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Iwan Baan 談在意想不到之處打造獨特家園

Iwan Baan: Ingenious homes in unexpected places

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Iwan Baan

2013年9月演講,2013年10月在TEDCity2.0上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恒

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後制:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

委內瑞拉卡拉卡斯市中心矗立著一棟45層的「大衛塔」(Tower of David),一棟未完成的廢棄摩天大樓。但大約八年前,人們開始進駐此地。攝影師Iwan Baan藉由帶領我們參觀大衛塔的住家、奈及利亞的水上城市及中國的地底村莊,顯示人們如何在意想不到之處建立家園。精彩的照片讚嘆著人類在任何地方生存及建立家園的能力。

 

關於Iwan Baan

攝影師Iwan Baan捕捉人們營造公共建築環境的眾多方式-從金碧輝煌的著名建築到手工打造的家園。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Iwan Baan對人類彼此關聯的興趣反映在他從建築攝影師轉為紀錄片導演的能力中。在他於世界各地拍攝的非常規社區照片中,展現鄉土建築及空間營造如何顯示人類聰明才智的例子。他的攝影作品是通往周遭世界的窗口。

 

Iwan Baan的英語網上資料

Home: iwan.com

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Iwan Baan 談在意想不到之處打造獨特家園

 

職業生涯中,我十分幸運能與許多傑出的國際建築師合作,記錄他們的作品、觀察他們的設計如何影響其座落的城市。我想到像杜拜一樣的新興城市,或像羅馬一樣的古老城市,擁有Zaha Hadid的傑作-21世紀國家博物館。或像這裡-擁有High Line的紐約,一個深受這座空中公園影響的城市。

 

但我發現,最令人著迷的是,當建築師和規劃者離開,人們進駐這些地方時的情形;例如印度的昌迪加爾。這座城市由建築師Le Corbusier獨力設計,60年後的今天,這座城市已被人們以相當不同於當初設計目的之方式進駐。像這裡,你看見人們坐在禮堂窗戶上。但這幾年當中,我紀錄Rem Koolhaas設計的北京CCTV(中央電視台)大樓,和同城市中,由建築師Herzog及de Meuron設計的奧運體育場。在這些中國大型建築工地中,你可以看見一種臨時營地,讓工人於整個施工期間居住。由於施工期長達數年,工人最後形成一種相當簡陋的非常規城市,與他們正在興建的複雜結構形成強烈對比。

 

過去七年中,我一直追隨自己對建築環境的痴迷,瞭解我的人會說,這種痴迷使我一年365天提著行李過生活。一直處於四處奔波的狀態,意味著我有時可以捕捉到生活中最無法預知的時刻,例如桑迪颶風襲擊紐約後那天。

 

就在三年前,我第一次來到委內瑞拉的卡拉卡斯。當飛機越過城市上空時,我驚訝地發現貧民窟遍佈城市每個角落,一個將近70%居民生活在貧民窟的地方,遍布整個山谷。在與當地建築團隊Urban-Think Tank的談話中,我得知大衛塔,一棟座落於卡拉卡斯中心的45層辦公大樓。這棟大樓持續施工,直到委內瑞拉經濟崩盤,及開發商於90年代初去世。大約八年前,人們開始搬進這棟廢棄的大樓,開始在這棟未完工大樓的每個隔間中建立自己的家。整棟大樓只有一個小入口,3000位居民藉由這唯一的小門進出。此外,居民設計了公共空間,使這裡更有家的感覺,而非一棟未完工的大樓。他們粉刷大廳牆面、種植樹木,還建了一座籃球場。但當你仔細觀察時,可看見許多空洞,這是電梯和其它設施預留處。

 

在這棟大樓裡,人們想出各種解決方案,因應居住在這棟未完工大樓裡所衍生的各種需求。因為沒有電梯,這棟大樓就像45層的摩天塔。這群人以十分獨特的方式打造這棟建築,他們不曾受過任何建築或設計方面的教育。藉由每位居民自行發掘的獨特生活方式,這棟大樓彷彿成了一座充滿活力的城市,一個藉由微型經濟和小生意而生氣勃勃的地方。例如這些充滿創意的居民,在最意想不到的情況下發現機會。例如鄰近的停車場被開闢成計程車路線,運送居民通過坡道,以縮短前往公寓的上坡路程。

 

穿越大樓的沿途,顯示居民如何搭建牆面、如何使空氣流通、如何增進大樓的採光及空氣循環,從根本打造一座完全適合周遭環境的家園。當一位新居民搬進這棟大樓,他們已擁有遮風蔽雨的屋頂,因此他們通常只是用幾張窗簾或床單標示自己的空間。慢慢地,藉由現成材料搭起牆面,人們創造了一個沒有任何固定物體或建材的空間。

 

他們的設計規劃令人驚艷,例如當一切都由紅磚建造時,有些居民會在紅磚外貼上一層紅磚圖案的壁紙,只為了使它看起來稍微悅目些。

 

這些居民用雙手打造這些住所,這種自發性的勞動使許多住在這棟大樓中的家庭充滿自豪。他們通常盡可能利用周遭環境,試著使生活空間更美觀、更有家的感覺;或至少盡最大可能。在這棟大樓中,你可以找到各式各樣的服務,例如理髮店、小型工廠、每層都有小雜貨店或商店;你甚至可以找到教堂。30樓有間健身房,所有重量訓練器材和槓鈴都由未安裝電梯所剩的滑輪製成。從這片千變萬化的牆面後方,你可以看見固定的混凝土樑柱如何提供居民一個建立家園的框架;以一種有機而直觀的方式,直接回應他們的需求。

 

現在我們來看非洲。奈及利亞一個叫Makoko的社區,一個擁有15萬人口的貧民窟,位於拉各斯潟湖上方幾公尺處。儘管它看起來似乎是十分混亂的地方,但當你從上方俯瞰時,它看起來就像由水道和運河形成的網路,連接每家每戶。人們從主碼頭坐上長木舟,前往這片廣大區域中各式各樣的房屋和商店。進入水域時,顯然周遭一切已完全融入這種十分特殊的生活方式,甚至連木舟也成為各式各樣的商店。女性挨家挨戶地划著木舟,販賣從牙膏到新鮮水果等各式商品。在每扇窗戶和門框後,你看見孩童窺視著你。儘管Makoko似乎到處都是人,但更令人驚訝的,其實是每棟房屋中孩子的數量。奈及利亞人口的增長,尤其在類似Makoko的地區,提醒人們一切有多麼失控。

 

Makoko只擁有十分稀少的民生系統和基礎設施;電力使用受限,淡水來自這個地區中自行挖掘的井。整體經濟模式因應這種特殊的水上生活方式而設計,因此捕魚和造船是最普遍的職業。其中有一系列商家,在這片區域中經營各式生意,例如理髮店、CD和DVD商店、電影院、裁縫舖和其它一切,甚至還有一家照相館,呈現住在真正屋子裡或接觸某個遙遠地方的渴望,例如瑞典的旅館。

 

在這個特別的傍晚,我遇見這個穿著制服的現場樂隊。他們在河道中漂流,坐著一艘配備發電機的大木舟,提供所有居民娛樂。

 

黑夜降臨時,這片區域幾乎伸手不見五指,除了一些小燈泡或火光。

 

我前來Makoko的起因是一位朋友-Kunle Adeyemi進行的計畫,他為Makoko孩童建立的三層水上學校最近完工。因為整個村落都建於水上,公共空間十分有限,因此學校興建完成後,底層成了孩子們的活動場所。但課程結束後,這座平臺彷彿鄉鎮廣場。漁民在這裡補網,水上小販將船停靠在這裡。

 

另一個我想和大家分享的地方是開羅的Zabbaleen。此地居民是40年代開始從上埃及遷徙而來的農民後代,如今他們仰賴從全開羅家庭回收垃圾維生。多年來,Zabbaleen居民生活在臨時村落裡,以便四處遷徙,試圖避開當地政府。但80年代初,他們定居於Mokattam山區,就在這座城市東緣。如今他們生活在這個地區,大約5至7萬人,住在自行建造的多層房屋社區中,最多三代同堂。儘管他們自行建造的公寓看似缺乏規劃或正規架構,每個家庭專門從事某種形式的回收,意味著每座公寓底層保留給垃圾處理相關工作,上層則屬於居住空間。我驚訝地目睹這裡的居民如何無視於成堆的垃圾。像這位德高望重、正在擺姿勢的男性,他後方的垃圾彷彿隨時會傾巢而出;或這兩位正坐在成噸垃圾間聊天的年輕人。儘管對大多數人來說,生活在成堆垃圾間似乎完全無法適應,但對Zabbaleen居民來說,這只是不同形式的正常生活。

 

在我今天提到的所有地方,我發現最令人感興趣的是,事實上並沒有所謂的正常,這證明人們有能力適應任何環境。一天當中,遇見一場小型街頭派對是家常便飯,就像這場訂婚派對。在當地傳統中,準新娘必須展示所有家當,然後隨即交給未來的丈夫。像這樣的聚集方式形成一種強烈對比;所有新物品展示在大街上,所有垃圾彷彿襯托這些新居用品的道具。如同Makoko及Torre David,你可在Zabbaleen地區發現與任何典型社區相同的設施,包括零售店、咖啡館和餐廳。這是科普特基督徒社區,因此你也會找到教堂和隨處可見的宗教圖騰。還有各種日常服務設施,例如電器維修店、理髮店等等。

 

拜訪Zabbaleen住家同樣令人充滿驚喜。儘管從外觀看來,這些房子和城市中其他非常規建築十分相似,當你踏進屋內,將目睹其中所有設計形式和室內裝飾。儘管受限於空間和金錢,此區房屋都經過鉅細靡遺的設計,每棟公寓都十分獨特,這種獨特性說明了每個家庭的情況和價值觀。許多居民十分重視住家和室內空間,對細節部分費盡心思。他們對公共區域也採取相同做法,在牆面裝飾仿大理石圖騰。

 

除了這些精美的裝飾,有時這些公寓以意想不到的方式被使用,例如這間引起我注意的房子。許多泥土和雜草從前門下方滲出,當我進入時,只見這間五樓公寓彷彿被改造成一座牧場,六、七頭牛站在本來應該是客廳的地方吃草。但在這間以牛棚為大廳的公寓對面,住著一對新婚夫妻,當地人形容這是此區最棒的公寓之一,其中的細節令人驚豔。這間屋子的主人十分自豪地帶我參觀他的公寓,從地板到天花板,每一處都經過精心裝飾。若不是公寓裡不時飄過的噁心氣味,你很容易忘記自己正站在牛棚隔壁和垃圾清理場上方。最令我感動的是,儘管這看起來並非適合居住的環境,在熱情的邀請下,我踏入一個以愛、關懷和毫無保留熱情建構而成的家。

 

我們來看地圖另一端的中國,一個被稱為山西、河南及甘肅的地區。這個地區以土質鬆軟的黃土高原聞名,根據最新估計,目前約有四千萬人居住在地底房屋中。這種住宅被稱為窯洞,藉由挖掘而成的結構。這些窯洞確實建築於土壤中。在這些村莊裡,你可以看見完全改觀的地貌。這些土堆中隱藏著廣場、長方形屋子,座落於地下7公尺處。當我問人們為何以挖掘方式建屋時,他們只是回答,他們是種植小麥和蘋果的貧困農民,沒錢購買建築材料,挖洞建屋是最合乎邏輯的居住方式。

 

從Makoko到Zabbaleen,這些社區解決了規劃、設計的任務,及管理社區和居民的方法。以針對環境和實際情況的方式,由那些居住、工作生活在這種特殊空間的人們創造而成。這些居民本能地設計出充分利用環境的方式。在大多數這樣的地方,政府完全放任不理,居民無從選擇,只能重新利用現有材料。儘管這些社區條件十分惡劣,他們確實展現出傑出的創造力,證明我們確實有能力適應各種環境。使大衛塔這樣的地方鶴立雞群的是,這種建築框架給予人們改造的基礎。不妨想像,如果他們擁有可利用的基礎設施,這些已相當有創造力的社區能自行創造出什麼,他們的解決方案將多麼獨樹一格。

 

如今,你目睹這些大型住宅開發計畫,提供大量群眾千篇一律的居住解決方案。從中國到巴西,這些計畫盡可能試著提供足夠住宅,但它們千篇一律,無法針對個人需求提供解決方案。

 

我打算引用一句話作結束;來自我一位朋友,和一份啟發。Zita Cobb,傑出的Shorefast基金會創始人,總部設於紐芬蘭福戈島。她說:「世上有種『一致性』瘟疫正催毀人類的樂趣。」我十分贊同這句話。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

In the center of Caracas, Venezuela, stands the 45-story "Tower of David," an unfinished, abandoned skyscraper. But about eight years ago, people started moving in. Photographer Iwan Baan shows how people build homes in unlikely places, touring us through the family apartments of Torre David, a city on the water in Nigeria, and an underground village in China. Glorious images celebrate humanity's ability to survive and make a home -- anywhere.
 
About Iwan Baan
Photographer Iwan Baan captures the many ways people shape their shared built environment -- from glossy starchitecture to handmade homes.
 
About the transcript
Throughout my career, I've been fortunate enough to work with many of the great international architects, documenting their work and observing how their designs have the capacity to influence the cities in which they sit. I think of new cities like Dubai or ancient cities like Rome with Zaha Hadid's incredible MAXXI museum, or like right here in New York with the High Line, a city which has been so much influenced by the development of this.
 
But what I find really fascinating is what happens when architects and planners leave and these places become appropriated by people, like here in Chandigarh, India, the city which has been completely designed by the architect Le Corbusier. Now 60 years later, the city has been taken over by people in very different ways from whatever perhaps intended for, like here, where you have the people sitting in the windows of the assembly hall. But over the course of several years, I've been documenting Rem Koolhaas's CCTV building in Beijing and the olympic stadium in the same city by the architects Herzog and de Meuron. At these large-scale construction sites in China, you see a sort of makeshift camp where workers live during the entire building process. As the length of the construction takes years, workers end up forming a rather rough-and-ready informal city, making for quite a juxtaposition against the sophisticated structures that they're building.
 
Over the past seven years, I've been following my fascination with the built environment, and for those of you who know me, you would say that this obsession has led me to live out of a suitcase 365 days a year. Being constantly on the move means that sometimes I am able to catch life's most unpredictable moments, like here in New York the day after the Sandy storm hit the city.
 
Just over three years ago, I was for the first time in Caracas, Venezuela, and while flying over the city, I was just amazed by the extent to which the slums reach into every corner of the city, a place where nearly 70 percent of the population lives in slums, draped literally all over the mountains. During a conversation with local architects Urban-Think Tank, I learned about the Torre David, a 45-story office building which sits right in the center of Caracas. The building was under construction until the collapse of the Venezuelan economy and the death of the developer in the early '90s. About eight years ago, people started moving into the abandoned tower and began to build their homes right in between every column of this unfinished tower. There's only one little entrance to the entire building, and the 3,000 residents come in and out through that single door. Together, the inhabitants created public spaces and designed them to feel more like a home and less like an unfinished tower. In the lobby, they painted the walls and planted trees. They also made a basketball court. But when you look up closely, you see massive holes where elevators and services would have run through.
 
Within the tower, people have come up with all sorts of solutions in response to the various needs which arise from living in an unfinished tower. With no elevators, the tower is like a 45-story walkup. Designed in very specific ways by this group of people who haven't had any education in architecture or design. And with each inhabitant finding their own unique way of coming by, this tower becomes like a living city, a place which is alive with micro-economies and small businesses. The inventive inhabitants, for instance, find opportunities in the most unexpected cases, like the adjacent parking garage, which has been reclaimed as a taxi route to shuttle the inhabitants up through the ramps in order to shorten the hike up to the apartments.
 
A walk through the tower reveals how residents have figured out how to create walls, how to make an air flow, how to create transparency, circulation throughout the tower, essentially creating a home that's completely adapted to the conditions of the site. When a new inhabitant moves into the tower, they already have a roof over their head, so they just typically mark their space with a few curtains or sheets. Slowly, from found materials, walls rise, and people create a space out of any found objects or materials.
 
It's remarkable to see the design decisions that they're making, like when everything is made out of red bricks, some residents will cover that red brick with another layer of red brick-patterned wallpaper just to make it a kind of clean finish.
 
The inhabitants literally built up these homes with their own hands, and this labor of love instills a great sense of pride in many families living in this tower. They typically make the best out of their conditions, and try to make their spaces look nice and homey, or at least up until as far as they can reach. Throughout the tower, you come across all kinds of services, like the barber, small factories, and every floor has a little grocery store or shop. And you even find a church. And on the 30th floor, there is a gym where all the weights and barbells are made out of the leftover pulleys from the elevators which were never installed. From the outside, behind this always-changing facade, you see how the fixed concrete beams provide a framework for the inhabitants to create their homes in an organic, intuitive way that responds directly to their needs.
 
Let's go now to Africa, to Nigeria, to a community called Makoko, a slum where 150,000 people live just meters above the Lagos Lagoon. While it may appear to be a completely chaotic place, when you see it from above, there seems to be a whole grid of waterways and canals connecting each and every home. From the main dock, people board long wooden canoes which carry them out to their various homes and shops located in the expansive area. When out on the water, it's clear that life has been completely adapted to this very specific way of living. Even the canoes become variety stores where ladies paddle from house to house, selling anything from toothpaste to fresh fruits. Behind every window and door frame, you'll see a small child peering back at you, and while Makoko seems to be packed with people, what's more shocking is actually the amount of children pouring out of every building. The population growth in Nigeria, and especially in these areas like Makoko, are painful reminders of how out of control things really are.
 
In Makoko, very few systems and infrastructures exist. Electricity is rigged and freshest water comes from self-built wells throughout the area. This entire economic model is designed to meet a specific way of living on the water, so fishing and boat-making are common professions. You'll have a set of entrepreneurs who have set up businesses throughout the area, like barbershops, CD and DVD stores, movie theaters, tailors, everything is there. There is even a photo studio where you see the sort of aspiration to live in a real house or to be associated with a faraway place, like that hotel in Sweden.
 
On this particular evening, I came across this live band dressed to the T in their coordinating outfits. They were floating through the canals in a large canoe with a fitted-out generator for all of the community to enjoy.
 
By nightfall, the area becomes almost pitch black, save for a small lightbulb or a fire.
 
What originally brought me to Makoko was this project from a friend of mine, Kunlé Adeyemi, who recently finished building this three-story floating school for the kids in Makoko. With this entire village existing on the water, public space is very limited, so now that the school is finished, the ground floor is a playground for the kids, but when classes are out, the platform is just like a town square, where the fishermen mend their nets and floating shopkeepers dock their boats.
 
Another place I'd like to share with you is the Zabbaleen in Cairo. They're descendants of farmers who began migrating from the upper Egypt in the '40s, and today they make their living by collecting and recycling waste from homes from all over Cairo. For years, the Zabbaleen would live in makeshift villages where they would move around trying to avoid the local authorities, but in the early 1980s, they settled on the Mokattam rocks just at the eastern edge of the city. Today, they live in this area, approximately 50,000 to 70,000 people, who live in this community of self-built multi-story houses where up to three generations live in one structure. While these apartments that they built for themselves appear to lack any planning or formal grid, each family specializing in a certain form of recycling means that the ground floor of each apartment is reserved for garbage-related activities and the upper floor is dedicated to living space. I find it incredible to see how these piles and piles of garbage are invisible to the people who live there, like this very distinguished man who is posing while all this garbage is sort of streaming out behind him, or like these two young men who are sitting and chatting amongst these tons of garbage. While to most of us, living amongst these piles and piles of garbage may seem totally uninhabitable, to those in the Zabbaleen, this is just a different type of normal. In all these places I've talked about today, what I do find fascinating is that there's really no such thing as normal, and it proves that people are able to adapt to any kind of situation. Throughout the day, it's quite common to come across a small party taking place in the streets, just like this engagement party. In this tradition, the bride-to-be displays all of their belongings, which they soon bring to their new husband. A gathering like this one offers such a juxtaposition where all the new stuff is displayed and all the garbage is used as props to display all their new home accessories. Like Makoko and the Torre David, throughout the Zabbaleen you'll find all the same facilities as in any typical neighborhood. There are the retail shops, the cafes and the restaurants, and the community is this community of Coptic Christians, so you'll also find a church, along with the scores of religious iconographies throughout the area, and also all the everyday services like the electronic repair shops, the barbers, everything.
 
Visiting the homes of the Zabbaleen is also full of surprises. While from the outside, these homes look like any other informal structure in the city, when you step inside, you are met with all manner of design decisions and interior decoration. Despite having limited access to space and money, the homes in the area are designed with care and detail. Every apartment is unique, and this individuality tells a story about each family's circumstances and values. Many of these people take their homes and interior spaces very seriously, putting a lot of work and care into the details. The shared spaces are also treated in the same manner, where walls are decorated in faux marble patterns.
 
But despite this elaborate decor, sometimes these apartments are used in very unexpected ways, like this home which caught my attention while all the mud and the grass was literally seeping out under the front door. When I was let in, it appeared that this fifth-floor apartment was being transformed into a complete animal farm, where six or seven cows stood grazing in what otherwise would be the living room. But then in the apartment across the hall from this cow shed lives a newly married couple in what locals describe as one of the nicest apartments in the area.
 
The attention to this detail astonished me, and as the owner of the home so proudly led me around this apartment, from floor to ceiling, every part was decorated. But if it weren't for the strangely familiar stomach-churning odor that constantly passes through the apartment, it would be easy to forget that you are standing next to a cow shed and on top of a landfill. What moved me the most was that despite these seemingly inhospitable conditions, I was welcomed with open arms into a home that was made with love, care, and unreserved passion.
 
Let's move across the map to China, to an area called Shanxi, Henan and Gansu. In a region famous for the soft, porous Loess Plateau soil, there lived until recently an estimated 40 million people in these houses underground. These dwellings are called the yaodongs. Through this architecture by subtraction, these yaodongs are built literally inside of the soil. In these villages, you see an entirely altered landscape, and hidden behind these mounds of dirt are these square, rectangular houses which sit seven meters below the ground. When I asked people why they were digging their houses from the ground, they simply replied that they are poor wheat and apple farmers who didn't have the money to buy materials, and this digging out was their most logical form of living.
 
From Makoko to Zabbaleen, these communities have approached the tasks of planning, design and management of their communities and neighborhoods in ways that respond specifically to their environment and circumstances. Created by these very people who live, work and play in these particular spaces, these neighborhoods are intuitively designed to make the most of their circumstances. In most of these places, the government is completely absent, leaving inhabitants with no choice but to reappropriate found materials, and while these communities are highly disadvantaged, they do present examples of brilliant forms of ingenuity, and prove that indeed we have the ability to adapt to all manner of circumstances. What makes places like the Torre David particularly remarkable is this sort of skeleton framework where people can have a foundation where they can tap into. Now imagine what these already ingenious communities could create themselves, and how highly particular their solutions would be, if they were given the basic infrastructures that they could tap into.
 
Today, you see these large residential development projects which offer cookie-cutter housing solutions to massive amounts of people. From China to Brazil, these projects attempt to provide as many houses as possible, but they're completely generic and simply do not work as an answer to the individual needs of the people.
 
I would like to end with a quote from a friend of mine and a source of inspiration, Zita Cobb, the founder of the wonderful Shorefast Foundation, based out of Fogo Island, Newfoundland. She says that "there's this plague of sameness which is killing the human joy," and I couldn't agree with her more.
 
Thank you.
 
(Applause)

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