, I wrote down three rules of my own that I bring to my lesson planning still today. Rule number one: Curiosity comes first. Questions can be windows to great instruction, but not the other way around. Rule number two: Embrace the mess. We're all teachers. We know learning is ugly. And just because the scientific method is allocated to page five of section 1.2 of chapter one of the one that we all skip, okay, trial and error can still be an informal part of what we do every single day at Sacred Heart Cathedral in room 206. And rule number three: Practice reflection. What we do is important. It deserves our care, but it also deserves our revision. Can we be the surgeons of our classrooms? As if what we are doing one day will save lives. Our students our worth it. And each case is different.
 
(Explosion)
 
All right. Sorry. The chemistry teacher in me just needed to get that out of my system before we move on.
 
So these are my daughters. On the right we have little Emmalou -- Southern family. And, on the left, Riley. Now Riley's going to be a big girl in a couple weeks here. She's going to be four years old, and anyone who knows a four-year-old knows that they love to ask, "Why?" Yeah. Why. I could teach this kid anything because she is curious about everything. We all were at that age. But the challenge is really for Riley's future teachers, the ones she has yet to meet. How will they grow this curiosity?
 
You see, I would argue that Riley is a metaphor for all kids, and I think dropping out of school comes in many different forms -- to the senior who's checked out before the year's even begun or that empty desk in the back of an urban middle school's classroom. But if we as educators leave behind this simple role as disseminators of content and embrace a new paradigm as cultivators of curiosity and inquiry, we just might bring a little bit more meaning to their school day, and spark their imagination.
 
Thank you very much.
 
(Applause)

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