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Ismael Nazario談身為少年犯的我在獄中學到什麼

Ismael Nazario: What I learned as a kid in jail

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Ismael Nazario

2014年10月攝於TEDxNewYork

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

未成年的Ismael Nazario被送到紐約萊克斯島監獄服刑,他在那裡被單獨監禁了300天-那是在他被定罪之前。如今身為獄政改革倡導者,他致力於改變使年輕人屈服於難以想像之暴力的美國監獄文化。Nazario講述他令人不寒而慄的經歷,建議為監獄裡的少年犯提供幫助,而不是傷害。

 

關於Ismael Nazario

獄政改革倡導者Ismael Nazario幫助從紐約萊克斯島監獄出獄的犯人重新融入社會。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

在「財富社區」(Fortune Society),Ismael Nazario幫助從紐約萊克斯島監獄出獄的犯人重新融入社會。這是Nazario親身體驗:他未滿十八歲時因搶劫被捕,送至萊克斯島監獄囚禁,被定罪前,他曾經被單獨監禁300天。現在,身為I-CAN(個人化矯正成就網)專案的一份子,他幫助高再犯風險更生人找​​工作並遠離監獄。

 

Ismael Nazario的英語網上資料

fortunesociety.org

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Ismael Nazario談身為少年犯的我在獄中學到什麼

 

我們的監獄文化需要改變,尤其是針對少年犯。紐約州是美國僅有的兩個自動將16至17歲少年視為成人對待的地區之一,獄中的暴力文化將腐蝕這些年輕人,並將他們置於一個不友善的環境中,監獄管理員多半任由這一切發生。這些年輕人難以提升自己的才能、改造自我,除非我們將刑事責任年齡提高到18歲。我們需要致力於改善這些少年犯的日常生活,我對此有親身體會。

 

18歲之前,我在萊克斯島監獄待了約400天。補充說明一下,其中約有300天是單獨監禁。讓我說明一下情況:整天在囚室門邊大聲尖叫,或對著窗外大聲尖叫,這讓人疲倦,因為在囚室裡沒什麼事可做。你開始在囚室裡來回踱步,你開始自言自語,你的思緒開始天馬行空,然後你的思緒變成你最大的敵人。監獄應該是讓人洗心革面的地方,而不是讓人變得更憤怒、更沮喪、更絕望。因為我們沒有為這些年輕人制定出獄計畫,他們重返社會後幾乎身無所長,也沒有任何防止他們再犯的措施,但這一切都得從監獄管理員談起。

 

對某些人來說,很容易就將監獄管理員視為好人,將犯人視為壞人,或對一些人來說剛好相反,但事實不僅如此。監獄管理員不過是普通人,他們跟他們所「服務」的人來自相同社會,他們只是普通人,他們不是機器人,沒什麼特別之處,他們所做的事和一般人沒什麼差別。男監獄管理員想跟女監獄管理員聊天和調情,他們互相玩高中生的小把戲,他們互相算計,女監獄管理員互相八卦。因此我跟許多監獄管理員相處了不少時間。

 

我想跟各位談談一位名叫Monroe的監獄管理員。某天他把我拉到A和B兩扇門之間,這兩扇門分隔南北的囚室,他把我拉到那裡,因為我和另一位同室的年輕人發生肢體衝突,因為有一位女監獄管理員在這層工作,他認為我侵犯了他的職權,因此他一拳打在我的胸口,幾乎把我打得頭昏眼花。我沒有衝動,也沒有立刻還擊,因為我知道這是他們的地盤,我沒有勝算。他只要拉響警報,後援立刻就會出現。因此我只是看著他的眼睛,我想他看見我眼中燃燒的怒火和沮喪,他對我說:「你的眼神會帶給你不少麻煩,因為你看起來像是想打架。」因此他開始脫下裝備腰帶,脫下上衣和警徽,他說:「我們可以打一架。」因此我問他:「你會保密?」那是萊克斯島監獄的慣用語,意味著你不會向任何人透露,也不會上報。他說,「是的,我會保密。你也會保密?」我甚至不曾回應,我只是一拳打在他臉上,然後我們開始扭打。打架快結束時,他把我摔在牆上,儘管我們扭打成一團,他對我說:「你沒事吧?」彷彿他打敗了我,但我心知肚明,是我打敗了他,因此我趾高氣揚地回答:「喔,我好得很,你還好吧?」他說:「是的,我很好,我沒事。」我們停戰,他跟我握手,說他尊重我,給了我一支煙,然後送我回房。

 

信不信由你,在萊克斯島監獄你會遇見一些監獄管理員跟你單挑,他們認為他們瞭解監獄的生態,他們認為他們應該配合你的做法,因為這是犯人處理紛爭的方式。我們也可以用這種方式處理,我像男子漢一樣地離開,你也像男子漢一樣地離開,就這麼簡單。一些監獄管理員認為他們跟你一起蹲苦窯,這就是為何他們擁有這種心態和態度。他們遵循這種觀念,以某種程度來說,我們確實與監獄管理員共同生活,然而獄政機構必須給予這些監獄管理員適當的訓練,教導他們如何以適當的態度與少年犯打交道。獄政機構也需要給予監獄管理員適當的訓練,教導他們如何應對有心理問題的犯人。監獄管理員在少年犯的生活中扮演重要角色,持續一段時間,直到他們服刑完畢。因此為何不在這些年輕人服刑時給予他們一些指導?為何不試著給予他們一些改變自我的觀念,一旦他們重返社會,他們就能走上正途?

 

第二項能協助少年犯的重要作法就是更好的培育計畫。當我在萊克斯島監獄時,主要的生活就是單獨監禁。單獨監禁原本是為了從心理、生理和情感上擊垮一個人,這就是設計這項方案的初衷。美國總檢察長最近發表一篇報告,聲稱他們將禁止紐約州少年犯的單獨監禁。當我單獨監禁時,使我保持心智健全的方法之一就是讀書。我儘可能多自學,我閱讀所有能獲得的書籍,除此之外,我還會寫歌和短篇故事。我認為能使年輕人受益的課程是藝術治療,專為喜愛繪畫且擁有才能的孩子所設計。那麼對音樂有興趣的年輕人呢?教育他們如何創作音樂的課程如何?這只是一個想法。

 

當少年犯來到萊克斯島監獄,C74, RNDC大樓是他們所住的地方,它有個別名叫「格鬥者學校」,因為有個混跡街頭的年輕人進來了,自認是難惹的角色,被一群來自紐約五個區的年輕人簇擁著,大家都認為他們不好惹,因此另一群年輕人挺身而出,認為必須證明我跟你們一樣不好惹,或者我比你們任何人更不好惹。但坦白說這種文化非常危險,會對年輕人造成傷害。我們必須讓獄政機構和這些年輕人瞭解,他們不需再過之前混跡街頭時的生活,他們可以有所改變。令人遺憾的是,當我在獄中時,經常聽見獄友談論當他們出獄後、回到街頭時打算犯什麼案子,他們的對話聽起來類似這樣:「喔,當我回到街頭,我的兄弟就能搞到這個、這個、還有這個關係。」或是:「我的人用很低的價格搞到這個關係,我們不妨交換一下資訊。」或是:「我們回到城裡後就大幹一票。」我經常聽見像這樣的對話,然後心想:「哇,這些傢伙真的在談回到街頭,然後繼續犯案。」因此我想到一個適用於這種現象的名稱,我稱之為「快速回籠計畫」。因為說真的,這種生活將持續多久?有退休計畫嗎?合理的退休金?401(k)還是403(b)(美國退休福利計畫)?有健康保險嗎?包括牙醫?(笑聲)

 

但我想告訴各位:在服刑期間,我遇見一些我見過最聰明、最傑出、最有才華的人。我見過有人把薯片包裝袋變成最美的畫框,我見過有人把免費的肥皂變成最美的雕刻作品,讓米開朗基羅的作品看起來就像幼稚園生的創作。21歲時,我在一間最高安全級別監獄,名叫愛米拉矯正所。我剛結束繁重的戶外勞動,我看見一位我認識的老人站在院子中央,不斷仰望天空。說明一下,這個老人的刑期長達33年,相當於三分之一的人生。他已服刑20年,因此我走到他面前說:「天哪,怎麼了,老兄?你還好吧?」他看著我說:「是的,我很好,年輕人。」我說:「你盯著天空做什麼,老兄?有什麼好看東西嗎?」他說:「你向上看,告訴我你看見什麼?」「雲。」(笑聲)他說:「好,你還看見什麼?」那時有架飛機飛過,我說:「好,我看見一架飛機。」他說:「是的,飛機上有什麼?」「人」「是的,飛機和那些人要去哪裡?」「我不知道,你知道嗎?如果知道請告訴我,我好去買樂透。」他說,「你錯過了一幅大風景,年輕人。」

 

飛機載著那些人飛向某個地方,我們卻困在這裡。大風景是這樣的:飛機載著那些人飛向某個地方,當我們困在高牆後時,生命正悄悄流逝。從那天起,我腦海裡突然閃現一些想法,讓我知道我需要做出改變。成長過程中我一直是個聰明的好孩子,有些人說我有點太自作聰明了。我的夢想是成為建築師或考古學家,目前我在財富社區(Fortune Society)工作,這是一項更生計畫,我身為專案經理,跟具有高再犯風險的更生人一起工作。因此我替他們安排需要的服務,一旦他們出獄,就能做出正面改變,回歸社會。

 

如果我能與15歲的自己相遇,我會坐下來跟他談話,試著教育他,我會讓他知道:「聽著,這是我,我就是你,這是我們,我們是一體。」我知道你打算做的每件事,因為我都做過了。我會鼓勵他,不要跟甲乙丙等人鬼混,我會告訴他不要去這樣或那樣的地方,我會告訴他好好上學,因為那才是你該待的地方,因為那會讓你擁有未來。這是我們應該與年輕男女分享的資訊,我們不該視他們為成年人,將他們置於幾乎不可避免的暴力文化中,謝謝。(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

You may remember neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis — he built the brain-controlled exoskeleton that allowed a paralyzed man to kick the first ball of the 2014 World Cup. What’s he working on now? Building ways for two minds (rats and monkeys, for now) to send messages brain to brain. Watch to the end for an experiment that, as he says, will go to "the limit of your imagination."

About the Speaker

Miguel Nicolelis explores the limits of the brain-machine interface. Full bio.

Transcript

On June 12, 2014, precisely at 3:33 in a balmy winter afternoon in São Paulo, Brazil, a typical South American winter afternoon, this kid, this young man that you see celebrating here like he had scored a goal, Juliano Pinto, 29 years old, accomplished a magnificent deed. Despite being paralyzed and not having any sensation from mid-chest to the tip of his toes as the result of a car crash six years ago that killed his brother and produced a complete spinal cord lesion that left Juliano in a wheelchair, Juliano rose to the occasion, and on this day did something that pretty much everybody that saw him in the six years deemed impossible. Juliano Pinto delivered the opening kick of the 2014 Brazilian World Soccer Cup here just by thinking. He could not move his body, but he could imagine the movements needed to kick a ball. He was an athlete before the lesion. He's a para-athlete right now. He's going to be in the Paralympic Games, I hope, in a couple years. But what the spinal cord lesion did not rob from Juliano was his ability to dream. And dream he did that afternoon, for a stadium of about 75,000 people and an audience of close to a billion watching on TV.

And that kick crowned, basically, 30 years of basic research studying how the brain, how this amazing universe that we have between our ears that is only comparable to universe that we have above our head because it has about 100 billion elements talking to each other through electrical brainstorms, what Juliano accomplished took 30 years to imagine in laboratories and about 15 years to plan.

When John Chapin and I, 15 years ago, proposed in a paper that we would build something that we called a brain-machine interface, meaning connecting a brain to devices so that animals and humans could just move these devices, no matter how far they are from their own bodies, just by imagining what they want to do, our colleagues told us that we actually needed professional help, of the psychiatry variety. And despite that, a Scot and a Brazilian persevered, because that's how we were raised in our respective countries, and for 12, 15 years, we made demonstration after demonstration suggesting that this was possible.

And a brain-machine interface is not rocket science, it's just brain research. It's nothing but using sensors to read the electrical brainstorms that a brain is producing to generate the motor commands that have to be downloaded to the spinal cord, so we projected sensors that can read hundreds and now thousands of these brain cells simultaneously, and extract from these electrical signals the motor planning that the brain is generating to actually make us move into space. And by doing that, we converted these signals into digital commands that any mechanical, electronic, or even a virtual device can understand so that the subject can imagine what he, she or it wants to make move, and the device obeys that brain command. By sensorizing these devices with lots of different types of sensors, as you are going to see in a moment, we actually sent messages back to the brain to confirm that that voluntary motor will was being enacted, no matter where -- next to the subject, next door, or across the planet. And as this message gave feedback back to the brain, the brain realized its goal: to make us move. So this is just one experiment that we published a few years ago, where a monkey, without moving its body, learned to control the movements of an avatar arm, a virtual arm that doesn't exist. What you're listening to is the sound of the brain of this monkey as it explores three different visually identical spheres in virtual space. And to get a reward, a drop of orange juice that monkeys love, this animal has to detect, select one of these objects by touching, not by seeing it, by touching it, because every time this virtual hand touches one of the objects, an electrical pulse goes back to the brain of the animal describing the fine texture of the surface of this object, so the animal can judge what is the correct object that he has to grab, and if he does that, he gets a reward without moving a muscle. The perfect Brazilian lunch: not moving a muscle and getting your orange juice.

So as we saw this happening, we actually came and proposed the idea that we had published 15 years ago. We reenacted this paper. We got it out of the drawers, and we proposed that perhaps we could get a human being that is paralyzed to actually use the brain-machine interface to regain mobility. The idea was that if you suffered -- and that can happen to any one of us. Let me tell you, it's very sudden. It's a millisecond of a collision, a car accident that transforms your life completely. If you have a complete lesion of the spinal cord, you cannot move because your brainstorms cannot reach your muscles. However, your brainstorms continue to be generated in your head. Paraplegic, quadriplegic patients dream about moving every night. They have that inside their head. The problem is how to get that code out of it and make the movement be created again.

So what we proposed was, let's create a new body. Let's create a robotic vest. And that's exactly why Juliano could kick that ball just by thinking, because he was wearing the first brain-controlled robotic vest that can be used by paraplegic, quadriplegic patients to move and to regain feedback.

That was the original idea, 15 years ago. What I'm going to show you is how 156 people from 25 countries all over the five continents of this beautiful Earth, dropped their lives, dropped their patents, dropped their dogs, wives, kids, school, jobs, and congregated to come to Brazil for 18 months to actually get this done. Because a couple years after Brazil was awarded the World Cup, we heard that the Brazilian government wanted to do something meaningful in the opening ceremony in the country that reinvented and perfected soccer until we met the Germans, of course. (Laughter) But that's a different talk, and a different neuroscientist needs to talk about that. But what Brazil wanted to do is to showcase a completely different country, a country that values science and technology, and can give a gift to millions, 25 million people around the world that cannot move any longer because of a spinal cord injury. Well, we went to the Brazilian government and to FIFA and proposed, well, let's have the kickoff of the 2014 World Cup be given by a Brazilian paraplegic using a brain-controlled exoskeleton that allows him to kick the ball and to feel the contact of the ball. They looked at us, thought that we were completely nuts, and said, "Okay, let's try." We had 18 months to do everything from zero, from scratch. We had no exoskeleton, we had no patients, we had nothing done. These people came all together and in 18 months, we got eight patients in a routine of training and basically built from nothing this guy, that we call Bra-Santos Dumont 1. The first brain-controlled exoskeleton to be built was named after the most famous Brazilian scientist ever, Alberto Santos Dumont, who, on October 19, 1901, created and flew himself the first controlled airship on air in Paris for a million people to see. Sorry, my American friends, I live in North Carolina, but it was two years before the Wright Brothers flew on the coast of North Carolina. (Applause) Flight control is Brazilian. (Laughter)

So we went together with these guys and we basically put this exoskeleton together, 15 degrees of freedom, hydraulic machine that can be commanded by brain signals recorded by a non-invasive technology called electroencephalography that can basically allow the patient to imagine the movements and send his commands to the controls, the motors, and get it done. This exoskeleton was covered with an artificial skin invented by Gordon Cheng, one of my greatest friends, in Munich, to allow sensation from the joints moving and the foot touching the ground to be delivered back to the patient through a vest, a shirt. It is a smart shirt with micro-vibrating elements that basically delivers the feedback and fools the patient's brain by creating a sensation that it is not a machine that is carrying him, but it is he who is walking again.

So we got this going, and what you'll see here is the first time one of our patients, Bruno, actually walked. And he takes a few seconds because we are setting everything, and you are going to see a blue light cutting in front of the helmet because Bruno is going to imagine the movement that needs to be performed, the computer is going to analyze it, Bruno is going to certify it, and when it is certified, the device starts moving under the command of Bruno's brain. And he just got it right, and now he starts walking. After nine years without being able to move, he is walking by himself. And more than that -- (Applause) -- more than just walking, he is feeling the ground, and if the speed of the exo goes up, he tells us that he is walking again on the sand of Santos, the beach resort where he used to go before he had the accident. That's why the brain is creating a new sensation in Bruno's head.

So he walks, and at the end of the walk -- I am running out of time already -- he says, "You know, guys, I need to borrow this thing from you when I get married, because I wanted to walk to the priest and see my bride and actually be there by myself. Of course, he will have it whenever he wants.

And this is what we wanted to show during the World Cup, and couldn't, because for some mysterious reason, FIFA cut its broadcast in half. What you are going to see very quickly is Juliano Pinto in the exo doing the kick a few minutes before we went to the pitch and did the real thing in front of the entire crowd, and the lights you are going to see just describe the operation. Basically, the blue lights pulsating indicate that the exo is ready to go. It can receive thoughts and it can deliver feedback, and when Juliano makes the decision to kick the ball, you are going to see two streams of green and yellow light coming from the helmet and going to the legs, representing the mental commands that were taken by the exo to actually make that happen. And in basically 13 seconds, Juliano actually did. You can see the commands. He gets ready, the ball is set, and he kicks. And the most amazing thing is, 10 seconds after he did that, and looked at us on the pitch, he told us, celebrating as you saw, "I felt the ball." And that's priceless. (Applause)

So where is this going to go? I have two minutes to tell you that it's going to the limits of your imagination. Brain-actuating technology is here. This is the latest: We just published this a year ago, the first brain-to-brain interface that allows two animals to exchange mental messages so that one animal that sees something coming from the environment can send a mental SMS, a torpedo, a neurophysiological torpedo, to the second animal, and the second animal performs the act that he needed to perform without ever knowing what the environment was sending as a message, because the message came from the first animal's brain.

So this is the first demo. I'm going to be very quick because I want to show you the latest. But what you see here is the first rat getting informed by a light that is going to show up on the left of the cage that he has to press the left cage to basically get a reward. He goes there and does it. And the same time, he is sending a mental message to the second rat that didn't see any light, and the second rat, in 70 percent of the times is going to press the left lever and get a reward without ever experiencing the light in the retina.

Well, we took this to a little higher limit by getting monkeys to collaborate mentally in a brain net, basically to donate their brain activity and combine them to move the virtual arm that I showed you before, and what you see here is the first time the two monkeys combine their brains, synchronize their brains perfectly to get this virtual arm to move. One monkey is controlling the x dimension, the other monkey is controlling the y dimension. But it gets a little more interesting when you get three monkeys in there and you ask one monkey to control x and y, the other monkey to control y and z, and the third one to control x and z, and you make them all play the game together, moving the arm in 3D into a target to get the famous Brazilian orange juice. And they actually do. The black dot is the average of all these brains working in parallel, in real time. That is the definition of a biological computer, interacting by brain activity and achieving a motor goal.

Where is this going? We have no idea. We're just scientists. (Laughter) We are paid to be children, to basically go to the edge and discover what is out there. But one thing I know: One day, in a few decades, when our grandchildren surf the Net just by thinking, or a mother donates her eyesight to an autistic kid who cannot see, or somebody speaks because of a brain-to-brain bypass, some of you will remember that it all started on a winter afternoon in a Brazilian soccer field with an impossible kick.

Thank you.

(Applause)

Thank you.

Bruno Giussani: Miguel, thank you for sticking to your time. I actually would have given you a couple more minutes, because there are a couple of points we want to develop, and, of course, clearly it seems that we need connected brains to figure out where this is going. So let's connect all this together. So if I'm understanding correctly, one of the monkeys is actually getting a signal and the other monkey is reacting to that signal just because the first one is receiving it and transmitting the neurological impulse.

Miguel Nicolelis: No, it's a little different. No monkey knows of the existence of the other two monkeys. They are getting a visual feedback in 2D, but the task they have to accomplish is 3D. They have to move an arm in three dimensions. But each monkey is only getting the two dimensions on the video screen that the monkey controls. And to get that thing done, you need at least two monkeys to synchronize their brains, but the ideal is three. So what we found out is that when one monkey starts slacking down, the other two monkeys enhance their performance to get the guy to come back, so this adjusts dynamically, but the global synchrony remains the same. Now, if you flip without telling the monkey the dimensions that each brain has to control, like this guy is controlling x and y, but he should be controlling now y and z, instantaneously, that animal's brain forgets about the old dimensions and it starts concentrating on the new dimensions. So what I need to say is that no Turing machine, no computer can predict what a brain net will do. So we will absorb technology as part of us. Technology will never absorb us. It's simply impossible.

BG: How many times have you tested this? And how many times have you succeeded versus failed?

MN: Oh, tens of times. With the three monkeys? Oh, several times. I wouldn't be able to talk about this here unless I had done it a few times. And I forgot to mention, because of time, that just three weeks ago, a European group just demonstrated the first man-to-man brain-to-brain connection. BG: And how does that play? MN: There was one bit of information -- big ideas start in a humble way -- but basically the brain activity of one subject was transmitted to a second object, all non-invasive technology. So the first subject got a message, like our rats, a visual message, and transmitted it to the second subject. The second subject received a magnetic pulse in the visual cortex, or a different pulse, two different pulses. In one pulse, the subject saw something. On the other pulse, he saw something different. And he was able to verbally indicate what was the message the first subject was sending through the Internet across continents.

Moderator: Wow. Okay, that's where we are going. That's the next TED Talk at the next conference. Miguel Nicolelis, thank you. MN: Thank you, Bruno. Thank you.


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