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Miguel Nicolelis談如何讓腦對腦溝通成真

Miguel Nicolelis: Brain-to-brain communication has arrived. How we did it

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Miguel Nicolelis

2014年10月攝於TEDGlobal 2014

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

你或許還記得神經學家Miguel Nicolelis-他打造了大腦控制的外骨骼裝置,協助一位半身癱瘓者於2014年世界盃足球賽開球。他現在在研究什麼?設法讓兩種動物的大腦(目前是老鼠和猴子)互相發送訊息。觀看最後一個實驗,如他所言,將會「挑戰想像力的極限」。

 

關於Miguel Nicolelis

Miguel Nicolelis探索腦機介面的極限。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

在杜克大學Nicolelis實驗室中,Miguel Nicolelis最著名的開創性研究為神經元群體編碼、腦機介面(BMI),及人類患者和非人類靈長動物的神經輔助裝置。他藉由大腦控制的外骨骼裝置協助半身癱瘓者Juliano Pinto於2014年世界盃足球賽開球,將實驗室的研究成果展現在世人面前。

 

但他的實驗室擁有更遠大的想法。他們開發了一種整合方法,研究神經方面的疾病,包括帕金森症和癲癇。他們希望這個方法能整合同一隻動物的分子、細胞、系統和行為數據,使人們更全面性地瞭解神經生理性質的變化與這些疾病的關聯。他是《念力:讓腦波直接操控機器的新科技.新世界》作者。

 

Miguel Nicolelis的英語網上資料

nicolelislab.net

@MiguelNicolelis

Nicolelis on Daily Show

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Miguel Nicolelis談如何讓腦對腦溝通成真

 

2014年6月12日,下午3:33分那一刻,在巴西聖保羅一個溫暖的冬日下午,一個尋常的南美冬日下午,這個孩子,這個彷彿進球般興高彩烈的年輕人,29歲的Juliano Pinto完成一項壯舉。儘管他半身癱瘓,從胸口到腳趾沒有任何知覺。這起因於六年前奪去他弟弟生命的車禍,也導致Juliano脊髓完全損傷,不得不仰賴輪椅行動。Juliano坦然面對一切,在這一天,他做了一件幾乎所有在這六年當中見過他的人都認為不可能的事:Juliano Pinto替2014年巴西世界盃足球賽開球,僅藉由想像達成。他無法移動身體,但他能想像踢球所需的動作。脊髓損傷前他是一名運動員,現在他是殘障運動員,我希望他能參加幾年後的殘障奧運會。但脊髓損傷並未奪去Juliano夢想的能力,這個夢想在那個下午成真,就在容納75,000人的體育場以及十億電視觀眾面前。

 

這一腳基本上圓滿了30年來對於大腦這個兩耳之間的神奇宇宙的基礎研究。大腦是唯一能與我們頭頂上的宇宙媲美的東西,因為其中有上千億個元素藉由腦電風暴進行交流,Juliano所完成的壯舉花了30年時間在實驗室裡構思,以及約15年的時間進行策劃。John Chapin 和我於15年前在一篇論文上提出,我們將打造一個稱之為「腦機介面」的機器,意味著將大腦與機器設備連接,使動物和人類能移動。這些設備,無論這些設備與他們的身體相距多遠,只需想像他們想做的動作。我們的同事說,我們需要專業協助,精神領域的協助,儘管如此,一個蘇格蘭人和巴西人堅持下來,因為這就是這些國家的人民成長的方式。在12至15年當中,我們一次又一次地進行測試,證明這是可行的。腦機介面並非尖端科技,這只是腦部研究,只是運用感應器來讀取大腦發出的腦電風暴,運行傳遞至脊髓的運動指令。我們設計能同時讀取成千上萬個腦細胞訊號的感應器,並從這些電子訊號中獲得大腦發送的運動指令,使我們能在空間中移動。藉由這種方法,我們將訊號轉變成數位指令,能讓任何機械、電子、甚至虛擬裝置讀取。因此測試者想像希望做出的動作,設備就會遵循大腦的指令,藉由將這些設備與各式各樣的感應器連接,如你在圖中所見。我們能將訊息送回大腦,確認這些隨機運動的訊息傳送出去,無論感應器在測試者旁邊、相鄰房間或另一個星球。當這個訊息傳回大腦時,大腦意識到它的目的:讓我們移動。

 

因此這只是我們幾年前發表的一個實驗,一隻猴子在不需移動身體的情況下學習控制虛擬手臂的運動,一隻不存在的手臂。你們聽見的是猴子腦部的聲音,當牠在虛擬空間探索三個視覺上相同的球體,藉此獲得一滴猴子喜歡的柳橙汁作為獎勵。猴子必須藉由觸摸來探測和選取其中一項物體,並非藉由觀察,而是藉由觸摸,因為每當虛擬手臂觸摸其中一項物體時,就會將電子脈衝傳回猴子腦部,描述物體表面的質地,因此猴子能藉此判斷牠該選擇哪個物體。如果牠做到了,就能在不動一塊肌肉的情況下獲得獎勵。完美的巴西午餐:不動一塊肌肉就能獲得柳橙汁。當我們發現這一點後,我們重提15年前發表的想法,我們重新翻出那篇論文,我們從櫃子裡找出那篇論文,提出或許我們可以讓一個癱瘓的人藉由腦機介面重新獲得運動能力。其中的概念是,如果你癱瘓了,這可能發生在任何人身上。請聽我說,世事無常,只要毫秒之差,一場車禍就能完全改變你的一生。如果你的脊髓完全損傷,你將動彈不得,因為腦電風暴無法傳送到你的肌肉。但腦電風暴不斷在大腦產生,半身或全身癱瘓者每晚都夢見自己能運動,他們的腦部會產生這種訊號,問題是如何將這個訊號轉變成動作。

 

因此我們提出的想法是打造一個新身體,打造一副機器背心,這就是為何Juliano能藉由想像來踢球。因為他穿著世上第一件腦控機器背心,能幫助半身或全身癱瘓者行動,重新獲得訊號回饋能力。這是15年前的想法,我想向各位展示的是來自25個國家、來自這個美麗星球五大洲的156人,放下他們的生活、父母、寵物、妻子、兒女、學業、工作,聚集到巴西,花費18個月來完成這個項目。因為巴西獲得世界盃舉辦權,幾年後,我們聽說巴西政府想在開幕典禮上做一些意義非凡的事,在這個重塑並完善足球運動的國家。當然,直到我們遇上德國人之前(笑聲),那又是另一個話題了。這是屬於另一類神經學家的話題,但巴西想要做的是展現一個截然不同的國家,一個重視科學和技術的國家,能給予世上2500萬因脊髓受傷而無法行動的人一份禮物。我們向巴西政府和國際足球總會提出建議,讓一位巴西半身癱患者為2014世界盃足球賽開球。藉由大腦控制的外骨骼裝置,使他能踢球,並感覺到球的觸感。他們看著我們,認為我們簡直是瘋了,然後說:「好,試試看吧!」我們有18個月的時間,從零開始。我們沒有外骨骼裝置,沒有患者,我們一無所有。這些人聚集在一起,在18個月當中,我們替8位患者進行日常訓練,基本上從零開始。

 

這個傢伙,我們稱它為Bra-Santos Dumont一號,世上第一個腦控外骨骼裝置,以巴西最著名的科學家Alberto Santos Dumont命名,他於1901年10月19日發明並駕駛史上第一架飛艇,出現在巴黎上空百萬人民的面前。抱歉,我的美國朋友們,我住在北卡羅萊納,但萊特兄弟兩年後才在北卡羅萊納海岸試飛成功。(掌聲)飛行控制裝置是巴西人發明的。因此我們與這些人合作,基本上我們組裝這個外骨骼裝置,15個自由度的液壓裝置,能藉由可被非侵入式腦電圖儀器記錄的大腦訊號控制,使病人能將想像的動作指令發送到遙控裝置上,完成這個動作。這個外骨骼裝置被人造皮膚覆蓋,這是由我在慕尼黑最好的朋友之一Gordon Cheng發明,能產生關節運動及腳觸地的感覺,並透過背心將這種感覺傳遞給患者。這是一件擁有微震元素的智慧上衣,能將這些感覺回饋給患者,愚弄患者的大腦,創造並非機器裝置帶動患者行走、而是他自己再次行走的感覺。因此我們著手進行,你們在這裡看見的是我們的患者之一Bruno第一次嘗試行走,他花了幾秒時間,因為我們得將一切裝設好。你們將會看見頭盔前方亮起藍燈,因為Bruno得想像需要做的動作,電腦將分析這個動作,Bruno得確認他想做的動作。當動作確認後,這個裝置將按照Bruno大腦的指示行動。他剛確認了動作,現在他開始行走。經過九年無法移動的日子後,他再次自行走動。(掌聲)不僅如此-(掌聲)不僅是行走,他也能感受到地面。如果加快速度,他告訴我們,感覺就像再次在桑托斯的沙灘上行走,那是他發生事故前經常前往的海灘勝地。

 

這就是為何Bruno的大腦產生新的知覺。因此他開始行走,當行走結束時-時間快不夠了-他說:「你們知道,我結婚時要向你們借這個東西,因為我想自行走向牧師,親自迎接我的新娘。」當然,他隨時都能如願以償。這就是我們想在世界盃上展示的東西,但沒有做到,因為某些神秘的原因,國際足球總會將直播時間減半。你們即將看見的是Juliano Pinto穿著外骨骼裝置準備開球,就在我們進入球場、在觀眾面前進行現場展示前幾分鐘。你即將看見的燈光描述了整個過程,基本上閃藍燈代表外骨骼裝置準備啟動,它能接收大腦的想法並給予回饋。當Juliano做出踢球的決定時,你將看見一串綠燈和一串黃燈從頭盔移動到腿部,代表外骨骼裝置接收的大腦指令轉變成動作。基本上Juliano在13秒內完成了這項壯舉,你能看見他發出指令,他做好準備,球就定位,他開始踢球。最令人驚訝的是,這項壯舉完成後10秒,他在球場上看著我們,如你們所見,他興高采烈地說:「我感覺到球了!」那是無價的滿足。

 

因此-(掌聲)因此這將產生何種影響?我有兩分鐘時間向各位說明。這將挑戰你想像力的極限,這就是腦動科技,這是最新的發展:我們剛於一年前發表第一個腦腦介面,能讓兩種動物交換大腦訊息,因此一種動物在環境中看見的某些東西,將如同魚雷-一種神經生理學魚雷般將大腦訊息發送給第二種動物。第二種動物不需得知環境訊息即可執行所需的動作,因為訊息來自第一種動物的大腦。這是第一次演示,我會很快帶過,因為我想向各位展示最新的成果。但你們看見的是,第一隻老鼠經過籠子左側亮起的燈提示後,牠得按壓籠子左側才能獲得獎勵。牠走向左側並按壓槓桿,牠同時將大腦訊號發送給第二隻看不見燈的老鼠。第二隻老鼠在70%的情況下將按壓左側的槓桿以獲得獎勵,不需藉由視網膜感應燈光。我們將難度提高一些,讓猴子的大腦網路彼此合作,基本上就是提供牠們腦部活動,讓牠們共同移動。我之前展示過的虛擬手臂,你看到的是兩隻猴子第一次連接彼此的大腦,完美地使大腦同步運作,藉此移動虛擬手臂。一隻猴子控制X方向,另一隻猴子控制Y方向。但當三隻猴子在一起時情況變得更加有趣,你要求一隻猴子控制X和Y方向,另一隻猴子控制Y和Z方向,第三隻猴子控制X和Z方向。你讓牠們一起進行這個遊戲,在三維空間裡移動虛擬手臂,以獲得著名的巴西柳橙汁。牠們確實做到了,黑點是所有同時發生的大腦活動平均值,這就是生物計算機的定義,藉由大腦相互作用達成驅動的目標。

 

這將產生何種影響?我們不知道,我們只是科學家而已。(笑聲)我們就像孩子一樣盡其所能地探索未知的可能性,但我知道一件事:幾十年後的某天,當我們的後代藉由思考搜尋網頁,或一位母親為眼盲而自閉的孩子貢獻自己的視力,或某人藉由腦腦連接說話時,在座某些人將會想起,這一切都始於一個冬日午後巴西足球場上那不可思議的一腳。謝謝。(掌聲)謝謝。(掌聲)

 

Bruno Giussani:Miguel,感謝你遵守時間規定,事實上我會多給你幾分鐘,因為我們想深入探討幾個觀點,顯然我們需要連接大腦才能瞭解其中的影響。因此讓我們整合一下,如果我的理解正確,其中一隻猴子得到訊號,另一隻猴子對訊號做出反應,因為第一隻猴子接收訊號並傳遞神經脈衝。

 

Miguel Nicolelis:不,這有一些不同。猴子不知道其他兩隻猴子的存在,牠們接收到二維的視覺回饋,但牠們得完成三維的動作,牠們得在三維空間裡移動手臂,但每隻猴子只能控制螢幕上的二維圖像。為了完成任務,你至少需要兩隻猴子的大腦同步,但理想狀態下是三隻猴子。因此我們發現當一隻猴子開始鬆懈時,另外兩隻猴子將加強牠們的動作,使鬆懈的猴子跟上節奏。因此這只是動態上的調整,但整體同步情況不變。如果你在沒有告知猴子的情況下改變每個大腦控制的維度,例如這隻猴子控制X和Y方向,但牠本應控制Y和Z方向,動物的大腦將立刻忘掉舊的維度,開始專注於新的維度。因此我想說的是,這並非圖靈機,沒有電腦能預測大腦能做什麼。因此我們將使科技成為我們的一部分,而不是讓我們成為科技的一部份,這是不可能的。

 

BG:你們測試了多少次?成功與失敗的比例是多少?

 

MN:喔,幾十比一。三隻猴子的情況下?喔,好幾次。如果不是經過多次測試,我不可能來這裡演講。我忘了提,因為時間關係,三周前一個歐洲團隊演示了首次人與人之間的腦腦連接。

 

BG:那是如何運作的?

 

MN:我知道一些資訊-你知道,偉大的想法始於不起眼之處,但基本上是一個測試目標的腦部活動,藉由非侵入式科技傳遞至第二個目標。因此第一個測試目標獲得一個訊息,例如老鼠獲得一個視覺訊息,傳遞給第二個測試目標。第二個測試目標的視覺皮層接收到磁脈衝或不同的脈衝,兩種不同的脈衝。在第一個脈衝中,測試目標發現某些東西,在另一個脈衝中,他發現不同的東西。他能說出第一個測試目標發送的訊息,藉由跨洲網際網路。

 

BG:哇,好,這就是未來的發展,這是下一次TED大會的演講內容。Miguel Nicolelis,謝謝。

 

MN:謝謝Bruno,謝謝大家。

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About the Speaker

You may remember neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis — he built the brain-controlled exoskeleton that allowed a paralyzed man to kick the first ball of the 2014 World Cup. What’s he working on now? Building ways for two minds (rats and monkeys, for now) to send messages brain to brain. Watch to the end for an experiment that, as he says, will go to "the limit of your imagination."

About the Speaker

Miguel Nicolelis explores the limits of the brain-machine interface. Full bio.

Transcript

On June 12, 2014, precisely at 3:33 in a balmy winter afternoon in São Paulo, Brazil, a typical South American winter afternoon, this kid, this young man that you see celebrating here like he had scored a goal, Juliano Pinto, 29 years old, accomplished a magnificent deed. Despite being paralyzed and not having any sensation from mid-chest to the tip of his toes as the result of a car crash six years ago that killed his brother and produced a complete spinal cord lesion that left Juliano in a wheelchair, Juliano rose to the occasion, and on this day did something that pretty much everybody that saw him in the six years deemed impossible. Juliano Pinto delivered the opening kick of the 2014 Brazilian World Soccer Cup here just by thinking. He could not move his body, but he could imagine the movements needed to kick a ball. He was an athlete before the lesion. He's a para-athlete right now. He's going to be in the Paralympic Games, I hope, in a couple years. But what the spinal cord lesion did not rob from Juliano was his ability to dream. And dream he did that afternoon, for a stadium of about 75,000 people and an audience of close to a billion watching on TV.

And that kick crowned, basically, 30 years of basic research studying how the brain, how this amazing universe that we have between our ears that is only comparable to universe that we have above our head because it has about 100 billion elements talking to each other through electrical brainstorms, what Juliano accomplished took 30 years to imagine in laboratories and about 15 years to plan.

When John Chapin and I, 15 years ago, proposed in a paper that we would build something that we called a brain-machine interface, meaning connecting a brain to devices so that animals and humans could just move these devices, no matter how far they are from their own bodies, just by imagining what they want to do, our colleagues told us that we actually needed professional help, of the psychiatry variety. And despite that, a Scot and a Brazilian persevered, because that's how we were raised in our respective countries, and for 12, 15 years, we made demonstration after demonstration suggesting that this was possible.

And a brain-machine interface is not rocket science, it's just brain research. It's nothing but using sensors to read the electrical brainstorms that a brain is producing to generate the motor commands that have to be downloaded to the spinal cord, so we projected sensors that can read hundreds and now thousands of these brain cells simultaneously, and extract from these electrical signals the motor planning that the brain is generating to actually make us move into space. And by doing that, we converted these signals into digital commands that any mechanical, electronic, or even a virtual device can understand so that the subject can imagine what he, she or it wants to make move, and the device obeys that brain command. By sensorizing these devices with lots of different types of sensors, as you are going to see in a moment, we actually sent messages back to the brain to confirm that that voluntary motor will was being enacted, no matter where -- next to the subject, next door, or across the planet. And as this message gave feedback back to the brain, the brain realized its goal: to make us move. So this is just one experiment that we published a few years ago, where a monkey, without moving its body, learned to control the movements of an avatar arm, a virtual arm that doesn't exist. What you're listening to is the sound of the brain of this monkey as it explores three different visually identical spheres in virtual space. And to get a reward, a drop of orange juice that monkeys love, this animal has to detect, select one of these objects by touching, not by seeing it, by touching it, because every time this virtual hand touches one of the objects, an electrical pulse goes back to the brain of the animal describing the fine texture of the surface of this object, so the animal can judge what is the correct object that he has to grab, and if he does that, he gets a reward without moving a muscle. The perfect Brazilian lunch: not moving a muscle and getting your orange juice.

So as we saw this happening, we actually came and proposed the idea that we had published 15 years ago. We reenacted this paper. We got it out of the drawers, and we proposed that perhaps we could get a human being that is paralyzed to actually use the brain-machine interface to regain mobility. The idea was that if you suffered -- and that can happen to any one of us. Let me tell you, it's very sudden. It's a millisecond of a collision, a car accident that transforms your life completely. If you have a complete lesion of the spinal cord, you cannot move because your brainstorms cannot reach your muscles. However, your brainstorms continue to be generated in your head. Paraplegic, quadriplegic patients dream about moving every night. They have that inside their head. The problem is how to get that code out of it and make the movement be created again.

So what we proposed was, let's create a new body. Let's create a robotic vest. And that's exactly why Juliano could kick that ball just by thinking, because he was wearing the first brain-controlled robotic vest that can be used by paraplegic, quadriplegic patients to move and to regain feedback.

That was the original idea, 15 years ago. What I'm going to show you is how 156 people from 25 countries all over the five continents of this beautiful Earth, dropped their lives, dropped their patents, dropped their dogs, wives, kids, school, jobs, and congregated to come to Brazil for 18 months to actually get this done. Because a couple years after Brazil was awarded the World Cup, we heard that the Brazilian government wanted to do something meaningful in the opening ceremony in the country that reinvented and perfected soccer until we met the Germans, of course. (Laughter) But that's a different talk, and a different neuroscientist needs to talk about that. But what Brazil wanted to do is to showcase a completely different country, a country that values science and technology, and can give a gift to millions, 25 million people around the world that cannot move any longer because of a spinal cord injury. Well, we went to the Brazilian government and to FIFA and proposed, well, let's have the kickoff of the 2014 World Cup be given by a Brazilian paraplegic using a brain-controlled exoskeleton that allows him to kick the ball and to feel the contact of the ball. They looked at us, thought that we were completely nuts, and said, "Okay, let's try." We had 18 months to do everything from zero, from scratch. We had no exoskeleton, we had no patients, we had nothing done. These people came all together and in 18 months, we got eight patients in a routine of training and basically built from nothing this guy, that we call Bra-Santos Dumont 1. The first brain-controlled exoskeleton to be built was named after the most famous Brazilian scientist ever, Alberto Santos Dumont, who, on October 19, 1901, created and flew himself the first controlled airship on air in Paris for a million people to see. Sorry, my American friends, I live in North Carolina, but it was two years before the Wright Brothers flew on the coast of North Carolina. (Applause) Flight control is Brazilian. (Laughter)

So we went together with these guys and we basically put this exoskeleton together, 15 degrees of freedom, hydraulic machine that can be commanded by brain signals recorded by a non-invasive technology called electroencephalography that can basically allow the patient to imagine the movements and send his commands to the controls, the motors, and get it done. This exoskeleton was covered with an artificial skin invented by Gordon Cheng, one of my greatest friends, in Munich, to allow sensation from the joints moving and the foot touching the ground to be delivered back to the patient through a vest, a shirt. It is a smart shirt with micro-vibrating elements that basically delivers the feedback and fools the patient's brain by creating a sensation that it is not a machine that is carrying him, but it is he who is walking again.

So we got this going, and what you'll see here is the first time one of our patients, Bruno, actually walked. And he takes a few seconds because we are setting everything, and you are going to see a blue light cutting in front of the helmet because Bruno is going to imagine the movement that needs to be performed, the computer is going to analyze it, Bruno is going to certify it, and when it is certified, the device starts moving under the command of Bruno's brain. And he just got it right, and now he starts walking. After nine years without being able to move, he is walking by himself. And more than that -- (Applause) -- more than just walking, he is feeling the ground, and if the speed of the exo goes up, he tells us that he is walking again on the sand of Santos, the beach resort where he used to go before he had the accident. That's why the brain is creating a new sensation in Bruno's head.

So he walks, and at the end of the walk -- I am running out of time already -- he says, "You know, guys, I need to borrow this thing from you when I get married, because I wanted to walk to the priest and see my bride and actually be there by myself. Of course, he will have it whenever he wants.

And this is what we wanted to show during the World Cup, and couldn't, because for some mysterious reason, FIFA cut its broadcast in half. What you are going to see very quickly is Juliano Pinto in the exo doing the kick a few minutes before we went to the pitch and did the real thing in front of the entire crowd, and the lights you are going to see just describe the operation. Basically, the blue lights pulsating indicate that the exo is ready to go. It can receive thoughts and it can deliver feedback, and when Juliano makes the decision to kick the ball, you are going to see two streams of green and yellow light coming from the helmet and going to the legs, representing the mental commands that were taken by the exo to actually make that happen. And in basically 13 seconds, Juliano actually did. You can see the commands. He gets ready, the ball is set, and he kicks. And the most amazing thing is, 10 seconds after he did that, and looked at us on the pitch, he told us, celebrating as you saw, "I felt the ball." And that's priceless. (Applause)

So where is this going to go? I have two minutes to tell you that it's going to the limits of your imagination. Brain-actuating technology is here. This is the latest: We just published this a year ago, the first brain-to-brain interface that allows two animals to exchange mental messages so that one animal that sees something coming from the environment can send a mental SMS, a torpedo, a neurophysiological torpedo, to the second animal, and the second animal performs the act that he needed to perform without ever knowing what the environment was sending as a message, because the message came from the first animal's brain.

So this is the first demo. I'm going to be very quick because I want to show you the latest. But what you see here is the first rat getting informed by a light that is going to show up on the left of the cage that he has to press the left cage to basically get a reward. He goes there and does it. And the same time, he is sending a mental message to the second rat that didn't see any light, and the second rat, in 70 percent of the times is going to press the left lever and get a reward without ever experiencing the light in the retina.

Well, we took this to a little higher limit by getting monkeys to collaborate mentally in a brain net, basically to donate their brain activity and combine them to move the virtual arm that I showed you before, and what you see here is the first time the two monkeys combine their brains, synchronize their brains perfectly to get this virtual arm to move. One monkey is controlling the x dimension, the other monkey is controlling the y dimension. But it gets a little more interesting when you get three monkeys in there and you ask one monkey to control x and y, the other monkey to control y and z, and the third one to control x and z, and you make them all play the game together, moving the arm in 3D into a target to get the famous Brazilian orange juice. And they actually do. The black dot is the average of all these brains working in parallel, in real time. That is the definition of a biological computer, interacting by brain activity and achieving a motor goal.

Where is this going? We have no idea. We're just scientists. (Laughter) We are paid to be children, to basically go to the edge and discover what is out there. But one thing I know: One day, in a few decades, when our grandchildren surf the Net just by thinking, or a mother donates her eyesight to an autistic kid who cannot see, or somebody speaks because of a brain-to-brain bypass, some of you will remember that it all started on a winter afternoon in a Brazilian soccer field with an impossible kick.

Thank you.

(Applause)

Thank you.

Bruno Giussani: Miguel, thank you for sticking to your time. I actually would have given you a couple more minutes, because there are a couple of points we want to develop, and, of course, clearly it seems that we need connected brains to figure out where this is going. So let's connect all this together. So if I'm understanding correctly, one of the monkeys is actually getting a signal and the other monkey is reacting to that signal just because the first one is receiving it and transmitting the neurological impulse.

Miguel Nicolelis: No, it's a little different. No monkey knows of the existence of the other two monkeys. They are getting a visual feedback in 2D, but the task they have to accomplish is 3D. They have to move an arm in three dimensions. But each monkey is only getting the two dimensions on the video screen that the monkey controls. And to get that thing done, you need at least two monkeys to synchronize their brains, but the ideal is three. So what we found out is that when one monkey starts slacking down, the other two monkeys enhance their performance to get the guy to come back, so this adjusts dynamically, but the global synchrony remains the same. Now, if you flip without telling the monkey the dimensions that each brain has to control, like this guy is controlling x and y, but he should be controlling now y and z, instantaneously, that animal's brain forgets about the old dimensions and it starts concentrating on the new dimensions. So what I need to say is that no Turing machine, no computer can predict what a brain net will do. So we will absorb technology as part of us. Technology will never absorb us. It's simply impossible.

BG: How many times have you tested this? And how many times have you succeeded versus failed?

MN: Oh, tens of times. With the three monkeys? Oh, several times. I wouldn't be able to talk about this here unless I had done it a few times. And I forgot to mention, because of time, that just three weeks ago, a European group just demonstrated the first man-to-man brain-to-brain connection. BG: And how does that play? MN: There was one bit of information -- big ideas start in a humble way -- but basically the brain activity of one subject was transmitted to a second object, all non-invasive technology. So the first subject got a message, like our rats, a visual message, and transmitted it to the second subject. The second subject received a magnetic pulse in the visual cortex, or a different pulse, two different pulses. In one pulse, the subject saw something. On the other pulse, he saw something different. And he was able to verbally indicate what was the message the first subject was sending through the Internet across continents.

Moderator: Wow. Okay, that's where we are going. That's the next TED Talk at the next conference. Miguel Nicolelis, thank you. MN: Thank you, Bruno. Thank you.


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