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Mick Cornett 談一個「肥胖」的城市如何瘦身一百萬磅

Mick Cornett: How an obese town lost a million pounds

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Mick Cornett

2013年4月演講,2014年1月在TEDMED 2013上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

奧克拉荷馬市是個中等規模的城鎮,它有個大問題:它是美國最「肥胖」的城市之一。市長Mick Cornett意識到,欲使這座城市成為適合就業及居住的地方,它也必須變得更健康。在這場引人入勝的演講中,他帶領我們瞭解其中發生的連鎖變化,使奧克拉荷馬市民總共瘦身一百萬磅(四十五萬公斤)。

 

關於Mick Cornett

Mick Cornett是奧克拉荷馬州奧克拉荷馬市市長。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

奧克拉荷馬市的新生及市長Mick Cornett已獲得世界矚目。他的獲獎名單包括城市設計、健康、運動及藝術。《新聞周刊》將他譽為美國五個最具創意的市長之一。總部位於倫敦的「世界市長」組織將他列為全球第二佳市長,《管理》雜誌將他提名為年度最佳公務員。

 

他最著名的事蹟為幫助奧克拉荷馬市吸引一支NBA球隊進駐,及推動奧克拉荷馬市「減肥」,Cornett也推動MAPS 3提案的通過,將8億美元創新資金投資在公園、城市運輸系統、健康中心及基礎設施,這將使奧克拉荷馬市改頭換面,並提升居民生活品質。

 

Mick Cornett的英語網上資料

Twitter: @MickCornett

TEDMED: Mick Cornett at TEDMED 2013

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Mick Cornett 談一個「肥胖」的城市如何瘦身一百萬磅

 

在座有多少人去過奧克拉荷馬市?

 

請舉手。

 

多少人沒去過奧克拉荷馬市,且不知我是何方神聖?(笑聲)

 

大多數人。我來提供一些相關背景。

 

奧克拉荷馬市的建立來自人們想像中最獨特的方式。1889年某個春日,聯邦政府舉行所謂的「搶土地」政策。他們使移民沿著一條假想線排成一列,然後鳴槍。移民們吼叫著衝過鄉間、插下木樁,無論他們將木樁插在何處,都可在此建立新家園。這天結束後,奧克拉荷馬市的人口從零飆升至一萬,我們的城市規劃部門至今仍為此付出代價。當天市民們齊聚一堂,選出一位市長,然後朝他開槍。(笑聲)這實在沒那麼好笑。(笑聲)但這讓我看清自己正和什麼樣的觀眾打交道,因此感謝你們的回應。

 

二十世紀對奧克拉荷馬市相當友善。我們的經濟基礎是商品,仰賴棉花或小麥的價格,最後是石油與天然氣的價格。在這個過程中,我們成了一個創新城市。購物車發明於奧克拉荷馬市,(掌聲)停車計時器也發明於奧克拉荷馬市。不客氣。

 

但和商品有關的經濟起伏不定,這正是奧克拉荷馬市的歷史進程。1970年代,當能源價格不再下跌時,我們的經濟一飛沖天,然後在1980年代早期迅速衰退。能源價格狂跌,銀行開始倒閉。十年當中,奧克拉荷馬州有一百家銀行宣告破產。眼前沒有可行的救市政策,我們的銀行業、石油與天然氣工業、地產業都處於經濟規模底層。年輕人成群結隊離開奧克拉荷馬市,前往華盛頓、達拉斯、休斯頓、紐約和東京,任何能找到符合他們教育程度之工作的地方,因為奧克拉荷馬市無法提供他們好工作。

 

但80年代末期,一位富有創業精神的商人成為市長,名叫Ron Norick。Ron Norick最後發現,經濟發展的訣竅並非以物質激勵處於先鋒地位的公司,而是開創一個企業願意落腳的地方,因此他推動一項名為MAPS的計畫,基本上藉由1%的銷售稅建立大量設施,藉此建立了一座新體育館、一條新的市中心運河、修繕了我們的表演藝術中心、在市中心建了一座新棒球場,及許多增進生活品質的設施。經濟似乎確實開始發展顯示一些復甦的跡象。

 

下一任市長就任。他發起針對孩童的MAPS計畫,重建整個內城區的學校系統,總共建設或翻新了75棟建築。

 

然後,2004年,在少見的集體判斷力喪失、近乎非暴力反抗中,市民們選我為市長。

 

現在我接手的這座城市逐漸從沉睡的經濟中甦醒,頭一次地,我們開始在排行榜中嶄露頭角。你們知道我所謂的排行榜,媒體與網路喜歡替城市排名。奧克拉荷馬市不曾登上排行榜,因此我認為這還蠻酷的,當我們登上具有正面意義的排行榜時。我們不曾名列前矛,但我們上了排行榜,我們具有某種分量。最佳就業城市、最佳創業城市、最佳市中心-奧克拉荷馬市。

 

然後出現這個排行榜:全國最肥胖城市。我們上了榜。

 

現在我很樂意指出,許多很酷的城市和我們一起上了榜。(笑聲)達拉斯、休斯頓、紐奧爾良、亞特蘭大和邁阿密。你們知道,這些是一般來說你不會羞於和它們扯上關係的城市。儘管如此,我不喜歡登上這種排行榜。

 

差不多這個時候,我量了體重。我體重220磅(約100公斤)。然後我前往聯邦政府贊助的網站,我輸入身高、體重,然後按「Enter」鍵,結果顯示:「肥胖。」

 

我想,「多蠢的網站,(笑聲)我才不胖,我知道自己胖不胖。」

 

然後我開始誠實面對自己,思索一生中與肥胖抗爭的過程。我注意到一個模式:我每年大約增加兩、三磅,然後大約每十年,我能瘦20到30磅,然後重複循環。我有一個裝滿衣服的大衣櫃,我每個時期只能穿其中三分之一的衣服,只有我知道衣櫃中哪部分的衣服是可穿的。但這一切似乎相當尋常。

 

好,我最後決定必須減肥。我知道自己辦得到,因為之前做過太多次了,因此我只是不再吃那麼多。我有運動習慣,事實上我不需要這麼做,但當時我每天攝取三千卡熱量,我將它減為一天兩千卡。體重順利減輕,我每週大約瘦一磅,持續了大概四十週。

 

但在這個過程中,我開始檢視這座城市:它的文化、基礎設施,試著找出為何我們的城市似乎存在肥胖問題,然後我得出結論:我們建立了極佳的生活品質,如果你碰巧是一輛車。(笑聲)但如果你碰巧是人類,你似乎總是與車爭道。我們的城市四通八達,我們擁有錯綜複雜的公路系統。我是指,奧克拉荷馬市確實沒有什麼值得注意的交通阻塞,因此人們住得非常遠。我們的城市幅員廣大,620平方英哩,但十五英哩路程不需十五分鐘。在奧克拉荷馬市交通高峰期間,你都能接到超速罰單。因此人們傾向於分散四處,地產相當便宜,我們也很久不曾要求開發商在新開發區興建人行道。我們已修正這一點,但這是最近的問題,我們清單上有超過十萬個家庭居住在完全不適合步行的街區。

 

當我試著衡量如何處理肥胖問題,在腦海中思索所有要素時,我決定首要任務是進行一場對話。你們知道,在奧克拉荷馬市,我們不討論肥胖相關話題。因此2007年元旦,我前往動物園,站在大象面前說:「這座城市將進行減肥運動,我們打算減掉一百萬磅。」

 

好,這就是一切開始不受控制的時候。

 

(笑聲)

 

國內媒體立刻被這個故事吸引。他們確實可採取其中一種做法,他們可以說:「這座城市太肥胖了,市長不得不提倡減肥運動。」但幸運的是,媒體的共識是:「看,這是許多地方的問題,這是一座想解決問題的城市。」因此他們開始幫助我們增加網站流量。好,網址是thiscityisgoingonadiet.com(「這座城市正在減肥」網站)。某個工作日早晨,我現身《艾倫秀》,談論這個方案。那天,十五萬個訪客瀏覽我們的網站。人們踴躍註冊,因此磅數開始增加,那場我認為十分重要的對話就此展開。它發生在家庭中,父母與孩子討論這個議題;它發生在教堂中,教堂開始自行建立跑步和支持團隊,針對面臨肥胖問題的人。突然間,它成了值得在學校及工作場所討論的議題。大型公司通常擁有完善的健康計劃,但中型公司往往忽略了像這樣的問題。他們開始參與,以我們的計畫作為員工的典範,進行嘗試、舉行競賽,觀察誰可能處理他們的肥胖問題,以對他人而言也有效的方式。

 

然後進入下一個階段:是推行我所謂的MAPS 3計畫的時候了。好,MAPS 3如同其他兩個方案,背後存在推動經濟發展的動機,但伴隨傳統經濟發展任務,例如建設一座新會議中心。我們在這個過程中加入一些與健康有關的基礎設施。我們在奧克拉荷馬市中心增建一座七十英畝的中央公園;我們在市中心建設有軌電車,試著協助選擇住在內城區的人們擁有步行方案,並提高此區的人口密度;我們在整個社區建設高齡健康保健中心;我們對當初MAPS計畫中已投資開發過的河流進行一些投資。目前我們已進入最後階段:開發世上最佳的皮艇、划艇、賽艇競賽場所。去年春天我們舉辦了奧運選拔賽,我們使奧運級賽事前進奧克拉荷馬市。隨著內城區開發計畫,世界各地的運動員紛紛前來,使孩童更積極參與這種有點非傳統的休閒活動。隨著另一項已通過的提案,我們也在都會區建設數百英哩的新人行道。我們甚至回頭處理一些內城區的情況。我們在當地建設了社區和學校,但尚未使兩者連接;我們建設了圖書館及社區,但不曾以適合步行的方式使兩者真正連接。藉由其他資金來源,我們重新設計內城區所有街道,使它們更適合步行。我們的街道曾經相當寬,你必須操縱按鈕才能穿越,你必須拔腿飛奔才能及時穿越。但現在我們將街道縮窄、精心美化,使它們更適合步行。確實重新設計、重新考慮建設基礎設施的方式,設計一個以人、而非以車輛為中心的城市。我們即將完成「自行車道總計畫」。當建設完成後,我們將擁有超過一百英哩的自行車道。

 

因此你目睹奧克拉荷馬市的文化開始轉變,你看見隨之而來的人口變化令人鼓舞。受過高等教育的二十多歲青年從各地區遷入奧克拉荷馬市,甚至從更遠的地方,如加州。

 

2012年1月,當我們達成一百萬磅的目標時,我和一些減掉超過一百磅的參與者一起飛往紐約,他們的生活已因此改變。我們參加《瑞秋美食秀》。那天下午,我在紐約與媒體見面,發表關於肥胖及其危險性的老生常談,然後我進入《男性健身雜誌》會客室,五年前將我們列入肥胖排行榜的雜誌。當我坐在會客室中,等待與記者談話時,注意到桌上放著一本當期雜誌。我將它拿起,閱讀上方的頭條,它寫著:「美國最肥胖的城市:你居住在其中之一嗎?」好,我知道我是。因此我拿起雜誌,開始閱讀。我們不在其中。

 

(掌聲)

 

然後我閱讀最健康城市排行榜;我們在榜上。我們榮獲全美最健康城市排行榜第22名。我國的健康統計做得越來越好。確實,我們仍有很長的路要走,我們仍無法以奧克拉荷馬市的健康水準為豪,但我們似乎已使文化轉變,將健康列為更優先的事項。我們欣喜於那些受過高等教育的二十多歲年輕人口、那些擁有眾多選擇的人,許多選擇了奧克拉荷馬市。我們擁有全美最低的失業率,或許擁有全美最強的經濟。如果你像我一樣,在求學生涯中某個時刻被要求閱讀一本名為《憤怒的葡萄》的書-奧克拉荷馬人大批前往加州追尋更美好的未來。當我們目睹來自西部的人引起的人口變化時,現在我們所見的似乎是《葡萄的憤怒》。(笑聲)(掌聲)子孫紛紛返鄉。

 

你們是很棒的聽眾,相當專注,非常感謝你們聆聽我的演講。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk

Oklahoma City is a midsized town that had a big problem: It was among the most obese towns in America. Mayor Mick Cornett realized that, to make his city a great place to work and live, it had to become healthier too. In this charming talk, he walks us through the interlocking changes that helped OKC drop a collective million pounds (450,000 kilos).
 
About Mick Cornett
Mick Cornett is mayor of Oklahoma City, OK
 
About the transcript
How many of you have been to Oklahoma City?
 
Raise your hand. Yeah?
 
How many of you have not been to Oklahoma City and have no idea who I am? (Laughter)
 
Most of you. Let me give you a little bit of background.
 
Oklahoma City started in the most unique way imaginable. Back on a spring day in 1889, the federal government held what they called a land run. They literally lined up the settlers along an imaginary line, and they fired off a gun, and the settlers roared across the countryside and put down a stake, and wherever they put down that stake, that was their new home. And at the end of the very first day, the population of Oklahoma City had gone from zero to 10,000, and our planning department is still paying for that. The citizens got together on that first day and elected a mayor. And then they shot him. (Laughter) That's not really all that funny -- (Laughter) -- but it allows me to see what type of audience I'm dealing with, so I appreciate the feedback.
 
The 20th century was fairly kind to Oklahoma City. Our economy was based on commodities, so the price of cotton or the price of wheat, and ultimately the price of oil and natural gas. And along the way, we became a city of innovation. The shopping cart was invented in Oklahoma City. (Applause) The parking meter, invented in Oklahoma City. You're welcome.
 
Having an economy, though, that relates to commodities can give you some ups and some downs, and that was certainly the case in Oklahoma City's history. In the 1970s, when it appeared that the price of energy would never retreat, our economy was soaring, and then in the early 1980s, it cratered quickly. The price of energy dropped. Our banks began to fail. Before the end of the decade, 100 banks had failed in the state of Oklahoma. There was no bailout on the horizon. Our banking industry, our oil and gas industry, our commercial real estate industry, were all at the bottom of the economic scale. Young people were leaving Oklahoma City in droves for Washington and Dallas and Houston and New York and Tokyo, anywhere where they could find a job that measured up to their educational attainment, because in Oklahoma City, the good jobs just weren't there.
 
But along at the end of the '80s came an enterprising businessman who became mayor named Ron Norick. Ron Norick eventually figured out that the secret to economic development wasn't incentivizing companies up front, it was about creating a place where businesses wanted to locate, and so he pushed an initiative called MAPS that basically was a penny-on-the-dollar sales tax to build a bunch of stuff. It built a new sports arena, a new canal downtown, it fixed up our performing arts center, a new baseball stadium downtown, a lot of things to improve the quality of life. And the economy indeed seemed to start showing some signs of life.
 
The next mayor came along. He started MAPS for Kids, rebuilt the entire inner city school system, all 75 buildings either built anew or refurbished.
 
And then, in 2004, in this rare collective lack of judgment bordering on civil disobedience, the citizens elected me mayor.
 
Now the city I inherited was just on the verge of coming out of its slumbering economy, and for the very first time, we started showing up on the lists. Now you know the lists I'm talking about. The media and the Internet love to rank cities. And in Oklahoma City, we'd never really been on lists before. So I thought it was kind of cool when they came out with these positive lists and we were on there. We weren't anywhere close to the top, but we were on the list, we were somebody. Best city to get a job, best city to start a business, best downtown -- Oklahoma City.
 
And then came the list of the most obese cities in the country. And there we were.
 
Now I like to point out that we were on that list with a lot of really cool places. (Laughter) Dallas and Houston and New Orleans and Atlanta and Miami. You know, these are cities that, typically, you're not embarrassed to be associated with. But nonetheless, I didn't like being on the list.
 
And about that time, I got on the scales. And I weighed 220 pounds. And then I went to this website sponsored by the federal government, and I typed in my height, I typed in my weight, and I pushed Enter, and it came back and said "obese."
 
I thought, "What a stupid website." (Laughter) "I'm not obese. I would know if I was obese."
 
And then I started getting honest with myself about what had become my lifelong struggle with obesity, and I noticed this pattern, that I was gaining about two or three pounds a year, and then about every 10 years, I'd drop 20 or 30 pounds. And then I'd do it again. And I had this huge closet full of clothes, and I could only wear a third of it at any one time, and only I knew which part of the closet I could wear. But it all seemed fairly normal, going through it.
 
Well, I finally decided I needed to lose weight, and I knew I could because I'd done it so many times before, so I simply stopped eating as much. I had always exercised. That really wasn't the part of the equation that I needed to work on. But I had been eating 3,000 calories a day, and I cut it to 2,000 calories a day, and the weight came off. I lost about a pound a week for about 40 weeks.
 
Along the way, though, I started examining my city, its culture, its infrastructure, trying to figure out why our specific city seemed to have a problem with obesity. And I came to the conclusion that we had built an incredible quality of life if you happen to be a car. (Laughter) But if you happen to be a person, you are combatting the car seemingly at every turn. Our city is very spread out. We have a great intersection of highways, I mean, literally no traffic congestion in Oklahoma City to speak of. And so people live far, far away. Our city limits are enormous, 620 square miles, but 15 miles is less than 15 minutes. You literally can get a speeding ticket during rush hour in Oklahoma City. And as a result, people tend to spread out. Land's cheap. We had also not required developers to build sidewalks on new developments for a long, long time. We had fixed that, but it had been relatively recently, and there were literally 100,000 or more homes into our inventory in neighborhoods that had virtually no level of walkability.
 
And as I tried to examine how we might deal with obesity, and was taking all of these elements into my mind, I decided that the first thing we need to do was have a conversation. You see, in Oklahoma City, we weren't talking about obesity. And so, on New Year's Eve of 2007, I went to the zoo, and I stood in front of the elephants, and I said, "This city is going on a diet, and we're going to lose a million pounds."
 
Well, that's when all hell broke loose.
 
(Laughter)
 
The national media gravitated toward this story immediately, and they really could have gone with it one of two ways. They could have said, "This city is so fat that the mayor had to put them on a diet." But fortunately, the consensus was, "Look, this is a problem in a lot of places. This is a city that's wanting to do something about it." And so they started helping us drive traffic to the website. Now, the web address was thiscityisgoingonadiet.com. And I appeared on "The Ellen DeGeneres Show" one weekday morning to talk about the initiative, and on that day, 150,000 visits were placed to our website. People were signing up, and so the pounds started to add up, and the conversation that I thought was so important to have was starting to take place. It was taking place inside the homes, mothers and fathers talking about it with their kids. It was taking place in churches. Churches were starting their own running groups and their own support groups for people who were dealing with obesity. Suddenly, it was a topic worth discussing at schools and in the workplace. And the large companies, they typically have wonderful wellness programs, but the medium-sized companies that typically fall between the cracks on issues like this, they started to get engaged and used our program as a model for their own employees to try and have contests to see who might be able to deal with their obesity situation in a way that could be proactively beneficial to others.
 
And then came the next stage of the equation. It was time to push what I called MAPS 3. Now MAPS 3, like the other two programs, had had an economic development motive behind it, but along with the traditional economic development tasks like building a new convention center, we added some health-related infrastructure to the process. We added a new central park, 70 acres in size, to be right downtown in Oklahoma City. We're building a downtown streetcar to try and help the walkability formula for people who choose to live in the inner city and help us create the density there. We're building senior health and wellness centers throughout the community. We put some investments on the river that had originally been invested upon in the original MAPS, and now we are currently in the final stages of developing the finest venue in the world for the sports of canoe, kayak and rowing. We hosted the Olympic trials last spring. We have Olympic-caliber events coming to Oklahoma City, and athletes from all over the world moving in, along with inner city programs to get kids more engaged in these types of recreational activities that are a little bit nontraditional. We also, with another initiative that was passed, are building hundreds of miles of new sidewalks throughout the metro area. We're even going back into some inner city situations where we had built neighborhoods and we had built schools but we had not connected the two. We had built libraries and we had built neighborhoods, but we had never really connected the two with any sort of walkability. Through yet another funding source, we're redesigning all of our inner city streets to be more pedestrian-friendly. Our streets were really wide, and you'd push the button to allow you to walk across, and you had to run in order to get there in time. But now we've narrowed the streets, highly landscaped them, making them more pedestrian-friendly, really a redesign, rethinking the way we build our infrastructure, designing a city around people and not cars. We're completing our bicycle trail master plan. We'll have over 100 miles when we're through building it out.
 
And so you see this culture starting to shift in Oklahoma City. And lo and behold, the demographic changes that are coming with it are very inspiring. Highly educated twentysomethings are moving to Oklahoma City from all over the region and, indeed, even from further away, in California.
 
When we reached a million pounds, in January of 2012, I flew to New York with some our participants who had lost over 100 pounds, whose lives had been changed, and we appeared on the Rachael Ray show, and then that afternoon, I did a round of media in New York pushing the same messages that you're accustomed to hearing about obesity and the dangers of it. And I went into the lobby of Men's Fitness magazine, the same magazine that had put us on that list five years before. And as I'm sitting in the lobby waiting to talk to the reporter, I notice there's a magazine copy of the current issue right there on the table, and I pick it up, and I look at the headline across the top, and it says, "America's Fattest Cities: Do You Live in One?" Well, I knew I did, so I picked up the magazine and I began to look, and we weren't on it.
 
(Applause)
 
Then I looked on the list of fittest cities, and we were on that list. We were on the list as the 22nd fittest city in the United States. Our state health statistics are doing better. Granted, we have a long way to go. Health is still not something that we should be proud of in Oklahoma City, but we seem to have turned the cultural shift of making health a greater priority. And we love the idea of the demographics of highly educated twentysomethings, people with choices, choosing Oklahoma City in large numbers. We have the lowest unemployment in the United States, probably the strongest economy in the United States. And if you're like me, at some point in your educational career, you were asked to read a book called "The Grapes of Wrath." Oklahomans leaving for California in large numbers for a better future. When we look at the demographic shifts of people coming from the west, it appears that what we're seeing now is the wrath of grapes. (Laughter) (Applause) The grandchildren are coming home.
 
You've been a great audience and very attentive. Thank you very much for having me here.
 
(Applause)

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