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Anas Aremeyaw Anas 談我如何揭露罪犯姓名、使其蒙羞、使其入獄

Anas Aremeyaw Anas: How I named, shamed and jailed

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Anas Aremeyaw Anas

2013年2月演講,2013年6月在TED 2013上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

記者Anas Aremeyaw Anas揭露數十起遍及迦納的貪污及組織犯罪案件-不曾讓自己的身份曝光。在這場演講中(他仍未以真面目示人),Anas展示他調查中的一些駭人鏡頭,闡述對抗不公的重要性。

 

關於Anas Aremeyaw Anas

Anas Aremeyaw Anas為迦納臥底記者及私家偵探,搜集關於犯罪及貪污的關鍵鐵證,使罪犯入獄。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Anas Aremeyaw Anas是臥底記者及私家偵探,工作地點遍及迦納及整個非洲大陸。他藉由偽裝,潛入精神病院、妓院和村莊,有條不紊地搜集充滿震撼力的故事證據-然後將證據呈交政府當局,使罪犯遭到起訴。

 

關於人口販賣的調查使他榮獲2008年美國國務院英雄獎。2009年,歐巴馬總統於迦納發表政策演說時,特別提及Anas,稱讚他為「冒著生命危險報導真相的勇敢記者」。他於迦納某間精神病房所做的〈瘋人院〉調查報告,使大眾意識到迦納的精神健康問題,促使迦納於2012年通過「精神衛生法」。

 

他於〈中國人口販賣黑手黨〉報導中揭露人口販賣組織的活動,導致三名人口販子判處41年徒刑。〈白子詛咒〉為《半島電視台的非洲調查》系列報導之一,使大眾得知販賣人體器官的邪惡交易。〈國家的敵人〉揭露迦納特馬港的貪污情況,使國家回收2億美元公款。

 

「人們需要得知這樣的故事,顯示非洲人不會縱容貪污和不公。」

-Julia Wangombe 於 TED.com

 

Anas Aremeyaw Anas的英語網上資料

Twitter: @anasglobal

Film: Spirit Child

Profile: The Atlantic

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Anas Aremeyaw Anas 談我如何揭露罪犯姓名、使其蒙羞、使其入獄

 

抱歉,我無法以真面目示人。因為如果這麼做,壞人會找上我。

 

這段旅程始於14年前。當時我是個年輕記者,剛從大學畢業。

 

然後我拿到一則獨家新聞。那則獨家新聞是個十分簡單的故事-警察向街頭小販收賄。身為一位年輕記者,我認為必須以不同方式報導,使這則新聞產生最大的影響力。因為每個人都知道這個情形,卻無法杜絕這個陋習。

 

因此我決定走上街頭,扮成一個小販,賣東西之餘,我也能搜集鐵證。效果十分顯著;棒極了。

 

這就是所謂的浸入式報導或臥底報導。我是個臥底記者,我的報導立足於三項基本原則:揭露罪犯姓名、使其蒙羞、使其入獄。新聞報導的重點在於結果,在於以最具成效的方式影響社區或社會。我致力於這項工作已超過14年,我可以告訴各位,效果非常棒。

 

我想起其中一個來自我臥底報導的故事,標題為〈靈子〉(Spirit Child),內容是關於先天畸形的孩童。他們的父母認為,一旦孩子先天畸形,就不適合生存於這個社會。因此他們被迫服用某種藥汁,孩子因此喪命。因此我訂製了一個假嬰兒,前往那座村莊,假裝這個嬰兒先天畸形。這就是那些殺嬰兇手;他們已準備就緒。當他們準備行動時,我請警察在一旁待命。他們在那個命運的早晨現身,準備殺嬰。我記得他們多麼認真地烹煮藥汁。他們將藥汁放在爐火上,藥汁沸騰著,準備給孩子服用。此時,我事先知會過的警察已在一旁待命,就在藥汁完成,準備給孩子服用時,我打電話給警察。非常幸運地,警察及時趕到,逮捕了他們。我敘述這個故事的當下,他們正在出庭。別忘了其中的關鍵原則:揭露罪犯姓名、使其蒙羞、使其入獄。法庭程序正在進行;我確信那天結束前,我們會找到他們,將他們送往他們該去的地方。

 

我想到另一個重要的故事,和這個「靈子」現象有關,標題為〈白子詛咒〉(The Spell of the Albinos)。我相信在座大部分人聽說過,在坦尚尼亞,罹患白化症的孩童有時被認為不適合生存於這個社會。他們肢體遭彎刀截下,或許被用於製作藥汁,或供人圖利的藥劑,或許多人們傳言中的用途。是再次臥底的時候了。因此我展開臥底行動,扮成一位對這門生意感興趣的人。我再次訂製了一條假手臂;那是第一次我用隱藏式攝影機拍下進行這項交易的人。他們準備購買這條手臂,準備用它來調製藥劑。

 

我很高興目前坦尚尼亞政府已採取行動,但關鍵問題在於,坦尚尼亞政府只能在證據確鑿的情況下採取行動,我的報導正是關於關鍵鐵證的搜集。如果我指控你偷竊,我會展示你偷竊的證據,我會揭露你偷竊的方法、偷竊的時間、工具或偷竊的目的。如果新聞報導對社會沒有好處,有何存在的必要?

 

我的報導源於我的社會,我知道有時人們對臥底報導有所爭議。

 

(影片)官員:他從口袋裡掏出一些錢,放在桌上,試圖讓我們放心。他想將可可運往象牙海岸,因為我有其他打算,我保持沉默,一語不發,但我的同事毫不知情。因此收了錢、他離開之後,我們等他把貨品帶來。他離開之後,我立刻告訴同事,因為我是這個團隊的領導者,我告訴同事,如果他們前來,我們就將他們逮捕。

 

第二名官員:我甚至不知道那個叫〔不清楚〕的地方,我不曾去過那裡,因此我很訝異。你看見有隻手在我面前數錢,下一秒,你就看見錢在我手裡數著。但我不曾與任何人接觸,我不曾與任何人進行交易。

 

記者:當《都市日報》聯繫調查記者Anas Aremeyaw Anas,想知道他的反應時,他只是微笑著,提供這段不曾出現在近期播出的紀錄片中的影片。之前否認涉案的官員按著計算機,計算他們打算對走私可可收取的賄款。

 

Anas Aremeyaw Anas:這是另一個與反貪污有關的故事;這是那名矢口否認的官員。但如各位所見,當你擁有關鍵鐵證時,就能影響社會。有時報上會出現這樣的頭條。(音樂)

 

〈我詛咒Anas不得好死〉

 

〈Anas謊話連篇〉

 

〈Anas用以圖利的新聞影片引起軒然大波〉

 

〈對抗緝私局高層官員計畫曝光〉

 

〈Anas擁有看不見的力量?〉

 

〈Anas的影片令政府不安〉

 

〈獵捕獵人〉

 

〈Anas賄賂出庭者〉

 

〈Anas的影片害死15個人〉

 

〈財政部長力挺Anas〉

 

〈對Anas報導的11個質疑〉

 

〈迦納記者聯盟支持Anas〉

 

〈Anas的影片令Mills總統於特馬港大發雷霆〉

 

〈迦納前總統John Evans Atta Mills〉

 

John Evans Atta Mills:很多人對Anas報導的事並非毫不知情。但聽著,各位幹員,還有使海關官員陷入誘惑的人,我要告訴你們,迦納不會對你們客氣。

 

AAA:那是我國前總統。

 

我想,既然來到這裡,我必須給你們一些特別的東西。我有個故事,很高興能在這裡第一次分享。我曾經在監獄臥底,我在那裡待了很長一段時間。我可以告訴各位,我目睹的情形糟透了。但同樣地,我無法影響社會和政府,除非我將關鍵鐵證攜出。無數次地,獄方矢口否認存在毒品濫用、雞姦等問題;他們否認太多曾經發生過的事。如何才能得到關鍵鐵證?

 

因此我進了監獄。〈Nsawan監獄〉好,你們眼中所見的是一堆屍體。好,我碰巧目睹一位同室獄友,從臥病在床到死亡的過程。我可以告訴各位,簡直慘不忍睹。獄中的問題包括伙食極差,我記得有些食物並不適合人類食用。廁所設備:非常差。我指的是,你得排隊才能用到像樣的廁所。我所謂的像樣,是指四人合用一個茅坑。這是即使說給某個人聽,那個人也不會相信的情況。使那個人相信的唯一辦法,就是讓他目睹關鍵鐵證。當然,毒品隨處可見。在監獄裡取得大麻、海洛因和古柯鹼甚至比外面更快、更容易。

 

社會中的邪惡是一種重病,如果罹患重病,就必須下重藥。我的報導或許不適用於其他洲或其他國家,但我可以告訴各位,它適用於我所在的非洲地區。因為人們談到貪污時通常會問:「證據在哪裡?我要看證據。」我說,「這就是證據。」它幫助我將許多人送進監獄。

 

你們知道,在我身處的非洲,揭露這些故事較具影響力,因為我們能面對及看清局勢。這就是為何我格外興奮,當我們的《非洲調查》影集播出時,我們調查了許多非洲國家。由於《非洲調查》影集的成功,我們打算著手進行《世界調查》。調查結束時,將有更多非洲壞人被送進監獄。

 

調查不會停止,我打算繼續從事這類報導。因為我知道,欲打擊壞人,好人必須攜手合作。

 

十分感謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

Chris Anderson:謝謝,謝謝。我想請教一些問題。你是怎麼入獄的?這只是幾星期前的事,對嗎?

 

AAA:是的,你知道,臥底的重點在於安排好行動優先順序,因此我們找人把我送上法庭,因此我經由完全合法的程序入獄。因為那天結束時,獄方會確認你是否確實上過法庭,那就是我入獄的方法。

 

CA:因此有人控告你,讓你上法庭,你因涉案而遭拘留。你是故意這麼做的?

 

AAA:是的,沒錯。

 

CA:我們談談關於恐懼的話題。你怎麼處理這種感覺?因為你經常讓自己身處險境。你如何克服恐懼?

 

AAA:你知道,臥底一向是最後手段。進行臥底之前,我們一向照規矩行事。只有在確認所有步驟都就緒之後,我才會感到自在、無所畏懼。我並非獨立作業,我有一個後援團隊,確保我的安全及整個系統正確運作。但狀況發生時,你必須做出非常明智的決定,如果做不到,就會送命。因此,當後援系統準備就緒,我就沒問題。我會勇往直前。危險當然存在,但這就是職業風險。我是指,任何人都可能遭遇風險。當你知道自己面臨什麼風險,就必須承擔風險來臨時的後果。

 

CA:嗯,你是個了不起的人,從事了不起的工作,我想你告訴我們的是所有聽眾都不曾耳聞的故事。十分感謝,我們向你致敬。非常感謝,Anas。

 

AAA:謝謝。

 

CA:謝謝,請保重。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas has broken dozens of stories of corruption and organized crime all over Ghana -- without ever revealing his identity. In this talk (in which his face remains hidden) Anas shows grisly footage from some of his investigations and demonstrates the importance of facing injustice.
 
About Anas Aremeyaw Anas
Anas Aremeyaw Anas is a Ghanaian undercover journalist and private eye who gathers hard evidence of crime and corruption, putting the perpetrators behind bars.
 
About the transcript
I am sorry I cannot show you my face, because if I do, the bad guys will come for me.
 
My journey started 14 years ago. I was a young reporter. I had just come out of college.
 
Then I got a scoop. The scoop was quite a very simple story. Police officers were taking bribes from hawkers who were hawking on the streets. As a young reporter, I thought that I should do it in a different way, so that it has a maximum impact, since everybody knew that it was happening, and yet there was nothing that was keeping it out of the system.
 
So I decided to go there and act as a seller. As part of selling, I was able to document the hard core evidence. The impact was great. It was fantastic.
 
This was what many call immersion journalism, or undercover journalism. I am an undercover journalist. My journalism is hinged on three basic principles: naming, shaming and jailing. Journalism is about results. It's about affecting your community or your society in the most progressive way. I have worked on this for over 14 years, and I can tell you, the results are very good.
 
One story that comes to mind in my undercover pieces is "Spirit Child." It was about children who were born with deformities, and their parents felt that once they were born with those deformities, they were not good enough to live in the society, so they were given some concoction to take and as a result they died. So I built a prosthetic baby, and I went into the village, pretended as though this baby had been born with a deformity, and here was the guys who do the killing. They got themselves ready. In their bids to kill, I got the police on standby, and they came that fateful morning to come and kill the child. I recall how they were seriously boiling the concoction. They put it on fire. It was boiling hot, getting ready to give to the kids. Whilst this was going on, the police I had alerted, they were on standby, and just as the concoction was ready, and they were about to give it to the kids, I phoned the police, and fortunately they came and busted them. As I speak now, they are before the courts. Don't forget the key principles: naming, shaming and jailing. The court process is taking place, and I'm very sure at the end of the day we will find them, and we will put them where they belong too.
 
Another key story that comes to mind, which relates to this spirit child phenomenon, is "The Spell of the Albinos." I'm sure most of you may have heard, in Tanzania, children who are born with albinism are sometimes considered as being unfit to live in society. Their bodies are chopped up with machetes and are supposed to be used for some concoctions or some potions for people to get money -- or so many, many stories people would tell about it. It was time to go undercover again. So I went undercover as a man who was interested in this particular business, of course. Again, a prosthetic arm was built. For the first time, I filmed on hidden camera the guys who do this, and they were ready to buy the arm and they were ready to use it to prepare those potions for people.
 
I am glad today the Tanzanian government has taken action, but the key issue is that the Tanzanian government could only take action because the evidence was available. My journalism is about hard core evidence. If I say you have stolen, I show you the evidence that you have stolen. I show you how you stole it and when, or what you used what you had stolen to do. What is the essence of journalism if it doesn't benefit society?
 
My kind of journalism is a product of my society. I know that sometimes people have their own criticisms about undercover journalism.
 
(Video) Official: He brought out some money from his pockets and put it on the table, so that we should not be afraid. He wants to bring the cocoa and send it to Cote d'Ivoire. So with my hidden intention, I kept quiet. I didn't utter a word. But my colleagues didn't know. So after collecting the money, when he left, we were waiting for him to bring the goods. Immediately after he left, I told my colleagues that since I was the leader of the group, I told my colleagues that if they come, we will arrest them.
 
Second official: I don't even know the place called [unclear]. I've never stepped there before. So I'm surprised. You see a hand counting money just in front of me. The next moment, you see the money in my hands, counting, whereas I have not come into contact with anybody. I have not done any business with anybody. Reporter: When Metro News contacted investigative reporter
 
Anas Aremeyaw Anas for his reaction, he just smiled and gave this video extract he did not use in the documentary recently shown onscreen. The officer who earlier denied involvement pecks a calculator to compute the amount of money they will charge on the cocoa to be smuggled.
 
Anas Aremeyaw Anas: This was another story on anticorruption. And here was him, denying. But you see, when you have the hard core evidence, you are able to affect society. Sometimes these are some of the headlines that come. (Music)
 
[I will curse Anas to death]
 
[Anas Lies]
 
[Alarm Blows Over Anas' News for Cash Video]
 
[Agenda Against Top CEPS Officials Exposed]
 
[Anas Operates with Invisible Powers?]
 
[Gov't Wobbles Over Anas Video]
 
[Hunting the Hunter]
 
[Anas 'Bribe' Men in Court]
 
[15 Heads Roll Over Anas Tape]
 
[Finance Minister Backs Anas]
 
[11 Given Queries Over Anas' Story]
 
[GJA Stands By Anas]
 
[Prez. Mills Storms Tema Harbour Over Anas Video] ["Late Prof. John Evans Atta Mills: Former president of Ghana"]
 
John Evans Atta Mills: What Anas says is not something which is unknown to many of us, but please, those of you who are agents, and who are leading the customs officers into temptation, I'm telling you, Ghana is not going to say any good things to you about this.
 
AAA: That was my president.
 
I thought that I couldn't come here without giving you something special. I have a piece, and I'm excited that I'm sharing it for the first time with you here. I have been undercover in the prisons. I have been there for a long time. And I can tell you, what I saw is not nice. But again, I can only affect society and affect government if I bring out the hard core evidence. Many times, the prison authorities have denied ever having issues of drug abuse, issues of sodomy, so many issues they would deny that it ever happens. How can you obtain the hard core evidence?
 
So I was in the prison. ["Nsawan Prison"] Now, what you are seeing is a pile of dead bodies. Now, I happen to have followed one of my inmates, one of my friends, from his sick bed till death, and I can tell you it was not a nice thing at all. There were issues of bad food being served as I recall that some of the food I ate is just not good for a human being. Toilet facilities: very bad. I mean, you had to queue to get proper toilets to attend -- and that's what I call proper, when four of us are on a manhole. It is something that if you narrate it to somebody, the person wouldn't believe it. The only way that you can let the person believe is when you show hard core evidence. Of course, drugs were abundant. It was easier to get cannabis, heroin and cocaine, faster even, in the prison than outside the prison.
 
Evil in the society is an extreme disease. If you have extreme diseases, you need to get extreme remedies. My kind of journalism might not fit in other continents or other countries, but I can tell you, it works in my part of the continent of Africa, because usually, when people talk about corruption, they ask, "Where is the evidence? Show me the evidence." I say, "This is the evidence." And that has aided in me putting a lot of people behind bars.
 
You see, we on the continent are able to tell the story better because we face the conditions and we see the conditions. That is why I was particularly excited when we launched our "Africa Investigates" series where we investigated a lot of African countries. As a result of the success of the "Africa Investigates" series, we are moving on to World Investigates. By the end of it, a lot more bad guys on our continent will be put behind bars.
 
This will not stop. I'm going to carry on with this kind of journalism, because I know that when evil men destroy, good men must build and bind.
 
Thank you very much.
 
(Applause)
 
Chris Anderson: Thank you. Thank you. I have some questions for you. How did you end up in jail? This was just a few weeks ago, I believe, yeah?
 
AAA: Sure. You know, undercover is all about setting the priorities right, so we got people to take me to court. So I went through the very legal process, because at the end of the day, the prison authorities want to check whether indeed you have been there or not, and that's how I got in there.
 
CA: So someone sued you in court, and they took you there, and you were in remand custody for part of it, and you did that deliberately.
 
AAA: Yes, yes.
 
CA: Talk to me just about fear and how you manage that, because you're regularly putting your life at risk. How do you do that?
 
AAA: You see, undercover is always a last resort. Before we go undercover, we follow the rules. And I'm only comfortable and I'm purged of fear whenever I am sure that all the steps have been taken. I don't do it alone. I have a backup team who help ensure that the safety and all the systems are put in place, but you've got to take very intelligent decisions whenever they are happening. If you don't, you will end up losing your life. So yes, when the backup systems are put in place, I'm okay, I go in. Risky, yes, but it's a hazard of a profession. I mean, everybody has their hazard. And once you say that is yours, you've got to take it, as and when it comes.
 
CA: Well, you're an amazing human and you've done amazing work and you've taught us a story like no story I think any of us have heard before. And we're appreciative. We salute you. Thank you so much, Anas.
 
AAA: Thank you.
 
CA: Thank you. Stay safe. (Applause)

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