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Ziauddin Yousafzai 談我的女兒馬拉拉

Ziauddin Yousafzai: My daughter, Malala

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Ziauddin Yousafzai

2014年3月攝於TED2014

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恒

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後制:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

巴基斯坦教育家Ziauddin Yousafzai提醒全世界一個許多人不願聆聽的簡單事實:女性與男性在教育、自治及獨立身份方面應享受同等機會。他講述自己和女兒馬拉拉的故事,她於2012年遭塔利班槍擊,只因膽敢去學校上課。「為何我的女兒如此堅強?」Yousafzai問道。「因為我沒有折斷她的翅膀。」

 

關於Ziauddin Yousafzai

儘管女兒馬拉拉於2012年遭受攻擊,Ziauddin Yousafzai仍持續為教育發展中國家孩童而奮鬥。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Ziauddin Yousafzai是教育家、人權活動家及社會活動家。他來自巴基斯坦Swat Valley,在嚴重政治暴力中身處極大個人風險的他,和平抵制塔利班關閉學校的命令,維持自己開辦之學校的運作。他也激勵女兒馬拉拉為促進兒童受教育的權利發聲。Ziauddin是馬拉拉基金會共同創始人,並擔任董事會主席。

 

他亦擔任聯合國全球教育特別顧問,及巴基斯坦駐英國伯明罕領事館教育專員。

 

Ziauddin Yousafzai的英語網上資料

malalafund.org

@ziauddiny

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Ziauddin Yousafzai 談我的女兒馬拉拉

 

在許多父權社會及部落社會中,父親通常因子聞名,但我是少數因女聞名的父親,這令我十分驕傲。

 

(掌聲)

 

馬拉拉從2007年起開始為自己的教育權而戰。2011年,她因這些努力受到表揚,獲頒國家青年和平獎,她成為國內家喻戶曉的女孩。在此之前,她是我的女兒,但現在我是她的父親。(笑聲)女士先生們,如果綜觀人類歷史,女性的故事是不公正、不平等、暴力與剝削交織而成的故事。你目睹在父權社會中,從最初開始,當一位女孩出生,沒人會慶祝她的誕生。她不受歡迎,無論對父親或母親來說。鄰居來訪,對母親表示同情,沒人會恭喜父親。生女兒令母親感到極不自在。當她生了第一個女孩、第一個女兒,她感到難過;當她生了第二個女兒,她感到震驚,期待生個兒子;當她生了第三個女兒,則如犯罪般感到愧疚。

 

不僅母親受苦,她的女兒,新生的女兒,當她長大後也跟著受苦。到了五歲,該上學的時候,她留在家裡,她的兄弟則獲得入學許可。直到12歲之前,她似乎過得還不錯。她能開心玩樂,她能與朋友上街玩耍,她能像蝴蝶般穿梭於大街小巷。但當她進入青少年時期,當她13歲時,她被禁止在沒有男性陪同下出門。她被困在家的四面牆中,她不再是自由的個體,她成了父親、兄弟、家人所謂的名譽。如果她違背了所謂的名譽準則,甚至可能喪命。

 

令人訝異的是,所謂的名譽準則不僅影響女孩的一生,也影響家中男性成員的一生。我認識一個生了七位女孩和一位男孩的家庭,那位獨子移民至波斯灣國家賺錢供養七位姐妹和父母,因為他認為如果他的七位姐妹學習技能、離家賺錢謀生,是相當丟臉的事。因此這位獨子將生活的樂趣和姐妹的幸福葬送於所謂的名譽祭壇。

 

父權社會還有一項準則,就是所謂的服從。一位好女孩應十分文靜、十分謙卑、十分順從,這是準則。模範女孩應十分文靜,她應該保持沉默,她應該接受父親、母親及長輩所做的決定,即使她不喜歡那些決定。如果她得嫁給不喜歡的男人或老男人,她必須接受,因為她不想冠上不服從的罪名。如果她得早婚,她必須接受,否則她會被冠上不服從的罪名。結果如何?一位女詩人說,她受命結婚、上床,然後生下許多兒子和女兒。諷刺的是,這位母親同樣教導女兒服從的觀念,同樣教導兒子名譽的觀念,這種惡性循環不斷持續。

 

女士先生們,這種數百萬女性面臨的困境可以改變,如果我們以不同方式思考,如果女性與男性以不同方式思考,如果發展中國家、部落及父權社會中的男性與女性能打破某些家庭和社會的規範,如果他們能廢除國家體制中的歧視性法律,那些違背女性基本人權的法律。

 

親愛的兄弟姐妹們,當馬拉拉出生時,那是第一次-相信我,老實說,我不喜歡新生兒-但當我看著她的雙眼,相信我,我感到十分驕傲。早在她出生之前,我考慮替她取什麼名字。我十分欣賞一位英勇的阿富汗傳奇自由鬥士,她的名字是邁旺德的馬拉拉,我的女兒以她命名。我的女兒誕生於馬拉拉誕辰後幾天,我堂兄碰巧來訪,他來到我家,帶了一份族譜,Yousafzai家的族譜。當我審視那份族譜,它列出家族300年來的祖先。但當我仔細審視,發現全是男性。我拿起筆,從我的名字畫出一條線,寫下「馬拉拉」。

 

當她漸漸成長,到了四歲半時,我准許她就讀我開辦的學校。你或許會質疑,為何我特別提到「准許女孩入學」?是的,我得說明一下。在加拿大、美國及許多已開發國家中,這或許是理所當然的事,但在貧窮國家、父權社會、部落社會中,這對女孩來說是人生大事。註冊入學意味著對她的身分及姓名的認同,入學許可意味著她進入充滿夢想與願景的世界,她可在此探索個人潛能及未來人生。我有五位姐妹,沒有一位能上學。你將感到十分驚訝:兩星期前,當我填寫加拿大簽證表格時,當我填到表格中家庭狀況的部分,我想不起其中幾位姐妹的名字,原因是我不曾在任何文件上見過姐妹們的名字,這就是我珍視女兒的原因。我父親無法給予我的姐妹、他的女兒的東西,我認為我必須做些改變。

 

我一向欣賞女兒的聰明才智。當朋友來訪時,我鼓勵她與我同席。我鼓勵她和我一起出席不同會議,我試著將所有良善價值灌輸到她的性格中。不僅是她,不僅是馬拉拉,我在學校裡傳授這所有的良善價值,無論對女學生或男學生。我藉由教育進行思想解放。我教導我的女兒、我教導我的女學生摒棄服從的觀念,我教導我的男學生摒棄所謂的偽名譽。

 

親愛的兄弟姐妹,我們致力於為女性爭取更多權利,我們致力於在社會中為女性爭取更多空間,但我們面臨新的挑戰,它將為人權帶來致命打擊,尤其是女性權利,稱之為塔利班化,意味著完全禁止女性參與所有政治、經濟及社會活動。上百所學校被迫關閉,女孩被禁止上學,女性被迫戴上面紗。她們被禁止上市場,音樂家被禁聲,女孩遭鞭打,歌手遭謀殺,數百萬人受苦受難,卻很少有人說出口。最恐怖的是,當周遭充斥對殺戮和鞭打習以為常的人,你仍為自己的權力發聲,這確實是最恐怖的事。

 

十歲時,馬拉拉為自己的受教權挺身而出。她為BBC部落格寫日記,她自願參與《紐約時報》紀錄片的拍攝。她站上每一個能發聲的講台,她發出最強而有力的聲音,逐漸傳播到世上每一個角落,這就是為何塔利班無法忍受她的活動。2012年10月9日,她的頭部遭受近距離槍擊,

 

那天對全家人和我來說彷彿世界末日,世界變成一個巨大的黑洞。當我的女兒處於生死邊緣,我在妻子耳邊低聲說,「我該為我們女兒發生的事受譴責嗎?」

 

她立刻告訴我,「請別自責,你擁護對的理念,你將生命置於風險中,為了真理、為了和平、為了教育,你的女兒受到你的啟發,加入你的行列,你們倆都在正確的道路上,真主會保佑她。」

 

這番話對我意義非凡,從此我不再提出這個問題。

 

馬拉拉在醫院時經歷巨大痛苦,她嚴重頭痛,因為她臉部神經被切斷了。我總是看見妻子臉上籠罩著陰影,但我的女兒從不抱怨。她總是告訴我們,「扭曲的笑容、麻木的臉龐對我來說不算什麼,我會好起來,請別擔心。」她是我們的慰藉,她撫慰了我們。

 

親愛的兄弟姐妹,我們從她身上學會如何在最艱難的時刻保有堅韌的心,我很樂意與你們分享。儘管成了兒童與女性權利的指標人物,她與任何16歲女孩沒什麼不同。作業沒寫完時她會哭泣,她會和兄弟吵架,這令我十分欣慰。

 

有人問我,我的教育方式有何特殊之處,使馬拉拉如此大膽、無畏、勇於發聲且泰然自若?我告訴他們,別問我做了什麼,問我沒做什麼。我沒有折斷她的翅膀,僅此而已。

 

十分感謝。

 

(掌聲)謝謝,十分感謝,謝謝。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Pakistani educator Ziauddin Yousafzai reminds the world of a simple truth that many don’t want to hear: Women and men deserve equal opportunities for education, autonomy, an independent identity. He tells stories from his own life and the life of his daughter, Malala, who was shot by the Taliban in 2012 simply for daring to go to school. "Why is my daughter so strong?” Yousafzai asks. “Because I didn’t clip her wings."

About the Speaker

Despite an attack on his daughter Malala in 2012, Ziauddin Yousafzai continues his fight to educate children in the developing world. Full bio

Transcript

 

In many patriarchal societies and tribal societies, fathers are usually known by their sons, but I'm one of the few fathers who is known by his daughter, and I am proud of it.

(Applause)

Malala started her campaign for education and stood for her rights in 2007, and when her efforts were honored in 2011, and she was given the national youth peace prize, and she became a very famous, very popular young girl of her country. Before that, she was my daughter, but now I am her father. Ladies and gentlemen, if we glance to human history, the story of women is the story of injustice, inequality, violence and exploitation. You see, in patriarchal societies, right from the very beginning, when a girl is born, her birth is not celebrated. She is not welcomed, neither by father nor by mother. The neighborhood comes and commiserates with the mother, and nobody congratulates the father. And a mother is very uncomfortable for having a girl child. When she gives birth to the first girl child, first daughter, she is sad. When she gives birth to the second daughter, she is shocked, and in the expectation of a son, when she gives birth to a third daughter, she feels guilty like a criminal.

Not only the mother suffers, but the daughter, the newly born daughter, when she grows old, she suffers too. At the age of five, while she should be going to school, she stays at home and her brothers are admitted in a school. Until the age of 12, somehow, she has a good life. She can have fun. She can play with her friends in the streets, and she can move around in the streets like a butterfly. But when she enters her teens, when she becomes 13 years old, she is forbidden to go out of her home without a male escort. She is confined under the four walls of her home. She is no more a free individual. She becomes the so-called honor of her father and of her brothers and of her family, and if she transgresses the code of that so-called honor, she could even be killed.

And it is also interesting that this so-called code of honor, it does not only affect the life of a girl, it also affects the life of the male members of the family. I know a family of seven sisters and one brother, and that one brother, he has migrated to the Gulf countries, to earn a living for his seven sisters and parents, because he thinks that it will be humiliating if his seven sisters learn a skill and they go out of the home and earn some livelihood. So this brother, he sacrifices the joys of his life and the happiness of his sisters at the altar of so-called honor.

And there is one more norm of the patriarchal societies that is called obedience. A good girl is supposed to be very quiet, very humble and very submissive. It is the criteria. The role model good girl should be very quiet. She is supposed to be silent and she is supposed to accept the decisions of her father and mother and the decisions of elders, even if she does not like them. If she is married to a man she doesn't like or if she is married to an old man, she has to accept, because she does not want to be dubbed as disobedient. If she is married very early, she has to accept. Otherwise, she will be called disobedient. And what happens at the end? In the words of a poetess, she is wedded, bedded, and then she gives birth to more sons and daughters. And it is the irony of the situation that this mother, she teaches the same lesson of obedience to her daughter and the same lesson of honor to her sons. And this vicious cycle goes on, goes on.

Ladies and gentlemen, this plight of millions of women could be changed if we think differently, if women and men think differently, if men and women in the tribal and patriarchal societies in the developing countries, if they can break a few norms of family and society, if they can abolish the discriminatory laws of the systems in their states, which go against the basic human rights of the women.

Dear brothers and sisters, when Malala was born, and for the first time, believe me, I don't like newborn children, to be honest, but when I went and I looked into her eyes, believe me, I got extremely honored. And long before she was born, I thought about her name, and I was fascinated with a heroic legendary freedom fighter in Afghanistan. Her name was Malalai of Maiwand, and I named my daughter after her. A few days after Malala was born, my daughter was born, my cousin came -- and it was a coincidence -- he came to my home and he brought a family tree, a family tree of the Yousafzai family, and when I looked at the family tree, it traced back to 300 years of our ancestors. But when I looked, all were men, and I picked my pen, drew a line from my name, and wrote, "Malala."

And when she grow old, when she was four and a half years old, I admitted her in my school. You will be asking, then, why should I mention about the admission of a girl in a school? Yes, I must mention it. It may be taken for granted in Canada, in America, in many developed countries, but in poor countries, in patriarchal societies, in tribal societies, it's a big event for the life of girl. Enrollment in a school means recognition of her identity and her name. Admission in a school means that she has entered the world of dreams and aspirations where she can explore her potentials for her future life. I have five sisters, and none of them could go to school, and you will be astonished, two weeks before, when I was filling out the Canadian visa form, and I was filling out the family part of the form, I could not recall the surnames of some of my sisters. And the reason was that I have never, never seen the names of my sisters written on any document. That was the reason that I valued my daughter. What my father could not give to my sisters and to his daughters, I thought I must change it.

I used to appreciate the intelligence and the brilliance of my daughter. I encouraged her to sit with me when my friends used to come. I encouraged her to go with me to different meetings. And all these good values, I tried to inculcate in her personality. And this was not only she, only Malala. I imparted all these good values to my school, girl students and boy students as well. I used education for emancipation. I taught my girls, I taught my girl students, to unlearn the lesson of obedience. I taught my boy students to unlearn the lesson of so-called pseudo-honor.

Dear brothers and sisters, we were striving for more rights for women, and we were struggling to have more, more and more space for the women in society. But we came across a new phenomenon. It was lethal to human rights and particularly to women's rights. It was called Talibanization. It means a complete negation of women's participation in all political, economical and social activities. Hundreds of schools were lost. Girls were prohibited from going to school. Women were forced to wear veils and they were stopped from going to the markets. Musicians were silenced, girls were flogged and singers were killed. Millions were suffering, but few spoke, and it was the most scary thing when you have all around such people who kill and who flog, and you speak for your rights. It's really the most scary thing.

At the age of 10, Malala stood, and she stood for the right of education. She wrote a diary for the BBC blog, she volunteered herself for the New York Times documentaries, and she spoke from every platform she could. And her voice was the most powerful voice. It spread like a crescendo all around the world. And that was the reason the Taliban could not tolerate her campaign, and on October 9 2012, she was shot in the head at point blank range.

It was a doomsday for my family and for me. The world turned into a big black hole. While my daughter was on the verge of life and death, I whispered into the ears of my wife, "Should I be blamed for what happened to my daughter and your daughter?"

And she abruptly told me, "Please don't blame yourself. You stood for the right cause. You put your life at stake for the cause of truth, for the cause of peace, and for the cause of education, and your daughter in inspired from you and she joined you. You both were on the right path and God will protect her."

These few words meant a lot to me, and I didn't ask this question again.

When Malala was in the hospital, and she was going through the severe pains and she had had severe headaches because her facial nerve was cut down, I used to see a dark shadow spreading on the face of my wife. But my daughter never complained. She used to tell us, "I'm fine with my crooked smile and with my numbness in my face. I'll be okay. Please don't worry." She was a solace for us, and she consoled us.

Dear brothers and sisters, we learned from her how to be resilient in the most difficult times, and I'm glad to share with you that despite being an icon for the rights of children and women, she is like any 16-year old girl. She cries when her homework is incomplete. She quarrels with her brothers, and I am very happy for that.

People ask me, what special is in my mentorship which has made Malala so bold and so courageous and so vocal and poised? I tell them, don't ask me what I did. Ask me what I did not do. I did not clip her wings, and that's all.

Thank you very much.

(Applause) Thank you. Thank you very much. Thank you. (Applause)


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