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Oren Yakobovich 談拍攝世上最危險地區不公現象的隱藏式攝影機

Oren Yakobovich: Hidden cameras that film injustice in the world’s most dangerous places

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Oren Yakobovich

2014年10月攝於TEDGlobal 2014

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恒

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後制:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Oren Yakobovich說眼見為憑-這就是他為何協助平民百姓使用隱藏式攝影機記錄暴行、政治詐欺、權力濫用等危險情況。他的組織Videre暗中證實及公開報導世人必須知曉之侵害人權行為。

 

關於Oren Yakobovich

Videre共同創始人Oren Yakobovich藉由最新型隱密錄影技術揭露及顛覆暴力壓迫。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

藉由一些隱密到你不曾聽過的錄影技術,Videre與身處最專制政權下的活動家合作,藉由攝影紀錄侵犯人權行為,將其暴露在全世界眼中。Yakobovich認為,只有藉由受壓迫族群本身的行動,才能遏止獨裁政府最惡劣的暴行。

 

Videre這個名稱來自拉丁文「videre est credere」-眼見為憑。在此之前,Yakobovich(與以色列監督組織B’Tselem合作)發起攝影紀錄計畫,將數百台攝影機交給巴勒斯坦人,以揭露約旦河西岸日常生活的真實面貌。

 

Oren Yakobovich的英語網上資料

@_Videre

videreonline.org

facebook.com/videreestcredere

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Oren Yakobovich 談拍攝世上最危險地區不公現象的隱藏式攝影機

 

讓我以一個關於瑪麗的故事開場。她是一名來自非洲農村的女子,她最初的記憶是全家不斷躲避暴亂,這一切都拜執政黨所賜。她的兄弟被政府掌控的民兵殺害,她遭受多次強暴,僅因為她站錯黨派。

 

選舉前一個月的某天早上,瑪麗的村莊舉行了一場「脅迫集會」。集會中,一名男子站在他們面前,對他們說:「我們認識你們,我們知道你們的票會投給誰,如果你們投錯票,我們將展開報復。」但對瑪麗來說,這是一場不同尋常的集會,她的感受也不同尋常。這次她對集會有所期待,因為這次她將一台小型攝影機藏在衣服裡,一台沒人能看見的攝影機。這類集會嚴禁攝影,如果這麼做,將面臨生命危險。瑪麗心知肚明,但她也知道這是阻止他們以及保護自己和村莊唯一的方法,那就是將這種脅迫行為公諸於眾,確保他們瞭解有人監視他們,打破他們置身法外的想法。瑪麗和朋友們已暗中錄製了幾個月執政黨的脅迫行為。

 

(隱藏式攝影機拍攝之影片)

 

男子:我們現在要談的是即將到來的選舉,沒有任何事能阻止我們。如果我們得知你們站在反對黨陣營,我們絕不會原諒。

 

(民兵脅迫集會)

 

「黨」隨時可凌虐你們,年輕人會讓你挨拳頭。

 

(政治集會中斷)

 

那些謊稱回歸「黨」的人,你們的好日子即將結束。

 

(青年民兵集合)

 

有些人已因反抗而喪命,有些人失去安身之所,如果不與「黨」合作,你們的下場將十分悽慘。

 

這些畫面已傳遍全世界,但更重要的是,這些畫面也傳回當地,施暴者也目睹這些影片,他們瞭解有人監視他們,他們感到害怕,不敢再無法無天。瑪麗和她的朋友們迫使執政黨無法在選舉中使用暴力,拯救了數百條生命。瑪麗僅是我們組織裡用攝影機記錄反人權行為的數百人之一。我的成長背景本應帶領我走上不同的道路。我出生於以色列一個右翼家庭,根據我的記憶,我一直想加入以色列軍隊為國服務,證明我的信念有利於這片土地。我在第一次巴勒斯坦起義後加入以色列軍隊,服役於一個強硬、暴戾、激進的步兵隊,成為部隊裡的攻擊主力。很快地,我晉升為軍官,手下有幾名士兵,之後我開始服役於約旦河西岸,目睹了這些畫面。我不喜歡所見的一切,我考慮了一段時間,但最後拒絕了於約旦河西岸服役的任務,因此遭受牢獄之災這,有點-(掌聲)。我得說,其實沒那麼糟,有點像住在旅館裡,只是食物糟透了。(笑聲)

 

在監獄裡我一直思考,我必須讓人們知道,我必須讓人們瞭解約旦河西岸的真實面貌,我必須讓他們聆聽我所聽見的聲音,我必須讓他們看見我所看見的事物。但我也瞭解,我們需要巴勒斯坦人民,那些遭受苦難的人親自講述他們自己的故事,而非透過置身事外的記者或影片製作人。

 

我加入一個人權組織,一個叫B'Tselem(以色列佔領區人權資料中心)的以色列人權組織。我們一起分析約旦河西岸的情勢,選出100個身處最危險地帶的家庭:緊鄰檢查哨、鄰近軍事基地、與移民者毗鄰。我們提供他們攝影機和相關訓練,很快地,我們開始收到一些令人相當不安的畫面:目睹他們如何遭受移民者和士兵的凌虐。

 

我想和大家分享兩段來自這個計畫的影片,兩段都曾經於以色列播放,引發相當大的爭議。我得提醒大家,有些人或許會認為畫面過於直接。你們在第一個畫面中所見的蒙面人是猶太移民者,攝影機啟動前幾分鐘,他們走向一個耕作中的巴勒斯坦家庭,告訴他們必須離開那片土地,因為那片土地屬於猶太移民。巴勒斯坦人拒絕了,我們看看發生了什麼事。逐漸接近的蒙面人是猶太移民,他們正走向一個巴勒斯坦家庭。這是約旦河西岸的示威行動,穿綠衣的傢伙是巴勒斯坦人,他不久就會被逮捕。你看見他被蒙住眼睛、戴上手銬,幾秒後,他將為參與這場示威感到後悔。(槍聲)他被橡皮子彈擊中腳部,他沒事。

 

並非所有移民和士兵都會採取這種作法,我們所說的是極少數案例,但他們必須被繩之以法。這些影片以及其他類似影片迫使軍隊和警方展開調查。當然,它們已在以色列播出,以色列民眾也看見這些影片。這個計畫重新定義了佔領區的人權抗爭,我們成功減少了約旦河西岸的暴力襲擊次數。

 

這個計畫的成功讓我思考,我如何將同樣方法運用到世界其他區域。我們傾向於相信,如今藉由科技、智慧手機和網路,我們能目睹和瞭解世上所發生的大部分事件,人們能夠講述他們的故事,但這只是部分正確的說法。儘管如今我們擁有先進科技,世上只有不到半數的人能使用網路,仍有超過30億人-我重複一下-30億人接收的是經掌權者篩選過的資訊。差不多同一時刻,一位名叫Uri Fruchtmann的人來找我,他是影片製作人和活動家,我們瞭解雙方擁有一致的想法,我們決定共同創立Videre這個組織。當組織於倫敦建立時,我們暗中探訪一些飽受摧殘、暴力橫行、缺乏曝光的地區,我們試著瞭解如何提供援助。

 

我在這個過程中學到四點:首先我們需要與居住在偏遠地區的民眾建立聯繫,當地的暴力發生在公眾視線範圍之外,我們需要與他們合作,我們需要瞭解那些不為人知的事實,幫助他們記錄下來。

 

我學到的第二點是,我們必須使他們以安全的方式進行拍攝。安全是首要之務,當我在約旦河西岸工作時,你能拿出攝影機,多半不會挨槍。但在我們想展開工作的地方,不過是嘗試拿出手機,你就死定了-真的死定了。這就是為什麼我決定必要時採取秘密行動,多半使用隱藏式攝影機。不幸的是,我無法向大家展示我們目前使用的隱藏式攝影機,原因顯而易見,但這些是我們曾經使用過的機型,你可以在市面上買到。如今我們訂製了一款隱藏式攝影機,類似瑪麗藏在身上錄製執政黨脅迫集會的攝影機。這些是人們無法察覺、能融入周遭環境的攝影機。拍攝安全比使用隱藏式攝影機更重要。在開啟攝影機之前,行動者得確保本身安全。為了保護我們合作夥伴的安全,我們事先致力於瞭解每個地點及拍攝每張照片的風險,建立後備計畫,因應可能的差錯,在展開行動前確保一切就緒。

 

我學到的第三件事是核實的重要性。你能捕捉到令人震驚的暴行,但如果無法核實真偽就毫無價值。近來例如敘利亞或加沙所發生的戰爭中,我們看見一些經過修飾或挪用自其他衝突的影像,這些不實資訊損害了消息來源的可信度,也損害了其他可靠來源的可信度。我們藉由多種方式確保訊息的核實,確保內容可信,這始於對合作者的審核,瞭解他們的背景,與他們緊密合作。你如何拍攝一個場景?你可以拍攝路標、手錶、報紙,我們檢視、查看地圖,核對資訊,同時審核內容的元資料。

 

第四點,也是我學到最重要的一點,就是如何利用這些影像創造正向改變。為了造成影響,關鍵在於如何使用這些材料。

 

如今我們與數百名活動家合作進行秘密拍攝。我們與他們合作,以瞭解當地情況,瞭解缺少哪些描述事件的畫面,瞭解誰能影響局面,瞭解什麼時候發佈這些資料促進抗爭行動。有時這仰賴媒體的配合,主要是當地媒體,藉此提高民眾意識。有時仰賴決策者的共識,藉此改善法律。有時仰賴律師的行動,藉此做為法庭證據。但更多時候引發社會變革最有效的方法就是從社群內部著手。

 

我想舉例說明。Fatuma是肯亞婦女反暴力組織的一員,社群中的女性經常在上學與工作途中遭受騷擾,她們試著由社群內部改變這種情況。接下來的影片中,Fatuma將帶領我們體驗她上班的路途,她替這段由隱藏式攝影機拍攝的影片加上旁白。

 

(影片)我叫Fatuma Chiusiku,現年32歲,是一位母親,家住Ziwa La Ng'Ombe。我每天早上乘坐11路小巴士,但上班並非一段平靜的路程,每天的開始都充滿恐懼。現在跟隨我的腳步,藉由我的眼睛體會我的感受。我邊走邊想:我會被摸嗎?會遭受狼爪襲擊嗎?會再次遭受這位乘務員侵犯嗎?甚至連車裡的男人,他們看我的樣子,碰觸、磨蹭我的身體,對我伸出狼爪。現在,當我坐在座位上,我只希望心裡惦記著的只有我一天的生活、我的夢想、我在學校的孩子,但我卻得擔心當我抵達目的地時,我會再次遭受侵犯。

 

今天我們的人權抗爭已達全新階段,我手中拿的曾經是重型槍械,現在我手中拿的是這個。這是更有力、更有效的武器,但我們必須謹慎使用這種力量,將適當的影像交給適當的人,在適當的時機我們就能真正造成影響。

 

謝謝。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

To see is to believe, says Oren Yakobovich — which is why he helps everyday people use hidden cameras to film dangerous situations of violence, political fraud and abuse. His organization, Videre, uncovers, verifies and publicizes human-rights abuses that the world needs to witness.

About this Speaker

Videre co-founder Oren Yakobovich wields the latest covert recording technology to expose and subvert violent oppression. Full bio

Transcript

I would like to start with the story of Mary, a woman from an African village. Her first memories are of her family fleeing violent riots orchestrated by the ruling political party. Her brother was murdered by the state-sponsored militia, and she was raped more than once just because she belonged to the wrong party.

One morning, a month before the election, Mary's village was called to another intimidation meeting. In this meeting, there is a man standing in front of them, telling them, "We know who you are, we know who you will vote for, and if you're not going to drop the right paper, we're going to take revenge." But for Mary, this meeting is different. She feels different. This time, she's waiting for this meeting, because this time, she's carrying a small hidden camera in her dress, a camera that nobody else can see. Nobody is allowed to film in these meetings. You risk your life if you do. Mary knows that, but she also knows that the only way to stop them and to protect herself and her community is to expose their intimidation, to make sure they understand somebody is following them, to break the impunity they feel. Mary and her friends were filming for months, undercover, the intimidation of the ruling political party.

(Video) ["Filmed with hidden cameras"]Man: We are now going to speak about the upcoming elections. Nothing can stop us from doing what we want. If we hear you are with [The Opposition] we will not forgive you.

["Militia intimidation rally"]

[The Party] can torture you at any time. The youth can beat you.

["Disruption of political meeting"]

For those who lie, saying they are back with [The Party], your time is running out.

["Party youth militia"]

Some have died because they rebelled. Some have lost their homes. If you don't work together with [The Party], you will lead a very bad life.

Oren Yakobovich: These images were broadcast all over the world, but more importantly, they have been broadcast back to the community. The perpetrators saw them too. They understood somebody is following them. They got scared. Impunity was broken. Mary and her friends forced the ruling political party not to use violence during the election, and saved hundreds of lives. Mary is just one of hundreds of people that my organization had helped to document human rights violations using cameras.

My background should have led me to a different direction. I was born in Israel to a right-wing family, and as long as I remember myself, I wanted to join the Israeli army to serve my country and prove what I believed was our right for the whole land. I joined the Israeli army just after the first intifada, the first Palestinian uprising, and I served in one of the hard-minded, toughest, aggressive infantry units, and I got the biggest gun in my platoon. Quite fast, I became an officer and got soldiers under my command, and as time passed, I started serving in the West Bank, and I saw these images. I didn't like what I saw. It took me a while, but eventually I refused to serve in the West Bank and had to spend time in jail. It was a bit — (Applause) — It was not that bad, I have to say. It was a bit like being in a hotel, but with very shitty food. (Laughter)

In jail, I kept thinking that I need people to know. I need people to understand what the reality in the West Bank looks like. I need them to hear what I heard, I need them to see what I saw, but I also understood, we need the Palestinians themselves, the people that are suffering, to be able to tell their own stories, not journalists or filmmakers that are coming outside of the situation.

I joined a human rights organization, an Israeli human rights organization called B'Tselem. Together, we analyzed the West Bank and picked 100 families that are living in the most risky places: close to checkpoints, near army bases, side by side with settlers. We gave them cameras and training. Quite fast, we started getting very disturbing images about how the settlers and the soldiers are abusing them.

I would like to share with you two clips from this project. Both of them were broadcast in Israel, and it created a massive debate. And I have to warn you, some of you might find them quite explicit. The masked men you will see in the first clips are Jewish settlers. Minutes before the camera was turned on, they approached a Palestinian family that was working their land and told them that they have to leave the land, because this land belongs to the Jewish settlers. The Palestinians refused. Let's see what happened. The masked men that are approaching are Jewish settlers. They are approaching the Palestinian family. This is a demonstration in the West Bank. The guy in green is Palestinian. He will be arrested in a second. Here you see him blindfolded and handcuffed. In a few seconds, he regrets he came to this demonstration. He's been shot in the foot with a rubber bullet. He is okay.

Not all the settlers and the soldiers are acting this way. We're talking about a tiny minority, but they have to be brought to justice. These clips, and others like them, forced the army and the police to start investigations. They've been shown in Israel, of course, and the Israeli public was exposed to them also. This project redefined the struggle for human rights in the occupied territories, and we managed to reduce the number of violent attacks in the West Bank.

The success of this project got me thinking how I can take the same methodology to other places in the world. Now, we tend to believe that today, with all of the technology, the smartphones and the Internet, we are able to see and understand most of what's happening in the world, and people are able to tell their story — but it's only partly true. Still today, with all the technology we have, less than half of the world's population has access to the Internet, and more than three billion people — I'm repeating the number — three billion people are consuming news that is censored by those in power. More or less around the same time, I'm approached by a great guy named Uri Fruchtmann. He's a filmmaker and an activist. We understood we were thinking along the same lines, and we decided to establish Videre, our organization, together. While building the organization in London, we've been traveling undercover to places where a community was suffering from abuses, where mass atrocities were happening, and there was a lack of reporting. We tried to understand how we can help.

There were four things that I learned. The first thing is that we have to engage with communities that are living in rural areas, where violations are happening far from the public eye. We need to partner with them, and we need to understand which images are not making it out there and help them to document them.

The second thing I learned is that we have to enable them to film in a safe way. Security has to be the priority. Where I used to work before, in the West Bank, one can take a camera out, most likely not going to get shot, but in places we wanted to work, just try to pull a phone out, and you're dead — literally dead. This is why we decided to take the operation undercover when necessary, and use mostly hidden cameras. Unfortunately, I can't show you the hidden cameras we're using today — for obvious reasons — but these are cameras we used before. You can buy them off the shelf. Today, we're building a custom-made hidden camera, like the one that Mary was wearing in her dress to film the intimidation meeting of the ruling political party. It's a camera that nobody can see, that blends into the environment, into the surroundings. Now, filming securities go beyond using hidden cameras. Being secure starts way before the activist is turning the camera on. To keep our partners safe, we work to understand the risk of every location and of every shot before it's happened, building a backup plan if something goes wrong, and making sure we have everything in place before our operations start.

The third thing I learned is the importance of verification. You can have an amazing shot of atrocity, but if you can't verify it, it's worth nothing. Recently, like in the ongoing war in Syria or the war in Gaza, we've seen images that are staged or brought from a different conflict. This misinformation destroyed the credibility of the source, and it's harmed the credibility of other reliable and trustworthy sources. We use a variety of ways to make sure we can verify the information and we can trust the material. It starts with vetting the partners, understanding who they are, and working with them very intensively. How do you film a location? You film road signs, you film watches, you film newspapers. We are checking maps, looking at maps, double-checking the information, and looking also at the metadata of the material.

Now, the fourth and the most important thing I learned is how you use images to create a positive change. To have an effect, the key thing is how you use the material.

Today, we're working with hundreds of activists filming undercover. We work with them both to understand the situation on the ground and which images are missing to describe it, who are the ones that are influencing the situation, and when to release the material to advance the struggle. Sometimes, it's about putting it in the media, mostly local ones, to create awareness. Sometimes it's working with decision makers, to change laws. Sometimes, it's working with lawyers to use as evidence in court. But more than often, the most effective way to create a social change is to work within the community.

I want to give you one example. Fatuma is part of a network of women that are fighting abuses in Kenya. Women in her community have been harassed constantly on their way to school and on their way to work. They are trying to change the behavior of the community from inside. In the next clip, Fatuma is taking us with her on her journey to work. Her voice is superimposed on images that she filmed herself using hidden cameras.

(Video) Fatuma Chiusiku: My name is Fatuma Chiusiku. I'm 32 years old, a mother, And Ziwa La Ng'Ombe is my home. Each morning, I ride the mini-bus Number 11. But instead of a peaceful journey to work, each day begins with fear. Come with me now and use my eyes to feel what I feel. As I walk, I think to myself: Will I be touched? Grabbed? Violated by this conductor again? Even the men inside the way they look at me touch my body, rub against me, grab me, and now, as I sit in my seat I only wish my mind was full of thoughts for my day, my dreams, my children at school, but instead I worry about the moment when we will arrive and I will be violated again.

OY: Today, there is a new front in the fight for human rights. I used to carry a big gun. Now, I am carrying this. This is a much more powerful and much, much more effective weapon. But we have to use its power wisely. By putting the right images in the right hands at the right time, we can truly create an impact.

Thank you.

(Applause)

Thank you.

(Applause)


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