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課程來源:TED
     

 

Anant Agarwal 談為何大規模開放式網路課程(仍)十分重要

Anant Agarwal: Why massive open online courses (still) matter

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Anant Agarwal

2013年6月演講,2014年1月在TED2013上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恒

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後制:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

2013年是MOOCs(大規模開放式網路課程)氾濫的一年。隨著大量參與及滿腔希望而來的是一些令人失望的初步結果。但edX負責人Anant Agarwal闡述MOOCs仍相當重要-這是廣泛分享高層次學習體驗及作為傳統教室之補充教學的方法(也許不是取代)。Agarwal分享他對混合式學習的觀點,教師可為21世紀學生創造理想學習體驗。

 

關於Anant Agarwal

藉由混合式課程,Anant Agarwal使網路教育與師生面對面互動結合,重塑大學校園體驗。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

2012年春季,MIT(麻省理工學院)計算機科學系教授Anant Agarwal傳授一門名為「電路與電子學」的課程。一如往常地,這是MIT程度的挑戰課程,需擁有微積分方面的知識。不同以往的是,這門課程招收了來自全球162個國家155,000名學生。

 

這是現在名為edX的網站提供的第一門課程-edX是MIT及哈佛合作的網路學習事業,由Agarwal領導。藉由這個非盈利性機構-大規模開放式網路課程(MOOC)運動的主導力量之一-Agarwal的目標是使全球都能免費享有高等教育。

 

這並未排除面對面教育。Agarwal正致力於在校園中推動所謂的混合式課程,交錯使用數位教材及面對面互動。「我認為網路學習是能舉起所有船隻的浪潮,」Agarwal說。

 

Anant Agarwal保有「最大麥克風陣列」的金氏世界紀錄,並被《富比士》雜誌提名為2012年最優秀教育創新者之一。請追蹤他的Twitter:@agarwaledu

 

「(Anant Agarwal)的努力可使學術生態大幅改觀,幾乎勝於任何教學創新。」

-《波士頓環球雜誌》

 

Anant Agarwal的英語網上資料

Website: MIT

Website: WebSim

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Anant Agarwal 談為何大規模開放式網路課程(仍)十分重要

我想重新定義教育。去年出現一個四個字母的新單字,開頭是M。MOOC:大規模開放式網路課程。許多機構將這些網路課程免費提供給全球數百萬學生,任何擁有網路連線、願意學習的人都能接受這些來自一流大學的精彩課程,並在課程結束後獲得證書。好,今天的討論中,我將著重於MOOCs的不同層面。我們將廣泛學習的知識及廣泛開發的技術做小範圍的應用,創造一種混合教育模式,確實重新建立及定義教室裡的學習方式。

 

好,我們的教室可有所改變。這是一間教室,位於美國東北部、由三個字母組成的教育機構-MIT(麻省理工學院)。這是大約五、六十年前的教室,這是目前的教室。有何變化?座位有了顏色,喔-哦。過去500年中,教育模式毫無變化,近期教育領域的大革新是印刷機和教科書。我們周遭的一切日新月異,從醫療到運輸,一切都不再相同,但教育一成不變。

 

這對教育的獲取來說也是切實問題。因此你所見的並非搖滾音樂會,講臺邊的人不是瑪丹娜。這是一間教室,位於奈及利亞Obafemi Awolowo大學。好,我們都聽過遠距教育,但最後方的學生與講師相距200英呎,我認為他們正在接受「遠距教育」。好,我確信我們能改變教育模式,包括品質、規模及獲取方式,藉由科技的協助。例如在edX,我們試著藉由網路科技改變教育。鑒於教育已僵化了500年,我們無法期待將它重塑或進行微調,我們必須徹底將它重新定義。就像從牛車到飛機,甚至得改變基礎設施,一切都需要改變。我們必須從板書教育轉變成線上練習、線上影片;我們必須採用互動虛擬實驗室及遊戲化模式;我們必須採用線上評分、同儕交流及討論區。一切都必須改變。

 

因此在edX和一些其他組織,我們將這些科技應用於教育。藉由MOOCs,確實增加獲取教育的機會;你們聽過這個例子。當我們推出第一門課程-麻省理工學院的電路與電子學課程,大約一年半之前。來自162個國家、15萬5千名學生註冊了這門課;當時我們沒有行銷預算。好,15萬5千是個大數目,這個數字大於MIT校友總數,在創校150年的歷史中。7200名學生通過這門課;這並非容易的課程,7200也是大數目。如果我每年在MIT任教兩學期,得教40年才能教到這麼多學生。

 

好,這些驚人數字只是故事的一部分,因此今天我想討論不同層面,MOOCs的另一面,以不同的角度。我們將廣泛發展及學習的知識應用於小範圍,應用於教室,創造混合學習模式。

 

但進入主題前,我先講一個故事。當我女兒滿13歲、進入青少年時期,她不再使用英語。她開始使用這種新語言,我稱之為青少年語。它是一種數位式語言,只有兩種聲音:咕噥聲和沉默。

 

「親愛的,來吃晚餐。」

 

「嗯。」

 

「聽見我的話嗎?」

 

沉默。(笑聲)

 

「聽見了嗎?」

 

「嗯。」

 

因此我們存在溝通上的切實問題,我們根本無法溝通。直到某天,我靈光一閃:我發簡訊給她。(笑聲)我立刻得到回應。我想,不,那肯定是偶然,她必定以為,你知道,某個朋友找她。因此我再次發簡訊給她,再次得到回應。我想,好樣的。我們的生活從此改觀:我發簡訊、她回應,簡直棒透了。(笑聲)(掌聲)

 

因此千禧世代的成長方式有所不同。好,我年紀不小,我年輕的外表或許讓人有所誤解,但我並非千禧世代;但我們的孩子確實有所不同。千禧世代相當適應網路科技,因此我們何不將它用於教室中?別再與它抗爭,不妨欣然接受。事實上我認為-我有兩根粗大的拇指,不善於發簡訊,但我相信藉由進化,我們的孩子及他們的後代將發展出相當細小的拇指,以便發簡訊。進化將改變諸如此類的東西。但如果我們擁抱科技,接受千禧世代天生的偏好,真正考慮創建這些網路科技,使其融入他們的生活,因此這就是我們能做的。因此與其將孩子載往教室,將他們在早上8點趕進教室-我一向痛恨在早上8點進教室-因此我們為何強迫孩子這麼做?因此替代方法是:讓他們觀看影片、進行互動練習,在舒適的宿舍房間、臥室、餐廳、浴室,任何最能激發他們創造力的場所。然後他們前往教室,體驗一些真實的人際互動。他們可以互相討論,可以一起解決問題;他們可以與教授討論,讓教授解答他們的問題。事實上,我們首次在edX向全球學子傳授電路與電子學課程時,並未料到會發生這種情形。兩位任教於蒙古Sant高中的老師採用「翻轉課堂」教學法,他們使用我們的影片課程及互動式練習。這所高中的學生-順帶一提,15歲的青少年-會在家中進行練習,然後進入教室,如你所見的圖片,他們彼此交流,進行一些物理實驗。我們發現這一點的唯一途徑是他們撰寫的部落格;我們無意間發現這個部落格。

 

我們也進行其他試驗。因此我們進行關於混合性課程的試驗,與加州聖荷西州立大學合作。同樣地,藉由電路與電子學課程-你們將一再聽見這門課,這門課已成為類似我們進行學習實驗的培養皿。因此學生將-同樣地,老師採用「翻轉課堂」模式,將線上教學與課堂教學結合,結果令人驚訝不已。好,先別將這些結果視為蓋棺論定的結論,稍微等待一段時間,我們得進行更多試驗,但初步結果已令人嘆為觀止。因此藉由傳統教學方式,過去幾年內,一學期接一學期的嘗試,這門課,這門艱難的課程,每學期失敗率約40%至41%。去年底,藉由這種混合式教學,失敗率降至9%。因此結果相當棒。

 

好,在我們進一步探討之前,我想花點時間討論一些核心概念。使這一切奏效的核心概念為何?

 

其中一個概念是主動學習。這個概念並非使學生進教室觀賞教學影片,而是用我們所謂的課程代替。這些課程包括影片和互動練習的交錯學習,因此學生可觀看五分鐘或七分鐘的影片,然後進行互動練習。不妨將它視為蘇格拉底式教育的終極版本-藉由提問進行教學。這是一種學習形式,稱之為主動學習。這種方法由Craik及Lockhart所提倡,出自於1972年一篇相當早期的論文。他們提出、並發現學習和記憶與心智發展深度大有關係。當學生與教材進行互動時,將學得更好。

 

第二個概念是自定進度。好,當我進入講堂,如果你像我一樣,第五分鐘就開始跟不上教授-我沒那麼聰明,我會忙著寫筆記,接下來的時間將跟不上講課進度。相反地,利用網路科技不是好多了?我們提供學生影片及互動式參與,他們可按暫停鍵、可重播教授講課內容、甚至可讓教授閉嘴。因此這種自定進度的方式非常有助於學習。

 

第三個概念是即時回饋。藉由即時回饋,電腦可為練習評分,否則如何指導十五萬名學生?電腦可為所有練習評分。我們都交過作業,你兩周後才會收到成績,那時你已忘了所有內容。我不認為還能收到某些大學時期的作業,一些永遠不曾評分的作業。因此藉由即時回饋,學生可試著填寫答案。如果做錯,隨即能獲得回饋。他們可一次又一次地嘗試,這種即時回饋使人更加投入。你所見的綠色小勾已成為edX上令人魂牽夢縈的符號。學習者告訴我們,他們上床睡覺時,仍夢見那個綠色小勾。事實上,其中一名學習者去年初修了電路課程,去年底又修了柏克萊大學的軟體課程。這名學習者在討論板上提到,他剛開始學習那門課時對綠色小勾的感受:「天啊,我多麼想念你。」你最後一次見到學生對家庭作業發表這樣的評論是什麼時候?我的同事Ed Bertschinger,他是MIT物理系系主任,對即時回饋的看法是:即時回饋將教學時刻轉變成學習成果。

 

另一個重要概念是遊戲化模式。你知道,所有學習者都深受互動式影片吸引等等。你知道,他們會整天坐在那裡射擊外星人的太空船,直到成功。因此我們可將遊戲化技巧應用於學習,我們可建立網路實驗室。你如何教導創造力?你如何教導設計?我們可藉由網路實驗室達成。藉由電腦的力量,建立這些網路實驗室。因此如這部短片所顯示的,你可吸引學生的注意力,如同藉由樂高積木進行設計。因此這裡,學習者正在建構一個電路,彷彿玩樂高般輕鬆。這也可由電腦評分。

 

第五點是同儕學習。因此我們使用論壇及類似臉書的互動,目的不在於消遣,而是真正幫助學生學習。告訴各位一個故事:當我們為15萬5千名學生進行電路課程上線工作時,我連續三晚沒睡,引導課程上線。我告訴助教們24小時待命,我們得持續監看論壇、回答問題。他們解答了100名學生的問題。15萬名學生該如何處理?因此某天我熬夜到淩晨兩點,思考一位巴基斯坦學生提出的問題。他問了一個問題,我想,好吧,我來鍵入答案。我打字不是很快。我開始鍵入答案,在我來得及寫完前,另一名埃及學生打出一個答案。不完全正確,因此我修改那個答案。在我改完之前,一名美國學生打出一個不同的答案。於是我靠向椅背,著迷地觀看。砰、砰、砰、砰,學生們彼此討論、交流。到了淩晨四點-這個發現令我深受吸引-到了淩晨四點,他們發現正確答案,我只需要讚美一下:「答得好!」因此這令人驚喜萬分。學生們彼此學習,這告訴我們,他們藉由教導而學習。

 

好,這不僅是未來的願景,也發生在今日。因此我們將這些混合式學習試驗應用於全球某些大學和高中,從中國的清華大學到蒙古的蒙古國立大學、到加州的柏克萊大學,遍及全世界。這種科技確實有所幫助,這種混合教學模式確實有助於改革教育,它也能解決MOOCs商業方面的實際問題。我們也可將這些MOOC課程授權給其他大學,其中蘊含MOOCs的收益模式。那些獲得授權的大學任課教授可使用這些網路課程,就像下一代教科書。他們可盡情使用,使它成為老師武器庫中的工具。

 

最後,我希望大家和我一起想像一下:我希望我們能真正重新定義教育;我們必須從講堂轉移到電子空間,我們必須從書本轉移到平板電腦。例如印度的Aakash平板電腦,或20美元的樹莓派電腦;Aakash售價40美元。我們必須從磚泥構築的學校建築轉移到數位化房間。

 

但我認為,到了最後,我們仍需在大學裡保留一間教室。否則我們該如何告訴子孫,你們的祖父母曾坐在那個房間裡,彷彿玉米桿般整齊排列,望著講台盡頭的教授傳授課程內容。知道嗎?你甚至沒有倒轉鍵可按。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

謝謝、謝謝。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this talk
2013 was a year of hype for MOOCs (massive open online courses). Great big numbers and great big hopes were followed by some disappointing first results. But the head of edX, Anant Agarwal, makes the case that MOOCs still matter -- as a way to share high-level learning widely and supplement (but perhaps not replace) traditional classrooms. Agarwal shares his vision of blended learning, where teachers create the ideal learning experience for 21st century students.
 
About Anant Agarwal
Through blended courses Anant Agarwal is pairing online education with face-to-face student-faculty interactions, reshaping the university campus experience.
 
About the transcript
I'd like to reimagine education. The last year has seen the invention of a new four-letter word. It starts with an M. MOOC: massive open online courses. Many organizations are offering these online courses to students all over the world, in the millions, for free. Anybody who has an Internet connection and the will to learn can access these great courses from excellent universities and get a credential at the end of it. Now, in this discussion today, I'm going to focus on a different aspect of MOOCs. We are taking what we are learning and the technologies we are developing in the large and applying them in the small to create a blended model of education to really reinvent and reimagine what we do in the classroom.

Now, our classrooms could use change. So, here's a classroom at this little three-letter institute in the Northeast of America, MIT. And this was a classroom about 50 or 60 years ago, and this is a classroom today. What's changed? The seats are in color. Whoop-de-do. Education really hasn't changed in the past 500 years. The last big innovation in education was the printing press and the textbooks. Everything else has changed around us. You know, from healthcare to transportation, everything is different, but education hasn't changed.

It's also been a real issue in terms of access. So what you see here is not a rock concert. And the person you see at the end of the stage is not Madonna. This is a classroom at the Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria. Now, we've all heard of distance education, but the students way in the back, 200 feet away from the instructor, I think they are undergoing long-distance education. Now, I really believe that we can transform education, both in quality and scale and access, through technology. For example, at edX, we are trying to transform education through online technologies. Given education has been calcified for 500 years, we really cannot think about reengineering it, micromanaging it. We really have to completely reimagine it. It's like going from ox carts to the airplane. Even the infrastructure has to change. Everything has to change. We need to go from lectures on the blackboard to online exercises, online videos. We have to go to interactive virtual laboratories and gamification. We have to go to completely online grading and peer interaction and discussion boards. Everything really has to change.

So at edX and a number of other organizations, we are applying these technologies to education through MOOCs to really increase access to education. And you heard of this example, where, when we launched our very first course -- and this was an MIT-hard circuits and electronics course -- about a year and a half ago, 155,000 students from 162 countries enrolled in this course. And we had no marketing budget. Now, 155,000 is a big number. This number is bigger than the total number of alumni of MIT in its 150-year history. 7,200 students passed the course, and this was a hard course. 7,200 is also a big number. If I were to teach at MIT two semesters every year, I would have to teach for 40 years before I could teach this many students.

Now these large numbers are just one part of the story. So today, I want to discuss a different aspect, the other side of MOOCs, take a different perspective. We are taking what we develop and learn in the large and applying it in the small to the classroom, to create a blended model of learning.

But before I go into that, let me tell you a story. When my daughter turned 13, became a teenager, she stopped speaking English, and she began speaking this new language. I call it teen-lish. It's a digital language. It's got two sounds: a grunt and a silence.

"Honey, come over for dinner."

"Hmm."

"Did you hear me?"

Silence. (Laughter)

"Can you listen to me?"

"Hmm."

So we had a real issue with communicating, and we were just not communicating, until one day I had this epiphany. I texted her. (Laughter) I got an instant response. I said, no, that must have been by accident. She must have thought, you know, some friend of hers was calling her. So I texted her again. Boom, another response. I said, this is great. And so since then, our life has changed. I text her, she responds. It's just been absolutely great. (Applause)

So our millennial generation is built differently. Now, I'm older, and my youthful looks might belie that, but I'm not in the millennial generation. But our kids are really different. The millennial generation is completely comfortable with online technology. So why are we fighting it in the classroom? Let's not fight it. Let's embrace it. In fact, I believe -- and I have two fat thumbs, I can't text very well -- but I'm willing to bet that with evolution, our kids and their grandchildren will develop really, really little, itty-bitty thumbs to text much better, that evolution will fix all of that stuff. But what if we embraced technology, embraced the millennial generation's natural predilections, and really think about creating these online technologies, blend them into their lives. So here's what we can do. So rather than driving our kids into a classroom, herding them out there at 8 o'clock in the morning -- I hated going to class at 8 o'clock in the morning, so why are we forcing our kids to do that? So instead what you do is you have them watch videos and do interactive exercises in the comfort of their dorm rooms, in their bedroom, in the dining room, in the bathroom, wherever they're most creative. Then they come into the classroom for some in-person interaction. They can have discussions amongst themselves. They can solve problems together. They can work with the professor and have the professor answer their questions. In fact, with edX, when we were teaching our first course on circuits and electronics around the world, this was happening unbeknownst to us. Two high school teachers at the Sant High School in Mongolia had flipped their classroom, and they were using our video lectures and interactive exercises, where the learners in the high school, 15-year-olds, mind you, would go and do these things in their own homes and they would come into class, and as you see from this image here, they would interact with each other and do some physical laboratory work. And the only way we discovered this was they wrote a blog and we happened to stumble upon that blog.

We were also doing other pilots. So we did a pilot experimental blended courses, working with San Jose State University in California, again, with the circuits and electronics course. You'll hear that a lot. That course has become sort of like our petri dish of learning. So there, the students would, again, the instructors flipped the classroom, blended online and in person, and the results were staggering. Now don't take these results to the bank just yet. Just wait a little bit longer as we experiment with this some more, but the early results are incredible. So traditionally, semester upon semester, for the past several years, this course, again, a hard course, had a failure rate of about 40 to 41 percent every semester. With this blended class late last year, the failure rate fell to nine percent. So the results can be extremely, extremely good.

Now before we go too far into this, I'd like to spend some time discussing some key ideas. What are some key ideas that makes all of this work?

One idea is active learning. The idea here is, rather than have students walk into class and watch lectures, we replace this with what we call lessons. Lessons are interleaved sequences of videos and interactive exercises. So a student might watch a five-, seven-minute video and follow that with an interactive exercise. Think of this as the ultimate Socratization of education. You teach by asking questions. And this is a form of learning called active learning, and really promoted by a very early paper, in 1972, by Craik and Lockhart, where they said and discovered that learning and retention really relates strongly to the depth of mental processing. Students learn much better when they are interacting with the material.

The second idea is self-pacing. Now, when I went to a lecture hall, and if you were like me, by the fifth minute I would lose the professor. I wasn't all that smart, and I would be scrambling, taking notes, and then I would lose the lecture for the rest of the hour. Instead, wouldn't it be nice with online technologies, we offer videos and interactive engagements to students? They can hit the pause button. They can rewind the professor. Heck, they can even mute the professor. So this form of self-pacing can be very helpful to learning.

The third idea that we have is instant feedback. With instant feedback, the computer grades exercises. I mean, how else do you teach 150,000 students? Your computer is grading all the exercises. And we've all submitted homeworks, and your grades come back two weeks later, you've forgotten all about it. I don't think I've still received some of my homeworks from my undergraduate days. Some are never graded. So with instant feedback, students can try to apply answers. If they get it wrong, they can get instant feedback. They can try it again and try it again, and this really becomes much more engaging. They get the instant feedback, and this little green check mark that you see here is becoming somewhat of a cult symbol at edX. Learners are telling us that they go to bed at night dreaming of the green check mark. In fact, one of our learners who took the circuits course early last year, he then went on to take a software course from Berkeley at the end of the year, and this is what the learner had to say on our discussion board when he just started that course about the green check mark: "Oh god; have I missed you." When's the last time you've seen students posting comments like this about homework? My colleague Ed Bertschinger, who heads up the physics department at MIT, has this to say about instant feedback: He indicated that instant feedback turns teaching moments into learning outcomes.

The next big idea is gamification. You know, all learners engage really well with interactive videos and so on. You know, they would sit down and shoot alien spaceships all day long until they get it. So we applied these gamification techniques to learning, and we can build these online laboratories. How do you teach creativity? How do you teach design? We can do this through online labs and use computing power to build these online labs. So as this little video shows here, you can engage students much like they design with Legos. So here, the learners are building a circuit with Lego-like ease. And this can also be graded by the computer.

Fifth is peer learning. So here, we use discussion forums and discussions and Facebook-like interaction not as a distraction, but to really help students learn. Let me tell you a story. When we did our circuits course for the 155,000 students, I didn't sleep for three nights leading up to the launch of the course. I told my TAs, okay, 24/7, we're going to be up monitoring the forum, answering questions. They had answered questions for 100 students. How do you do that for 150,000? So one night I'm sitting up there, at 2 a.m. at night, and I think there's this question from a student from Pakistan, and he asked a question, and I said, okay, let me go and type up an answer, I don't type all that fast, and I begin typing up the answer, and before I can finish, another student from Egypt popped in with an answer, not quite right, so I'm fixing the answer, and before I can finish, a student from the U.S. had popped in with a different answer. And then I sat back, fascinated. Boom, boom, boom, boom, the students were discussing and interacting with each other, and by 4 a.m. that night, I'm totally fascinated, having this epiphany, and by 4 a.m. in the morning, they had discovered the right answer. And all I had to do was go and bless it, "Good answer." So this is absolutely amazing, where students are learning from each other, and they're telling us that they are learning by teaching.

Now this is all not just in the future. This is happening today. So we are applying these blended learning pilots in a number of universities and high schools around the world, from Tsinghua in China to the National University of Mongolia in Mongolia to Berkeley in California -- all over the world. And these kinds of technologies really help, the blended model can really help revolutionize education. It can also solve a practical problem of MOOCs, the business aspect. We can also license these MOOC courses to other universities, and therein lies a revenue model for MOOCs, where the university that licenses it with the professor can use these online courses like the next-generation textbook. They can use as much or as little as they like, and it becomes a tool in the teacher's arsenal.

Finally, I would like to have you dream with me for a little bit. I would like us to really reimagine education. We will have to move from lecture halls to e-spaces. We have to move from books to tablets like the Aakash in India or the Raspberry Pi, 20 dollars. The Aakash is 40 dollars. We have to move from bricks-and-mortar school buildings to digital dormitories.

But I think at the end of the day, I think we will still need one lecture hall in our universities. Otherwise, how else do we tell our grandchildren that your grandparents sat in that room in neat little rows like cornstalks and watched this professor at the end talk about content and, you know, you didn't even have a rewind button?

Thank you.

(Applause)

Thank you. Thank you. (Applause)


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Agarwal說的真好:「我認為網路學習是能舉起所有船隻的浪潮,」。網路線上學習是近代趨勢。高優質的免費線上課程供你挑選,請看百大Online (baidaonline.com/free_course.php)

TINA, 2014-04-15 18:57:56

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