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 珍妮特.葉倫為2014年紐約大學畢業生演講

2014 Commencement Speaker: Janet Louise Yellen, Federal Reserve Chair

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:珍妮特.葉倫(Janet Louise Yellen)

2014年5月21日演講

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

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關於這場演講(來源AOL.com

現任美聯儲主席珍妮特.葉倫於紐約大學畢業典禮演講中,讚揚前主席伯南克展現了穩定金融系統、恢復經濟成長所需的勇氣和毅力。

 

關於珍妮特.葉倫(來源wikipedia

珍妮特.露易絲.葉倫(生於1946年8月13日)為美國經濟學家及現任美國聯邦儲備委員會主席,曾於2010至2014年擔任美聯儲副主席。

 

在此之前,她曾擔任舊金山聯邦儲備銀行總裁兼執行長;於比爾.柯林頓總統任內擔任白宮經濟顧問委員會主席;曾擔任加州大學柏克萊分校哈斯商學院榮譽教授。2014年1月6日,美國參議院確認葉倫的美聯儲主席提名。葉倫於2014年2月3日宣誓就職,成為第一位擔任該職位的女性。

 

珍妮特.葉倫為2014年紐約大學畢業生演講

 

校長先生,現在我要介紹 Thomas A. Pugel,經濟與國際商務學教授,斯特恩商學院MBA課程副主任,他將為大家介紹商業科學博士候選人,請校董會主席Martin Lipton帶領這名候選人上台。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

珍妮特.露易絲.葉倫(歡呼聲)(掌聲),美國聯邦儲備委員會主席,美國央行百年來第一位女性領導者。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

在職期間,你善加運用手中的權力,擁有精確的判斷力、專業素養與強烈的社會責任感。身為布魯克林本地人(歡呼聲)(掌聲),布朗及耶魯大學校友,你充分掌握了經濟學的嚴謹方法及它的潛能,用以造福人類。你曾在哈佛大學與加州大學柏克萊分校擔任教職,目前擔任加州大學柏克萊分校榮譽教授,任職總統經濟顧問委員會期間擁有傑出表現。讓我補充一些個人意見,我認為很適合在這個場合表達。珍妮特,我在此對你獻上最誠摯的謝意,你是我研究所宏觀經濟學老師,謝謝,那段學習歷程令我終生難忘。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

2004年,你開始掌管舊金山地方聯儲銀行,之後升任美聯儲副主席,最終於今年升任美聯儲主席。早在2005年,你就對房地產市場問題提出警告,甚至持續勸說同行採取更積極的措施,因應於2008年迫近的經濟災難。聰明而客觀,願意傾聽,不固執己見,關注這段經濟困難時期政府的決定對個人與家庭的影響。你致力於凝聚共識,推動能造福所有美國人的政策。

 

珍妮特.露易絲.葉倫(歡呼聲)(掌聲),世上影響力最大的央行主管,學術界一致尊崇的成員,女性的楷模。擔任公職期間,你展現卓越的遠見、魄力及勇氣,在美國和全球人民睿智的託付下實施貨幣政策。主席女士,藉由紐約大學賦予我的權力,很榮幸將商業科學榮譽博士學位授予你。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

女士先生們,很榮幸為你們介紹現在身為紐約大學博士的珍妮特.露易絲.葉倫,接下來將由她代表榮譽學位得主發表感言。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

謝謝Sexton校長,容我代表所有榮譽學位得主向紐約大學致謝,並代表大家恭喜2014年畢業生以及你們的家人,尤其是你們的父母。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

在這個特殊的日子裡,你們慶祝自己取得的成就,憧憬未來的生活。你們在紐約大學接受的教育不僅提供了知識的基礎,希望也賦予你們對知識的熱愛及無止盡的好奇心。生命是一段持續發現的旅程,只要你心中燃燒著好奇心的火焰。這份好奇心使Eric Kandel得以在紐約大學實現人生目標,發現人類記憶的化學作用與細胞基礎。畢業後幾年當中,他從事關於貓的研究,但他突然有個想法,專注於研究一種腦部構造更簡單、更基本的動物:加州海蛞蝓。這個想法遭受全體同事的嘲笑,他們「知道」低等海蛞蝓的研究與對人類記憶的理解毫無關聯。擁有手術技巧的夥伴拋棄了Kandel,為了加速對海蛞蝓的研究,他不得不出國深造,但Kandel堅持到底。2000年,他的好奇心替他贏得了諾貝爾獎。如你們所預期,他藉由研究海蛞蝓破解了人類記憶的化學作用。我認為Kandel的一生證明了持續的好奇心對實現雄心壯志來說多麼重要,即使過程荊棘遍佈。

 

有助於智慧終身發展的第二項工具是仔細傾聽他人聲音的意願。如今,科技使我們得以獲得相當廣泛的資訊,但也使我們將自己聽見的聲音侷限於我們認為最符合本身觀點的狹窄範圍內。傾聽他人的聲音,特別是那些與你擁有不同觀點的人,藉此測試我們本身的想法和信念,它迫使我們謙卑地承認我們對真理沒有壟斷權。

 

洋基體育場展示了另一項人生課程。沒有人能永遠成功,即使是魯斯、賈里格與狄馬喬踏上球場時,也經常面臨失敗的命運。探索正確人生道路的過程中挫折在所難免,我和美聯儲的同事都經歷過這種挫折。當我們致力於解決對全球經濟造成威脅的金融與經濟危機時,我們絞盡腦汁地設計出一系列方案,藉此疏通金融系統管道,保持信貸流通。並非所有方案都能奏效,但我們堅持到底,持續專注於手頭的任務。這段期間我獲得的教訓是,對無法避免的挫折所產生的反應如同勝利與失敗之間的平衡同樣重要。不幸地是,許多人擁有成功主要由「能力」決定的迷思,但研究顯示這項特質並非學術或職場表現的可靠預測工具。心理學家Angela Lee Duckworth曾說,最重要的特質是她所謂的「毅力」,意味著朝長遠目標堅持不懈的努力,不屈不撓地克服途中遭遇的挫折。我認為「毅力」中最重要的環節在於當情勢需要時站定立場的意願。這種情勢或許不會出現得太頻繁,但在每個人的人生中都會有某些關鍵時刻需要拿出勇氣,堅守自己認為重要的事物。前任美聯儲主席伯南克證明了這份勇氣,尤其體現於他面臨金融危機威脅時所作的反應。為了穩定金融系統、恢復經濟成長,他採取雄心與範圍都堪稱空前的勇敢行動,因此面臨無情的批評與人身威脅。如果他判斷錯誤,肯定會在歷史上留下難堪的罵名,但他對自己認為正確和必要的做法堅持到底。伯南克的智慧與知識使他成為稱職的主席,但堅定不移的毅力與意志也同樣重要。我希望你們永遠不需面臨如此重大的挑戰,但生命中不免遭遇這樣的時刻,你必須堅守自認能使局面改變的信念。

 

談過失敗與毅力,讓我將主題轉向能支撐毅力、幫助我們超越失敗的更深層意義。追求一個有作為之人生的艱辛,當擁有熱情時更容易持續。當我在37年前剛來到美聯儲時,同事們對美聯儲職責的熱情令我震驚不已。多年後,在每天的工作中,我都能看見熱情對於有效履行美聯儲職責的重要性。如果找到一份令你充滿熱情的工作,請盡力追求那份工作。如果找到令你充滿熱情的目標,請全心全意地投入那個目標。

 

最後,我希望你們能在自己選擇的人生中找到樂趣。今天你們完成人生中一個重要階段,展開一段美妙的新冒險旅程,前方必定充滿對人生的重要抉擇,但請花點時間細細品味沿途大大小小的樂趣。如果可能,將這些樂趣與笑聲分享給他人。

 

最後,再次代表我自己及其他榮譽學位得主感謝各位,感謝今天讓我有機會與你們分享這場演講。

 

恭喜2014年畢業生,祝好運。(歡呼聲)(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen paid tribute to Ben Bernanke at New York University's commencement, saying he demonstrated the courage and grit that were needed to stabilize the financial system and restore economic growth.

About the Speaker

Janet Louise Yellen (born August 13, 1946) is an American economist. She is the Chair of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, previously serving as Vice Chair from 2010 to 2014.

Previously, she was President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; Chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers under President Bill Clinton; and Professor Emerita at the University of California, Berkeley, Haas School of Business. On January 6, 2014, the United States Senate confirmed Yellen's nomination to be Chair of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors. Yellen was sworn in on February 3, 2014, making her the first woman to hold the position.

Transcript

Thank you, President Sexton. On behalf of the honorees, let me express my thanks to NYU. And congratulations from all of us to you, the Class of 2014, and to your families, especially your parents. This is a special day to celebrate your achievements and to look forward to your lives ahead.

Your NYU education has not only provided you with a foundation of knowledge; it has also, I hope, instilled in you a love of knowledge and an enduring curiosity. Life will continue to be a journey of discovery if you tend the fires of curiosity that burn brightly in all of us.

Such curiosity led Eric Kandel, here at NYU, to his lifetime goal, to discover the chemical and cellular basis of human memory. A few years after his graduation, he was doing research on cats. But he had the idea of focusing on an animal with a simpler, more fundamental brain: the California sea slug. His colleagues all but ridiculed him for the idea. They "knew" that the study of the lowly sea slug was irrelevant for understanding human memory. Kandel's surgically-skilled collaborator deserted him. To get up to speed on sea slugs, he had to go abroad to study. But Kandel persisted and, in 2000, his curiosity won him the Nobel Prize. It was, as you must have guessed, for deciphering the chemistry of memory in humans, as revealed by his research on sea slugs. Kandel's life, I believe, demonstrates how a persistent curiosity can help us reach ambitious goals, even with great roadblocks in the way.

A second tool for lifelong intellectual growth is a willingness to listen carefully to others. These days, technology allows us access to a great breadth of perspectives, but it also allows us to limit what voices we hear to the narrow range we find most agreeable. Listening to others, especially those with whom we disagree, tests our own ideas and beliefs. It forces us to recognize, with humility, that we don't have a monopoly on the truth.

Yankee Stadium is a natural venue for another lesson: You won't succeed all the time. Even Ruth, Gehrig and DiMaggio failed most of the time when they stepped to the plate. Finding the right path in life, more often than not, involves some missteps. My Federal Reserve colleagues and I experienced this as we struggled to address a financial and economic crisis that threatened the global economy. We brainstormed and designed a host of programs to unclog the plumbing of the financial system and to keep credit flowing. Not everything worked but we kept at it, and we remained focused on the task at hand. I learned the lesson during this period that one's response to the inevitable setbacks matters as much as the balance of victories and defeats.

There is an unfortunate myth that success is mainly determined by something called "ability." But research indicates that our best measures of these qualities are unreliable predictors of performance in academics or employment. Psychologist Angela Lee Duckworth says that what really matters is a quality she calls "grit"--an abiding commitment to work hard toward long-range goals and to persevere through the setbacks that come along the way.

One aspect of grit that I think is particularly important is the willingness to take a stand when circumstances demand it. Such circumstances may not be all that frequent, but in every life, there will be crucial moments when having the courage to stand up for what you believe will be immensely important.

My predecessor at the Fed, Chairman Ben Bernanke, demonstrated such courage, especially in his response to the threat of the financial crisis. To stabilize the financial system and restore economic growth, he took courageous actions that were unprecedented in ambition and scope. He faced relentless criticism, personal threats, and the certainty that history would judge him harshly if he was wrong. But he stood up for what he believed was right and necessary. Ben Bernanke's intelligence and knowledge served him well as Chairman. But his grit and willingness to take a stand were just as important. I hope you never are confronted by challenges this great, but you too will face moments in life when standing up for what you believe can make all the difference.

Having dwelt for a moment on failure and grit, let me turn to the deeper meaning that underpins grit and can carry us beyond failure. The hard work of building a life that makes a difference is much easier to sustain when you are passionate about what you pursue. When I first came to the Federal Reserve 37 years ago, I was struck by the passion of my colleagues for the mission of the Fed. And these many years later, each day at work, I see the importance of that passion to carrying out the Fed's duties effectively. If there is a job that you feel passionate about, do what you can to pursue that job; if there is a purpose about which you are passionate, dedicate yourself to that purpose.

Finally, I hope that you can find joy in the lives you choose. You are completing one important phase of your life today and embarking on an amazing new adventure. Serious decisions about life surely lie ahead, but take the time to savor the joys, large and small that come along the way. Share those joys with others, and share a laugh when you can.

In closing, thank you again, on behalf of myself and the other honorees. Thank you for the opportunity to speak to you today. Congratulations and good luck to the Class of 2014.


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